by Ven. Weagoda Sarada Maha Thero | 1993 | 341,201 words | ISBN-10: 9810049382 | ISBN-13: 9789810049386
This page describes The story of the monk Cakkhupala which is verse 1 of the English translation of the Dhammapada which forms a part of the Sutta Pitaka of the Buddhist canon of literature. Presenting the fundamental basics of the Buddhist way of life, the Dhammapada is a collection of 423 stanzas. This verse 1 is part of the Yamaka Vagga (Twin Verses) and the moral of the story is “Suffering pursues the evil-doer, as the cart-wheel the hoof of the draught ox”.
Pali text, illustration and English translation of Dhammapada verse 1:
manopubbaṅgamā dhammā manoseṭṭā manomayā |
manasā ce paduṭṭhena bhāsati vā karoti vā |
tato naṃ dukkhamanveti cakkaṃ’va vahato padaṃ || 1 ||
1. Mind precedes all knowables, mind’s their chief, mind-made are they. If with a corrupted mind one should either speak or act dukkha follows caused by that, as does the wheel the ox’s hoof.
Suffering pursues the evil-doer, as the cart-wheel the hoof of the draught ox
The story of the monk Cakkhupāla
On one occasion, Monk Cakkhupāla came to pay homage to the Buddha at the Jetavana Monastery. One night, while pacing up and down in meditation, the monk accidentally stepped on some insects. In the morning, some monks visiting the monk found the dead insects. They thought ill of the monk and reported the matter to the Buddha. The Buddha asked them whether they had seen the monk killing the insects. When they answered in the negative, the Buddha said, “Just as you had not seen him killing, so also he had not seen those living insects. Besides, as the monk had already attained arahatship he could have no intention of killing, so he was innocent.” On being asked why Cakkhupāla was blind although he was an arahat, the Buddha told the following story:
Cakkhupāla was a physician in one of his past existences. Once, he had deliberately made a woman patient blind. That woman had promised to become his slave, together with her children, if her eyes were completely cured. Fearing that she and her children would have to become slaves, she lied to the physician. She told him that her eyes were getting worse when, in fact, they were perfectly cured. The physician knew she was deceiving him, so in revenge, he gave her another ointment, which made her totally blind. As a result of this evil deed the physician lost his eyesight many times in his later existences.
Explanatory Translation (Verse 1)
dhammā manopubbaṅgamā manoseṭṭhā manomayā
ce paduṭṭhena manasā bhāsati vā karoti vā tato d
ukkhaṃ naṃ anveti vahato padaṃ cakkaṃ iva.
dhammā: experience; manopubbaṅgamā: thought precedes; manoseṭṭhā: thought is predominant; ce: therefore, if, paduṭṭhena: (with) corrupted; manasā: thought; bhāsati: (one) speaks; karoti vā: or acts; tato: due to it, dukkhaṃ [dukkha]: suffering; naṃ: that person; anveti: follows; vahato padaṃ [pada]: draught animal’s hoof; cakkaṃ iva: as the cart wheel.
All that we experience begins with thought. Our words and deeds spring from thought. If we speak or act with evil thoughts, unpleasant circumstances and experiences inevitably result. Wherever we go, we create bad circumstances because we carry bad thoughts. We cannot shake off this suffering as long as we are tied to our evil thoughts. This is very much like the wheel of a cart following the hoofs of the ox yoked to the cart. The cart-wheel, along with the heavy load of the cart, keeps following the draught oxen. The animal is bound to this heavy load and cannot leave it.
Commentary and exegetical material (Verse 1)
The first two verses in the Dhammapada reveal an important concept in Buddhism. When most religions hold it as an important part of their dogma that the world was created by a supernatural being called ‘God’, Buddhism teaches that all that we experience (the ‘world’ as well as the ‘self’) is created by thought, or the cognitive process of sense perception and conception. This also proves that writers on Buddhism are mistaken in stating that the Buddha was silent concerning the beginning of the world. In the Rohitassa Sutta of the Aṅguttara Nikāya, the Buddha states clearly that the world, the beginning of the world, the end of the world, and the way leading to the end of the world, are all in this fathom long body itself with its perceptions and conceptions.
The word mano is commonly translated as ‘mind’. But the Buddha takes a phenomenalistic standpoint in the mind-matter controversy that had baffled philosophers throughout history. The duality–‘mind’ and ‘body’–is rejected by the Buddha. The Buddha explains in the Sabba Sutta of the Saṃyutta Nikāya that all that we can talk about is ‘sense experience’, including thought or conception as the sixth sense. The terms nāma and rūpa, commonly translated as ‘mind’ and ‘body’ are not two ‘entities’ that co-exist in relation to each other. They are only two ways of looking at the single ‘activity’ called ‘experience’. Nāma (naming) is ‘experience’ seen subjectively as ‘the mental process of identifying an object’ (rūpa kāye adhivācana saṃpassa).
Rūpa (appearance) is ‘experience’ seen objectively as an ‘entity’ that is perceived and conceived through the mental process of identification (nāma kāye pathigha saṃpassa). Mano refers to ‘thought’ or the mental process of conceptualization, which integrates and makes meaning out of the different percepts brought in through the different senses. This meaningful total ‘experience’ is the dhammā, viewed subjectively as ‘identification of an entity’ (nāma) and objectively as ‘the entity identified’ (rūpa). Dhammā which is this “meaningful totality of experience” is normally seen as pleasant or unpleasant circumstance (loka dhamma).