Blue Annals (deb-ther sngon-po)

by George N. Roerich | 1949 | 382,646 words | ISBN-10: 8120804716 | ISBN-13: 9788120804715

This page relates ‘genealogy of Mahasammata’ of the Blue Annals (deb-ther sngon-po)—An important historical book from the 15th century dealing with Tibetan Buddhism and details the spiritual doctrine and lineages of religious teachers in Tibet. This chapter belongs to Book 1 (The beginning of the story of the Doctrine).

Chapter 2 - The genealogy of Mahāsammata

[Full title: The genealogy of Mahāsammata (mang pos bskur ba’i gdung rabs kyi skabs. Chandra 2; Chengdu 1 (21-37-21? or 1-21? or 3-37?); Roerich 3).]

Having thus paid homage to the four manifestations (of the Buddha) in Sanskrit and Tibetan, I shall at first relate the story of our Teacher. To quote from the Vinaya[1] : "When the Teacher was residing at Kapilavastu, the Śākyas held a council: "If one were to ask us the following questions: "Whence originated the Śākyas? Who was the first (Śākya)? To what ancient race they belonged?" How are we to answer them?" They said: "We shall put these questions to the Teacher, " and made their request to the Teacher. Then the Teacher, thinking that, if he were to relate the story of the Śākya race, the heretics might say that this was self-praise, resolved to let Maudgalyāyana tell the story (of the race), and told him: "O Maudgalyāyana! My back is aching, I shall take a brief rest! You should relate the ancient story of the Śākya race."

(Maudgalyāyana) accepted (the Teacher’s words) by remaining silent. Then (the Teacher), having folded his robe, and using it as a pillow, lay down, Maudgalyāyana then entered a trance in which he was made to see the ancient story of the Śākya race. On arising from the trance, and sitting on a mat, he thus addressed the Śākya:

"At the time of the destruction of this World, most of the living beings were reborn as gods of Light (ābhāsvara, 'od gsal), etc.". He then related to the Śākya the story of the first cteation of the Cosmic Period, up to the time of the appearance of the first king.

"During the time of king Mahāsaṃmata (mang pos bkur ba), men became known as animated beings (sattva, sems can).
The king’s son was Roca (‘od mdzes).
During his time, men became known as "come here" (āgaccha, tshur shog, Mhvtpt. Ed. Sakaki, No. 6648).
During the time of his son Kalyāṇa (dge ba), men became known as the "spotted ones" (Pṛṣata, rme ba can).
During the time of his son Vara Kalyāṇa (dge mchog), men became known as "cloud necks" (meghagrīva, sprin mgrin).
During the time of his son Upoṣadha (gso sbyon 'phags), men became known as "palm legs" (Tālajaṅgha, Tā la'i rkang).

Once a tumour appeared on his head, and from it was born Māndhātṛ (nga len nu). In his time men became known as Mānavas (yid ks skyes, "mind born"). During the reigns of the six kings human life lasted for 1000000000000000000000000000000 years. From a tumour on Māndhātṛ’s right thigh the cakravartin Cāru (mdzes pa) was born. From a tumour on the left thigh of the latter, the cakravartin Upacāru (nye mdzes) was born. From a tumour on the right foot of Upacāru, the cakravartin Cārumant (mdzes ldan) was born. From a tumour on his left foot Upacarumant was born.

The first great cakravarti-rāja ruled over the four great continents, the second ruled over three continents, the third over two, and the fourth over one. Between Upacārument’s son Bhadra (bzang po) and Samantaprabha (kun nas'od zer) some thirty names of kings are mentioned. In the lineage of Samantaprabha’s son there were a hundred kings ruling in the country of Potala (gru 'dzin). The last king was named Śatrujit (dgra 'dul).[2]

In the lineage of king Śatrujit there were 54,000 kings ruling in the country of Ayodhyā (dmag gis mi tshugs pa).
The last king was named Vijaya (rgyal ba las rgyal ba).
In the lineage of this king there were 63,000 kings ruling in the kingdom of Vārāṇasī.
The last was named king Duṣyanta (bzod dka').
In his lineage there were 84,000 kings in Kapilavastu.
The last king was named Brahmadatta (tshangs byin). I
n his lineage there were 32,000 kings ruling at Hastināpura.
The last was Nāgadatta (glang pas byin).
In his lineage there were 5000 kings at Takṣaśīlā.
The last king was Romaputrin (bal bu can).[3]
In his lineage there were 32,000 kings in the city of Uraāā (brang gis nyal).
The last king was Nagnajit (tshan po che'dul).
In his lineage there were 32,000 kings in the city of Ajita.
The last king was Kauśika (brgya byin).
In his lineage there were 32,000 kings in the city of Kānyakubja.
The last king was Jayasena (rgyal lde).
In his lineage there were 18,000 kings in the city or Campā.
The last was Nāgadeva (klu'i lha).
In his lineage there were 25,000 kings in the city or Tālamāla[4] (ta la'i phreng).
The last king was Naradeva (mi'i lha).
In his lineage there were 12,000 kings in the city of Rāmali.
The last king was Samudradeva (rgya mtsho'i lha).
In his lineage there were 18,000 kings in the city of Dantapura.
The last king was Sumati (blo gros bzang po).
In his lineage there were 25,000 kings in Rājagṛha.
The last king was Marīci (mun sel).
In his lineage there were 20,000 kings in Vārāṇasī.
The last king was Maheśvarasena (dbang phyug chen po'i sde).
In his lineage there were 84,000 kings ruling in the town of Kuśanagara.
The last king was Samudrasena (rgya mtsho'i sde).
In his lineage there were one thousand kings in Potala.
The last king was Tapaskara (dka' thub spyod).
In his lineage there were 84,000 kings ruling in the town of Kuśanagara.
The last king was Dharaṇīmukha (sa'i gdong).
In his lineage there were 100,000 kings in Vārāṇasī.
The last king was Mahādeva (lha chen po).
In his lineage there were 84,000 kings in Mithilā.
The last king was Nemi (—Nimi, mu khyud).
In his lineage 49 names of kings are mentioned.
The last was Rathasāra (sing rta sra ba).
In his lineage there were 77,000 kings ruling in the town of Samantāloka (kun snang).
The last king was Gaganapati (nam mkha'i bdag po).
In the lineage of his son Nāgapāla (klu skyong) there were a hundred kings in Vārāṇasī.

The last kirtg was Kṛkin. He became possessed of a mental creative effort (towards Enlightenment) in the presence of the Buddha Kāśyapa, and was reborn in the Tuṣita heaven.

His son was Sujāta (legs skyes).
In his lineage there were a hundred kings in Potala.

The last king was Karṇika (rna ba can). He had two sons Gautama and Bharadvāja. Gautama desiring to take up ordination, asked his father’s permission and, on receiving it, was ordained by the sage Asita (mdog nag po). He told his Teacher: "Unable to subsist on the food of the forest, I shall settle in the vicinity of a village". The Teacher agreed to this, and he built for himself a hut out of leaves, and settled there. At that time a man of a deceitful character known as Mṛṇāla(pad ma'i rtsa lag),[5] who in order to have intercourse with the courtesan Bhadrī (bzang mo), sent her garments and ornaments as presents. Then another man having brought her 500 paṇas, she sent her maid-servant to Mṛṇāla with the message that he should not come now, and had intercourse with the other man. When the man had left her, she again sent her maid-servant (to Mṛṇāla) with the message that she was free now. (Mṛṇāla said): "One moment you say that you have no time, and the next moment you say that you have time! " The maid-servant, who did not like her mistress, said (to Mṛṇāla): "It is not true that she had no time! She put on your garments and ornaments, and had intercourse with another man."

Mṛṇāla was furious, and told the maid-servant: "Go, and tell her to come to such and such a park." The maid-servant conveyed the message to her mistress, and the latter proceeded to the park. Mṛṇāla asked her;"Is it proper to wear my garments and ornaments, and to have intercourse with another man?" To which the courtesan replied; "This was my fault! Please forgive me!" But he killed her. The maid screamed, that her mistress had been murdered, and a multitude of people rushed to the scene. Mṛṇāla got frightened, and having left his blood stained sword near Gautama’s hut, disappeared in the crowd. People on seeing the sword, shouted; "This monk has killed Bhadrī!" (They asked him); "You monk, holder of the banner of a sage, have you done this deed?" The monk replied: "What did I do?". "This! " they said. "Having quelled my sins, I did not do such a thing!" Though he said so, they did not listen to him, and having tied his hands behind his back, they brought him before the king, saying: "This man had intercourse with Bhadrī, and killed her!" Since kings are usually thoughtless, the king ordered him to be impaled. This, was done.

The sage Asita (mdog nag po) was in the habit of coming there from time to time. Having gone there, he did not find Gautama, and searched for him. He saw him impaled. "Son, what is it?" (Gautama said): "What else, than Karma!" "Did you not transgress your vows?"asked the sage. (Gautama replied): "The body is injured, but not the mind". "How am I to believe this?" exclaimed the sage. (Gautama said): "Through the following oath: If my body only was injured, and not the mind, then let the skin of the upādhyāya turn into golden colour!", and on his saying so, the colour (of the sage’s skin) changed into golden colour, and (the sage) believed him. Gautama asked: ' O upādhyāya!What will be my next rebirth?" (The sage replied): "O son! The brāhmaṇas maintain that without progeny, one is unable to secure a good rebirth. Have you still enough power left in you to produce a son?" (Gautama) replied:"From my youth, I have been an ordained monk. I have no knowledge of women’s ways. From where can I get such power? " "Son", said the sage, "recollect your past experiences (of sexual life)". (Gautama said): "I am tortured by deathly pain, how can I recollect it?"

The sage caused then a rain storm to fall, and drops of rain fell on Gautama’s body. A cool wind touched the body (of the sufferer), and his pain was alleviated. He recollected his past experiences, and two drops of semen mixed with blood fell on the ground. These drops changed into two eggs, and ripened in the heat of the Sun. They then burst and two male children came out, and hid in a nearby sugar-cane grove (bu ram śing). Gautama, tortured by sun heat, passed out. The sage having come again, searched the neighbourhood. On seeing the shell of the eggs, he looked around, and discovered the two boys in the sugar-cane grove. He recognized in them the children of Gautama, and took them away to his place. He gave them milk, and brought them up. Because they were born from sun rays, they became known as Sūryavaṃśa (nyi ma'i gnyen) or Solar race. Because they were the sons of Gautama, they were called Gautamas (descendants of Gautama). Because they were born of his own body, they were called Āṅgirasas. Because they were found in a sugar-cane grove, they were known as Ikṣvāku.

When king Bharadvāja died sonless, the ministers held a council, discussing who should be installed as king, borne said that king’s elder brother (should be installed). They went into the presence of the sage Asita, and inquired from him as to the whereabouts of Gautama. The sage said: "You killed him!" They replied: "We do not even remember having seen him! How then could we kill him?" The sage replied: "I shall make you recollect!" and saying so, he related to them the full story. They recollected it, and said: "It is better not to mention the name of such a sinner, and keep quiet". The sage then asked: "What sin has he committed." "This!"—they replied. When the sage told them that Gautama was killed without sin, the two boys approached the place. (The ministers) inquired: "Whose boys are these?" "These are his sons!" said the sage. When the ministers saw this, they became amazed, took the children away, and installed the eldest as king.

He also died without leaving a son, and the younger one was installed as king, and became known as king Ikṣvāku. In his lineage there were a hundred kings of the Ikṣvāku dynasty, who ruled in the country of Potala. The last king was Ikṣvāku Virūḍhaka ('phags pa skyes po). He had four sons: Ulkāmukha (skar mda' gdong), Karakarṇaka (lag rna), Hastiniyaṃsa (glang po che 'dul) and Nūpura (rkang gdub can).

One day the king’s chief queen died, and he was full of sorrow. His ministers inquired about the cause (of his sorrow), * and the king told them (the reason). "We shall look for another queen", said the ministers. The king replied: "These sons of mine will quarrel for power. Who then will give his daughter to me for I cannot install her son as king?". "We shall search", replied the ministers. A little later they saw the beautiful daughter of another king. They presented themselves before the king, saying: "May happiness be on you! " The king said: "What do you want?" The ministers replied: "King Ikṣvāku Virūḍhaka’s beloved queen has died. We came to ask (for your) daughter." The king said: "Though possible, you should make a promise that should a son be born to my daughter, he will be installed as king. If so, I shall give (my daughter)." The ministers said: "We shall do so", and reported the matter to king Ikṣvāku Virūḍhaka. The king said: "Having (already) enthroned the elder brother, how can one install the younger brother as king?" The ministers replied: "In this matter there is no certainty. Likewise one cannot be sure that there will be a child born. Even, if there will be a child born, there is no certainty as to whether it will be a girl or a boy."

Having taken the princess (in marriage), the king had intercourse with her, and a son was born. Because they had claimed the kingdom for him before his birth, he was named Rājyananda (rgyal srid dga'). When he grew up, his maternal uncle heard, that the boy would not be installed as king, and he sent a message coached in strong words: "If you will act according to your former words, it will be good. But, if you do not, take care! I shall come then, and destroy your entire kingdom!" The king said: "How is it possible to install king Rājyananda? It is improper to install the younger brother, and to remove the elder brother." The ministers replied: "The other king being powerful, Rājyananda should be installed, and the young princes expelled." The king said: "How can one expel them without crime?" The ministers replied: "We, being ministers, keep in our minds the royal interests only. We used to expel innocent people, and overlooked those who had committed crimes."The king remained silent. The ministers then conferred between themselves, saying: "We should make the young princes displease the king! "Having prepared a grove, they decorated the walls (of a pavillion) and placed inside musical instruments, and left the place. The young princes inquired: "whose grove it is?" "The king’s" answered the ministers. ''Well done, let us enterl" exclaimed the princes, and on entering the grove, began to play.

The ministers then invited the king who came. Hearing the noise inside the grove, the king inquired: "What was it?" "The princes", said the ministers. "I shall withdraw my protection from them!" (meaning they were to be killed) exclaimed the king (angrily). "Your Majesty," said the ministers, ''please do not leave them without your protection (i.e. Do not kill them)! It is better to expel them I ""Do so", said the king. Having received the order of banishment, the young princes touched the king’s feet and made the following request: "Please allow us to proceed with our retinues." "Do so", said the king. The princes set out with the multitude of their retainers who had remained faithful to them. After seven days, having opened the gates of the city of Potala, the ministers discovered that the inhabitants had gone, and said: "If you do not keep the gates of the city closed, Potala will become empty!" "Lock the gates", ordered the king, and they locked the city’s gates.

The princes having led away their sisters, in due course reached the neighbourhood of the Himālayas, on the banks of the river Bhāgīrathī, not far from the hermitage of the sage Kapila (gser skya).[6] They built with leaves huts for themselves, and settled there. They gained their subsistence by hunting. Three times daily they paid a visit to the hermitage of the sage. Being oppressed by passions of youth, their appearance became weak and pale. The sage Kapila inquired as to the cause of it, and they confessed to him. " Leave alone your sisters born of the same mother, and marry your cousins", said the sage. "Is it right?" asked the princes. The sage replied: "It is proper, when a kṣatriya line is about to come to an end". Having faith in the words of the sage, they married their cousins, and numerous sons and daughters were born to them, and grew up.

Noise is said to be a thorn in meditation, and Kapila found himself unable to continue with his meditation. The sage went to see the princes, and told them: "I came to see you, because I am going.""Why?" inquired the princes. The sage then told them the reason. "You should stay in this very place!" said the princes. "We shall go to some other place. Indicate us a plot of land". Kapila held up his golden sacrificial vase and with water pouring out of the vase, he outlined the foundation of a town. They built a town and it became known as Kapilavastu (ser skya'i gzhi, "Founded by Kapila"). There they multiplied, but this was brought to an end by the smallness of the town area. God having perceived their thoughts, indicated them another site, where they built another town, and it became known as Devadhā. They held a council between themselves, and passed the following resolution: "Our banishment had as its cause the taking (by our father) of a second wife from a family of equal social standing, Therefore we shall henceforth abstain from taking second wives from families of equal standing, and shall content ourselves with one wife only".

At that time king Virūḍhaka remembered his sons, and inquired from his ministers: "Where were they?" The ministers told him then the full story. "Did they dare to live with their sisters!"exclaimed the king, and the ministers answered: "They dared!""Alas," exclaimed the king, "the princes are indeed daring! " He said these words with great stress, and thus the princes became known as the "Daring Ones" or Śākya. Then king Virūḍhaka having died, Rājyananda (rgyal srid dga') was installed. He also died without leaving a son.

Then Ulkāmukha, Karakarṇaka, and Hastiniyaṃsa also died sonless.
Nūpura became king. His son was Vasiṣṭha.

The latter’s son Guha (sa khyim) had in his lineage 55,000 kings who appeared in the city of Kapilavastu. Among the last kings of the line, twelve are mentioned including Daśaratha (shing rta bcu pa) and others. The last of them was Dhanuḥsthira (gzhu brtan). He had two sons: Siṃhahanu (seng ge ‘gram) and Siṃhanāda (seng ge sgra).

Siṃhahanu was the best archer of Jambudvīpa. He had four sons[7]: Śuddhodana (zas gtsang), Śuklodana (zas dkar), Droṇadana (bre bo zas), and Amṛtodana (bdud rtsi zas), and the following daughters: Śuddhā (gtsang ma), Śukla (dkar mo), Droṇā (bre bo ma) and Amṛtā (bdud rtsi ma).

Śuddhodana had the following sons: the Blessed One and his younger brother Nanda (dga' bo).
Śuklodana had as sons: Jina (rgyal ba) and Rājabhadrika (rgyal po bzang ldan).
Droṇadana had as sons: Mahānāman and Anuruddha (ma 'gag pa).
Amṛtodana had as sons: Ānanda and Devadatta.
Śuddhā’s son was Suprabuddha (legs par rab sad).
Śuklā’s son was Mālīka (phreng ba can).
Droṇa’s son was Sulabha (bzang len).
Amṛtā’s son was Vaiśālya (dge 'phel).[8]
The Blessed One’s son was Rāhula (sgra gcan zin).
With Rāhula the line of Mahāsaṃmata came to an end.
Till Śuddhodana there were 1,121,514 kings.

The royal chronology as given in Lokaprajñapti:

According to the Lokaprajñapti ('jig rten bzhag pa, Tg. Mngon. Pa, N0.4086):[9]

Mahāsaṃmata (mang pos bkur ba). His son Roca (‘od mdzes). The latter’s son Kalyāṇa (dge ba). His son Vara-Kalyāṇa. The latter’s son Upoṣadha (gso sbyong phags). His son Mūrdhaja (spyi ba nas skyes). He ruled over the four continents. His son Cāru (mdzes pa) ruled over three continents. His son Upacāru (nye mdzes) ruled over two continents. His son Cāruka (mdzes can) ruled over one continent. His son Cārumant (mdzes ldan) also ruled over one continent only. From him onwards all the cakravarti rājas are said to have ruled over one continent only. Cārumant’s son Muci (ltang ba). His son Mucilinda (ltang zung). The latter’s son Śakuni. Then Mahāśakuni, Kuśa, Upakuśa, Mahākuśa, Sudarśana (legs mthong), Mahāsudarśana, Vāmaka (gnod sel), gser mdog (Suvarṇa), Bhāgin (skal ldan), Bhṛgu (ngan spong), Meru (lhun po), Nyaṅku (nges 'gro), Praṇāda (rab tu sgra grags), Mahāpraṇāda (rab tu sgra grags chen po), Śaṅkara (bde byed), Diśāṃpati (phyogs bdag), Sureṇu (rdul bzang), Bharata (rgyas byed), Mahādeva (lha chen po).

Their descendants numbering 84,000 ruled in the city of Miśrakapura (‘dres pa'i grong khyer). After that Nemi (mu khyud), Jayaka (rgyal ba pa), Meru (lhun po), Bhīmaratha ('jigs byed shing rta), Śataratha (shing rta brgya pa), Daśaratha (shing rta bcu pa). After him the 5,000 Pāñcāla kings (lnga len gyi rgyal po). After that the 5,000 kings of Kaliṇga. After that the 7,000 kings of Aśmaka. After that the 8,000 Kaurava kings. After that the 9,000 Kapāla kings (thod pa can gyi rgyal po).[10] After that the 10,000 Geyarājas (klu dbyangs gyi rgyal po). After that the 11,000 kings of Magadha. After that the 15,000 Tāmralipti kings. Then Ikṣvāku, among whose descendants there were 1,100 kings. After that Virūḍhaka who had four sons: Ulkāmukha (bzhin 'bar), Karakarṇaka (lag rna can), Hastiniyaṃsa (glang chen 'dul),Nūpura (rkang rdub can) the four. Nūpura’s son Nūpurapāda (rkang gdub can zabs). His son Vasiṣṭha (gnas ‘jug).[11] His son Goṣṭha (ba lang gnas). His son Siṃhahanu (seng ge 'gram). The latter had four sons: Śuddhodana, Śuklodana, Droṇa and Amṛtodana. Śuddhodana’s son was the Blessed One. The Blessed One’s son Rāhula. Such is the royal chronology abridged from the Abhidharma, and the great treatises composed by the great Wise Ones (mahātman)"...... So it is said in the Lokaprajñapti.

According to it, from Mahāsaṃmata till king Śuddhodana there were 15,5149 kings.

The royal chronology as given in the Vinaya:

Again according to the same Lokaprajñapti:

"Mahāsaṃmata, Roca, Kalyāṇa, Vara-Kalyāṇa, Upoṣadha, Māndhātṛ, Cāru, Upacāru, Cārumant, Bharata, Bhāva (srid pa), Abhāva (mi srid), Muci (btang ba), Mucilinda, Tanujit (lus thub), Suvarṇa, Bhṛgu, Jagadratha (shing rta sdu gu can), Sagara (dug can). Mahāsagara, Śakuni, Mahāśakuni, Kuśa, Upakuśa, Mahākuśa, Bharata, Mahābharata, Sudarśana, Mahāsudarśana, Vāmaka, Upavāmaka, Śikhin, Nyaṅku (nges 'gro), Śaṅkara (bde byed), Praśānta (rab 'dul), Praṇāda, Pradayālu (rab gdung ldan), Jyotiṣkara (‘od byed), Meru (ri rab), Merumant (lhun po ldan), Jvāla (me lce), Jvālāmālin (me lce'i phreng), Jvālin (me lce ldan).

In his lineage a 100,000 kings ruled in Potala.
After that Śatrujit.
Among his descendants there were 54,000 kings ruling in Ayodhyā.
After that Ajitajit (ma phebs ‘bebs).
Among his descendants 63,000 kings ruled in Vārāṇasī.
After that Duṣyanta (bzod pa dka' ba).
Among his descendants there were 14,000 kings ruling in the city of Kāmpīlya (‘dar 'dzin).
After that king Brahmadatta.
Among his descendants there were 32,000 kings ruling at glang chen gnas (Hastināpura).
After that Nāgadatta (glang pos byin).
Among his descendants there were 5,000 kings who ruled in Takṣaśīlā.
After that king Romaputra (bal pu).[12]
Among his descendants there were 32,000 kings who ruled at Uraśā.
After that Nagnajit (tshan chen thub).
Among his descendants there were 32,000 kings who ruled in the town of ma phebs' bebs (gron khyer ma phebs' bebs).
After him king Jayaka (rgyal ba po).
Among his descendants there were 12,000 kings who ruled at Kanyākubja.
After him Jayasena (rgyal ba'i sde).
Among his descendants there were 18,000 kings who ruled in the city of Campā.
After him king Nāgadeva.
Among his descendants there were 25,000 kings who ruled in the city of Tāmralipti.
After him Naradeva.
Among his descendants there were 12,000 kings in Tāmralipti.
After him king Sagaradeva (dug can pa'i lha).
Among his descendants there were 18,000 kings at Dantapura (so ldan).
After him king Sumati (blo bzah).
Among his descendants there were 21,000 kings who ruled at Rājagṛha.
After him Marīci (mun sel).
Among his descendants there were a hundred kings at Vārāṇasī.
After him Mahendrasena (dbang chen sde).
Among his descendants there were 84,000 kings who ruled over Kuśāvatī (ku shi ldan).
After him Samudradeva (rgya mtsho lha).
Among his descendants there were a thousand kings who ruled over Potala.
After him Tapaskara (dka' thub spyod).
Among his descendants there were 14,000 kings who ruled at Kuśāvatī.
After him Bhūpati (sa gtso).
Among his descendants there were a thousand kings who ruled in Vārāṇasī.
After him Pámrthiva (sa bdag).
Among his descendants there were a thousand kings who ruled at Ayodhyā.
After him Dharaṇīdhara (sa 'dzin).
Among his followers there were 84,000 kings in the city of Miśrakapura.
After him king Mahādeva.
Among his descendants there were 84,000 kings at Miśrakapura.

After him Praṇīta (nges 'phel). His son Nemi. His son Nemisthira (mu khyud brtan). His son Bahuka (tsan po che). His son Bhoja (za ba). His son Upabhoja (nye za). His son Bhojana (za ba can). His son Bhogavant (za ldan). His son Sudṛśa (rgya nom snang). His son Samadarśin (mnyam lta). His son Śrūtasena (thos pa'i sde). His son Dharmasena (chos kyi sde). His son Budha (rtogs pa). His son Mahābudha (rtogs chen). His son Budhasena (rtogs sde).[13] His son Aśoka (mya ngan med), His son Vigatāśoka (mya ngan bral). His son Sīmasthira (mtshams brtan). His son Dhanvantari (according to Rev. Dge ‘dun chos 'phel, rgang mtshams is a synonym of thang la bar which usually translates Dhanvantari). His son Dhundhumāra. His son Aruṇa (skya reng). His son Diśāṃpati (phyogs bdag). His son Sureṇu (rdul bzang). His son Śaṅkara. His son Ānanda. His son Ādarśamukha (me long zhal). His son Janaka (skyed pa po). His son Jinaṛṣabha (rgyal ba khyu mchog). His son Bhoja (bza' btung ldan). His son Bahubhuj (bza' btung mod). His son Ajita (thub med). His son Aparājita (gzhan gyis mi thub pa). His son Sthira (brtan po). His son Susthira (rab brtan). His son Mahābala (stobs bo che). His son Mahāvahana (gzhon pa che). His son Sumati (blo bzang). His son Kumārasthira (or Yuvasthira, gzhon brtan). His son Daśadhanvan (gzhu bcu pa). His son Śatadhanvan (gzhu brgya pa). His son Navatidhanvan (gzhu dgu bcu pa). His son Vijayadhanvan (rnam par rgyal ba'i gzhu). His son Citradhanvan (gzhu bkra). His son Dhanuḥsthala (gzhu sa). His son Dhanuḥsthira (gzhu brtan). His son Daśaratha. His son Aṣṭaratha. His son Navaratha. His son Viśvaratha (shing rta sna tshogs pa). His son Citraratha (shing rta rnam pa sna tshogs pa). His son Guhyaratha /?/ (shing rta bzling po). His son Dhṛtaratha (shing rta brtan). Among his descendants, there were 77,000 kings who ruled in the city of Prabhāsa (legs par snang).

After him Gaganapati (nam mkha' bdag po). His son Nāgarakṣita (klus bsrungs). Among his descendants there were a hundred kings ruling at Vārāṇasī. After him Kṛkin. He became a brahmacārin in the presence of the Buddha Kāśyapa, and was reborn in the Tuṣita heaven. His son Sujata (legs par skyes). Among his descendants there were a hundred kings who ruled in Potala. After him king Karṇa (rna ba). His two sons Gautama and Bharadvāja. Gautama’s son Ikṣvāku. Among his descendants there were a hundred kings who ruled in Potala.

After him Virūdhaka (‘phags skyes po). He had four sons: Ulkāmukha (bzhin 'bar), Karakarṇaka (lag rna can), Hastikaśirṣa (glang chen 'dul) and Nūpura (rkang gdub can). Nūpura’s son Vasiṣṭha (gnas 'jug; the text, fol. 9b, has gnas ‘jig). His son Goṣṭha (ba lang gnas). His son Siṃhahanu (seng ge 'gram). His son Śuddhodana (zas gtsang). His son the Blessed One. His son Rāhula (sgra gcan zin). According to this (account), from Mahāsaṃmata till Śuddhodana there were 834534 kings.

The chapter on the line of Mahāsaṃmata.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

snar thang bka' 'gyur, 'dul ba, vol. Ill (Ga), fol. 420b

[2]:

Or Arindama.

[3]:

Dr. S. K. Chatterji suggests Bālaptitrin, with Bāla as a late Indo-Aryan equivalent of Roman.

[4]:

Or Tālahāra.

[5]:

snar thang bka' 'gyur, 'dul ba, vol. Ill /ba/, fol la. The story of Gautama is told in details in the pad ma'i bka' thang, fol. 33a. See also the la dwags rgyal rabs, A. H. Francke: Antiquities of Indian Tibet, 11, p. 25 & 72. Rock hill: The Life of Buddha, p. 10.

[6]:

A. H. Francke: Antiquities of Indian Tibet, II, p. 73 ff. Rockliill: "The Life of the Buddha,"p.11.

[7]:

Mahāvaṃsa, cd. Geiger, p. 14, 20.

[8]:

dpag bsam 'khrid shing, fol. 213a.

[9]:

de La Vallee Poussin: Buuddhisme. Etudes et'Materiaux, II (Bruxeloes, 1919), p. 320 ff.

[10]:

Mhvtpt, No. 3592.

[11]:

The text, fol. 8a, has gnas 'jig.

[12]:

Balaputra.

[13]:

Mhvtpt, No. 2900, translates rtogs pa by Buddha. The kings' names could also have been Mahābuddha and Buddhasena.

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