Apadana commentary (Atthakatha)

by U Lu Pe Win | 216,848 words

This is the English translation of the commentary on the Apadana (Atthakatha), also known as the Visuddhajana-Vilasini. The Buddhist stories known as apadanas refer to biographies of Buddhas, Buddhist monks and nuns. They are found in the Pali Canon (Khuddaka Nikaya), which is the primary canon of Theravada Buddhism. Alternative titles: Visuddhaja...

Commentary on the biography of the the thera Sāriputta

3.1. In order to comment on the collection of stanzas connected with the biography of the theras immediately following that, it is stated thus:- “Atha therapadānam suṇātha, now, you all should listen to the biography of the thera”, however, is such that it is current in many a meaning, namely: time, firmness, designation, name-assignment, eldest and so on. Accordingly, indeed, in such a context as: “therovassikāni pūtīni cuṇṇakajātāni, senior monks of many rains (or years), rotten things, reduced to powder”, and so on, thera has reference to time; therovassikāni refers to these who had spent their lent (or rains) for a long time; thus, is the meaning. In such a context as “There pi tāva mahā, the senior monk also now is great”, and so on, in firmness, firm practitioner or one of firm precepts; thus, is the meaning. In such a context as: “Therako ayamāyasmā mahallako, this senior monk, venerable, is old” and so on, thera refers to designation; it is a mere worldly designation; thus, is the meaning. In such a context as: “Cundaṭṭhere Phussaṭṭhero, the thera Cunda and the thera Phussa,” and so on, the word thera refers to name assignment, made name in this way; thus, is the meaning. In such a context as: “Thero cāyam kumāro mama puttesu, among my sons, this young man is again the most senior”, and so on, the word thera refers to eldest, the eldest youth; thus, is the meaning. Here, however this word thera becomes proper in time and firmness. Therefore, one who stood for a long time is thera, senior monk; or he is said to be a thera, senior monk, who is closely associated with much qualities as precept, conduct, mildness and so on. Thera (senior monks) comprise thera (senior monk) and thera (senior monk). Doing of deeds by the theras (senior monks) is Therāpadāna (the biography of the senior monks); you all listen to that Therāpadāna (the biography of senior monks); thus, is the connection. The stanzas starting with Himavantassa avidūre, Lambako nāma pabbato (a hill named Lambaka Hanger, not far from the Himavanta mountain) constitute the doings or biography of the Thera Sāriputta. The story of that venerable as well as of the Thera Mahāmoggallāna should be understood thus:-

3.2. Long ago, it is said that counting back from this Kappa (aeon) a hundred thousand kappas over and above one innumerable period (asaṅkheyya) ago, the venerable Sāriputta was born in the family of an immensely wealthy brahmin family, and was known as the lad Sārada, by name. mahāmoggallāna was born in the family of a very wealthy householder and was known as the householder Sirivāḍḍhana, by name. Both of them also were playmates playing earth powder together. Out of the two the lad Sārada, with the lapse of his father, managed the that belonged to the family, went to seclusion one day, and pondered over thus:- “There is certainty, namely, of death for those living beings; therefore, (it is proper that) after having approached a recluse the path of emancipation should be sought by me.” He then approached his friend and said: “My friend! I am desirous of becoming a recluse; what about you? Will you be able to become a monk?” When his friend replied that he was not able to do so, he said to himself: “Let it be, I alone shall become a monk”; he had his store-houses of gems and other treasure opened, gave a great charitable offering to destitutes and travellers, went to the foot of a hill and became an ascetic by way of renunciation. In the wake of his renunciation there were to the extent of seventy-four thousand sons of brahmins who renounced the world and became recluses. He caused the five kinds of higher knowledge and eight kinds of jhāna attainment (samāpatti) to arise in him and intimated those plaited-hair ascetics also about meditation exercises on objects for concentration (kasiṇa). They all also developed the five kinds of higher knowledge and eight kinds of jhāna attainment (samāpatti).

3.3. At that time, the Omniscient Buddha, Anomadassī, by name, arose in the world, turned his excellent wheel of dhamma; transported the living creatures across the formidable flood of the rounds of rebirths, one day, being desirous of making a helping hand (Saṅgaha kammam kattukāmo) towards the hermit Sārada and his resident pupils as well, went through the sky alone, without any companion, having taken his bowl and robe, descended from the sky, while the hermit was looking on, so that the latter may know Him to be Buddha and established Himself on the ground. The hermit Sārada noted the characteristics of a great personage in the body of the Master came to his decision saying: “This is but the Omniscient Buddha”, went forward to meet Him prepared a seat and gave the same to Him. The Glorious One sat himself down on the seat made ready for Him. The hermit Sārada took his seat at one, end in the presence of the Master.

3.4. At that time, his resident pupils to the extent of seventy four thousand in number, who had come back, bringing excellent of the excellent fruits of fruits which possessed tasteful essence, saw the Master, had a look at the seating feature of their teacher as well as that of the Master,????? with that there was no one greater than you; this personage, however, is, we think, superior to you, Their teacher replied thus:- “My pupils! What do you all say? Do you all desire to equalise Sineru, Mount Meru, sixty-eight thousand yojanas high with a mustard seed? Do not make me comparable to the Omniscient Buddha”. Then, those ascetics, having heard their teacher's words, said to themselves: “Indeed this personage is such a most excellent person”, all of them simply feel themselves down at the feet of the Master and worshipped Him.

3.5. Then, their teacher told them thus: “My dear pupils! To us, there is no righteous offering befitting the Master; the Master on His part had come here at the time of wandering about for alms-food; come, now, let us offer such righteous offering as is according to our ability.” Saying: “Whatever excellent fruits or otherwise you have brought, bring them”, the teacher-hermit had them brought, washed his hands, and himself put those fruits into the begging bowl of the Tathāgata. At the very moment the Master accepted the fruits (or otherwise), the divine beings threw in the ambrosia (or divine essence). The hermit himself even, filtered the drinking water also and offered the same to Buddha. Thereafter, when the meal-eating was over, and the Master was seated, their teacher sent for all his pupils and sat himself down in the presence of the Master, speaking about memorable subjects of conversation. The Master bethought himself thus: “Let my two chief disciples come with the congregation of bhikkhus”. That very moment, the chief disciples came surrounded by a hundred thousand arahats, paid homage to the Glorious One and stationed themselves on one side.

3.6. Thereupon, the hermit Sārada addressed his resident pupils thus: “Dear pupils! Offering of honour should be made to the Master as well as the congregation of bhikkhus with seats of flowers;therefore, bring flowers”. That very moment, they brought, by means of their magical power, flowers possessing good colour and sweet scent, prepared a flower-seat, a yojana in size, for Buddha, three gāvutas in size for the chief disciples, and half-a-yojana, etc. variety for the remaining bhikkhus, and an usabha measure for the new (or young) clergy. When the seats had been prepared, the hermit Sārada, raised his clasped hands in front of the Tathāgata, and said; “Venerable Sir! Please get on this flower seat in order to benefit (or bless) me.” The Glorious One sat Himself down on the flower seat. When the Master was seated, the two chief disciples of His as well as the remaining bhikkhus sat themselves down on the seats arrived at by (or arranged for) themselves individually. The Master entered upon the cessation jhāna attainment (nirodha), in order to promote great fruition for those hermits. Having come to know the fact that the Master had entered upon the trance, the two chief disciples as well as the rest of the bhikkhus also, entered upon nirodha samāpatti. The hermit stood holding flower umbrella over the Master for seven days without any interval (or break). The other hermits, having eaten forest roots and fruits stood raising their clasped hands during the remaining time. With the lapse of seven days, the Master woke up from his nirodha trance, and addressed His chief disciple, the Thera Nisabhā thus: “You might do the thanks giving on the offering of flower seats to the hermits”. The thera stationed himself on the knowledge of disciple's perfections, and did the thanks-giving to them over the charity of their flower-seats. At the end of his religious discourse (desanā), the Master addressed His second chief disciple, the Thera Anoma, thus:- “You, also, rather preach the dhamma to these hermits”. He also, having investigated reflectively upon Buddha's preaching, constituting the three piṭakas and preached the dhamma to them. There was no full grasp of the dhamma by the preaching of the two also. Then, the Master, having stationed Himself in the sphere of Buddha, began to preach the dhamma. At the end of His religious discourse, leaving aside the hermit Sārada, all the remaining seventy four thousand plaited-hair hermits attained arahatship. The Master stretched out His hand to them saying: “Come, O bhikkhus”, That very moment, they all became as if they were sixty-year old senior monks bearing their eight-ecclesiastical essentials with their semblance of ascetics having disappeared.

3.7. The hermit Sārada, however, saying to himself thus: “It would be wonderful indeed were I to become in future a disciple, like unto this thera Nisabha, of one of the Buddhas”, became devoid of enlightened knowledge because of the arising of reflective thoughts and unable to properly penetrate into the right paths and fruitions. He then paid homage to the Master, and made his self-determined aspiration in that manner. The Master saw the state of materialising unobstructedly, and predicted thus: “Hereafter, when a hundred thousand aeons, (kappa), over and above an innumerable period of time, (asaṅkheyya), had passed over, he will become the chief disciple of the Omniscient Buddha Gotama, by name, known as Sāriputta”, preached and proceeded into the sky, surrounded by His congregation of bhikkhus. The hermit Sārada also, went to the presence of his associate Sirīvāḍḍha and told the latter thus:- “Dear friend! I have aspired for the position of chief disciple of the Omniscient Buddha Gotama who would appear in future, at the feet of the Glorious One Anomadessī; you also aspire for the position (or rank) of second chief disciple of that Buddha”, Sirīvāḍḍha, having heard that advice, made a ground area of eight ‘karīsa’ square measure of land levelled to become even surface at the door of his own residence, strewed on it flowers with lāja, corn snappies, as the fifth, had a pandal with blue lotus-roof built, had the Buddha's seat prepared, had the seats for bhikkhus also prepared, made ready a great hospitality and honour, invited the Master with the hermit Sārada, brought about a big charity for seven days, had the congregation of bhikkhus headed by Buddha covered with garments of great value and made the self-determined aspiration to become the second chief disciple. The Master saw the imminent materialisation, unobstructed, by the aspirant, made His prediction in the manner, aforesaid, performed His thanks -giving over the meal offering and made His departure. Sirīvā ḍḍha became glad and joyous, performed meritorious deeds as long as he lived and was reborn in the celestial world of sensual sphere on his second mental occasion (cittavāra). The hermit Sārada developed the four kinds of higher life, brahma vihāra, and was reborn in the world of brahmās.

3.8. From that time onwards, the intervening deeds of both of them are not going to be told. Even before the appearance of our Glorious One, however, the hermit Sārada took conception in the womb of the brahmin lady Rūpasārī in the Upatissa village, not far from Rājagaha. On that very day, his associate also took conception in the womb of the brahmin lady Moggali in the Kolita village not far from the selfsame Rājagaha. Therefore, he was Moggallāna; he was the son of the brahmin lady, Moggali; thus, he was Moggallāna. Or, he was born or given birth to by the Moggali clan; thus, he was Moggallāna. In other words, when his mother was a young girl, being told by her parents thus: “Do not spit out; do not spit out”, she became known by the name of ‘Muggalī’ due to such words of parents as that; he is the son of that lady Muggalī; thus, he was Moggallāna. In other words, he was sufficiently capable in gaining, undertaking and properly penetrating the right path beginning with sotāpatti, the first stage of sanctification; thus, he was Moggallāna. It is said that those two families were simply closebound friends up to the seventh family succession. They gave pregnancy-protection to the two of them on one and the same day only. They provided sixty six wet nurses to them when with the lapse of ten months they were born also. On their naming day, they gave such a name as Upatissa, because of his being the son of the brahmin lady Rūpasārī. To the other, because of his being the son of the eldest family in Kolita village, they gave the name (as) Kolita. Both of them also grew up surrounded by a large retinue each and when they came of age, they became proficient in all kinds of sciences.

3.9. Then, one day, they saw the assembled large crowd of people witnessing the hill-top (festival at Rājagaha, emerged wisely since they had reached full maturity of knowledge thus: “All these people enter the jaws of death on this less side of the span of hundred years of life”, grew remorseful, made their resolution saying: “By us the doctrine (dhamma) of emancipation should be sought; indeed, in seeking the same also, it is fit (or proper) to obtain monkhood singularly,” and became recluses in the presence of the wandering ascetic Sañjaya, together with five hundred lads. Beginning from the time of their renunciation Sañjaya, became one who had attained topmost in gain and fame. Even in a few days only, they wiped away parimajjitva) the entire doctrine of Sañjaya, did not notice any essence there, because disgusted with it an kept on asking monks and brahmins, who were popularly recognised as wise men, questions. The latter could not satisfactorily answer whatever was asked by them. On the other hand, they themselves solved problems of those others. In their quest for emancipation thus, they made mutual premise thus:- “Between us, whoever achieved immortality first, he is, to inform the other, (or let him intimate the other)”. By that time, however, our Master, having attained the highest enlightenment of Buddhahood, first of all, was turning the excellent wheel of dhamma, gradually, subdued the thousand plaited-hair ascetics headed by Uruvelakassapa, and was dwelling at Rājagaha, when, one day, the wandering ascetic Upatissa, as he went to the ashram of wandering ascetics (paribbājakārāma), saw the venerable thera Asajji wandering for alms-food in Rājagaha, became piety-provoked, saying to himself: “Such a monk, endowed with deportment, as this, had never been seen by me before; there ought to be, here, namely, together with tranquil truth (santadhamma)”, followed after him from behind and behind, envying the venerable, in order to ask him question. The thera also, having obtained his alms-food went to a suitable spot (or sito). The wandering ascetic got ready his own paribbājakapītha, (the stool of a wandering ascetic), and offered it to the thera. At the end of the latter's meal also, he gave the thera water from his own goblet. Having thus done his duties due to a teacher, he entered upon conversation together with the thera, who had done his meal business, and asked thus: “Either who is your teacher? or whose doctrine (dhamma), pleases you?” The thera referred to omniscient Buddha. Again, when asked by him “What proponent (or propagator) is, however, your venerable Master?”; the thera, saying to himself: “I shall show this one the profundity of Buddha's dispensation (sāsana)”, announced to him the fact of himself being new (or fresh) but spoke to him the dispensed doctrine (sāsanadhamma), briefly and recited this stanza: “Whatever phenomena (dhammā) that have foremost cause”, etc. The wandering ascetic having heard but the first two feet of the stanza, became established in the path and fruition of the first stage of sanctification (sotāpatti), endowed with a thousand methods. The other two feet of the stanza came to an end at the time, when the listener had already;became a stream-winner (sotāpanna). At the entire end of the stanza, however, having become the stream-winner (sotāpanna), when further distinctive preaching was not made, the wandering ascetic noted properly saying: “There must be the reason here”, and asked the thera thus: “Venerable Sir! Please do not develop further your teaching of truth (dhamma); so much even is enough, where does our Master dwell?” The answer was in the bamboo grove (veḷuvana). The wandering ascetic paid homage to the thera with five kinds of postures, saying: “Venerable Sir! You please go ahead, I shall redeem my pledge to my associate, and come bringing him with me”, circumambulated the thera, sent the latter off and himself want to the retreat of the wandering ascetics (paribbājakārāma).

3.10. The wandering ascetic Kolita saw him coming, even at a far distance, said to himself thus: “His facial complexion is not like this on other days; definitely, it must be that the immortality (amata), has been achieved by this one”, and asked about the achievement of immortality by him even after properly developing of that distinctive achievement. Upatissa also confessed to his friend saying: “Dear friend! immortality (amata) has been achieved”, and recited that very stanza even. At the end of the stanza, Kolita became established in the in the fruition of the first stage of sanctification and asked thus: “Where is our Master?” The answer was:- “At the bamboo grove, (Veḷuvana)”. Kolita said: “Well then, my friend! let us go; We shall see the Master”. Upatissa was one who honoured his teacher at all times also;therefore, making the qualities of his teacher Sañjaya manifest, he was desirous of leading him also to the presence of the master. His teacher, however, not desiring to become resident pupil due to his longing for gain, declined to go along, saying: “Having been a water-jar, I am unable to become sprinkling water”. The two, being unable to enlighten him with many a reason, went to the bamboo grove, (veḷuvana), together with two thousand five hundred such residential pupils that followed their advice. The master saw them coming from afar even, said to Himself: “These two will become a pair of my disciples;the chief and excellent pair”, preached the truth (dhamma), to their assembly in the form of practice, established them in arahatship, and gave them full ordination by letting them become monks of Come! Bhikkhu (ehi bhikkhu) category. just as it was to them so also His chief disciples also, bowl and robe born of high magical powers but came simply. The business of three higher paths, however, was not accomplished. Why? Because of the greatness of knowledge of disciple's perfection.

3.11. of the two, the venerable Mahāmoggallāna, on the seventh day of his having become monk, while doing his monk's duties (samaṇadhamma), at the kallavāla village, in the kingdom of Magadha, when he was suffering from sloth and drowsiness, he was stirred by the master, who dispelled his sloth and drowsiness, achieved the three higher right paths while still listening to the meditation exercise over elements (dhātukammaṭṭhān), and attained the head of knowledge, pertaining to disciple's perfection. The venerable sāriputta, having spent half-amonth after his having become a bhikkhu, while living together with the master in the cave dug by hogs at Rājagaha, as he was preaching his own nephew, long-nailed wandering ascetic (Dīghanakhāparibbājaka), he despatched his intelligence in conformity with his preaching and attained the head of knowledge pertaining to disciple's perfection, like unto eating the meal developed by another person. Thus, was the attainment to the head of knowledge pertaining to disciple's perfection even in the vicinity of the Master by the two chief disciples.

3.12. Thus, the venerable Sāriputta, the possessor of knowledge, pertaining to disciple's perfection, reflecting over thus: “By what deed was this achievement obtained?”, came to know about it, recited this stanza beginning with: “Himavantassa avidūre, not far from Himavanta mountain-ranges”, and so on, breathing forth this solemn utterance being influenced by zest and mental pleasure.

Therefore, it has been said:

141. “Hiimavantassa avidūre, lambako nāma pabbato, Assamo sukato mayham, paṇṇasālā sumāpitāti”

Not far from Himavanta hill, stood a hill, Lambaka by name; For me a hermitage was well-built, the leaf- hut well-created.

141.1. Himavantassa, there, is to be explained as: snow is there to it; thus, possessor of snow (hinavā), Avidūre (not far from) is near that Himavanta; the snow-bound frost forest; thus, is the meaning. lambako nāma pabbato (hill known as Lambaka) is a hill mixed with earth, so named. Assamo sukato mayham (a hermitage well-made for me) is in that lambaka hill (my hermitage forest-residence was built for my purpose), quiet (or tranquil), all round; thus, is hermitage (assama). or, there is no fatigue, no exhaustion to those who entered here; thus, is the hermitage (assamo); that agreeable or pleasing forest-dwelling has been built properly; it was built with such excellent characteristics as night-rest, day sojourn, privy, pandal and so on; thus, is the meaning. Paṇṇasālā, (leaf-hut), is residential leaf-hall roofed with leaves and fragrant reeds; thus, is the meaning.

142. “Uttānakūlā nadīkā, supatiṭṭhā manoramā susuddhapulinākiṇṇā, avidūre mamassamam.”

Not far from my hermitage, is a river with her embankment stretching out, delightful landing place, strewn with sand, pure and clean.

142.1. Uttānakūlā (stretching shore) is a shallow river. Supatiṭṭhā (good ghat) is excellent landing place. Manoramā (pleasing to the mind) is adhering to the mind, endearing to the heart. Susuddhapulinākiṇṇā (strewn with clean, pure sand) is: well strewn with sand similar to pieces of dazzling white pearls, that had become cleaned; thus, is the meaning. That agreeable nadīkā (small river) mamassamam (was near) not far from my hermitage; thus, is the meaning. ‘Assamam’ should be understood as ellipsis (or condense expression) in the locative meaning with seventh case-ending.

143. Asakkharā a pabbhārā, sādu appaṭigandhikā sandati nadikātattha, sobhayantā mamassamam”.

No gravel grit, no sloping, good non-smelly, small river flows there, making my hermitage delightful.

143.1. Asakkharā (no gravel) there is devoid of gravel (or grit) since it has been said “pulinākiṇṇā, strewn with sand”. Apabbhārā (no sloping) is devoid of abrupt slope, shallow shore; thus, is the meaning. Sāduappaṭigandhikā (good non-smelly) is good-tasteful water, devoid of bad small, grace my hermitage;nadikā (rivulet) is small river; Sandati (flows) is turned out to be;thus, is the meaning.

144. “Kumbhīlāmakarā c'ettha, susumārā ca kaccapā, sandatinadikā tattha, sobhayantā mama'samam.”

here were alligators, sharks (makara), crocodiles and tortoises; there flowed small rivers, making my hermitage pleasant.

144.1. Kumbhilā (alligator) there, is fish; makarā (shark) is fish and susumārā (childkiller) is cruel fish, kacchapa (tortoise) is also fish; ettha (here) is in this river, that were sporting themselves; thus, is the connection. Gracing my hermitage, nadikā (rivulet) small river;sandati (flows) turns out to be; thus, is the connection.

145. Pāṭhinā pāvusā macchā, balajā muñjarohitā. vaggaḷā papatāyantā, sobhayanti mama'ssamam.

Such varieties of fish as Pāṭhīna, Pāvusa balaja, Muñja, Rohita, vaggaḷa swim about and grace my hermitage.

145.1. Pāṭhīna, Pāvusa Macchā, balajā, Muñja Rohitā and Vaggala are varieties of fishes and aquatic animals; from here and there, all these of fish species papatūyoantā (falling down and off) turning out to be along with the river, grace my hermitage; thus, is the meaning.

146. Ubhokūlesu (on both banks) there, is: on both sides of that river, permanently pupphino (flowering) bloom-bearing and perennially-phalino (fruiting) fruit-bearing trees, ubhato abhilambantā (hanging from both banks) stooping down on both banks of the river, grace my hermitage; thus, is the meaning.

147. Ambā sālā ca Tilakā, Pātalī, sindunārakā; dibbagandhā sampavanti, pupphitā mama- assame.

Such trees as Mango (Amba) Sal (Sāla) Tilaka, Pātali and Sinduvāraka, blooming with flowers blow forth celestial sweet scent towards my hermitage.

147.1. Ambā (mangoes) there, is: sweet lumpy mange; Sāls (Sal) is: Sal tree;Tilakā tree and Pāṭalī tree as well as Sindsivāraka tree; these trees at all times pupphitā, shed their flowers, would be blooming. In my hermitage, sweet small, similar to celestial scent sampavanti (blow) send their sweet smelling breeze from all the surrounding sides; thus, is the meaning.

148. Campakā Salalā Nīpa, Nāga Punnāga Ketakā; Dibbagandhā sampavanti, pupphitā mama assame.

Such trees as Campaka, Salala, Nīpa, Nāga, Punnāga and ketaka trees also emit sweet celestial scent, having bloomed flowers in my hermitage.

148.1. Campaka tree, there, Salala tree, also Nīpa tree, whose flowers resemble gold rings, Nāga tree, Punnāga tree, also the sweet-smelling ketaka tree, all these trees, pupphitā bloom with flowers with smell similar to celestial scent, sampavanti (blow well) send out good breeze of sweet scent.

149. Adhimuttā Asokā ca, Bhaginīmālā ca pupphitā; Anlola Bimbijālā ca, pupphitā mama assame.

Such flower-bearing trees as Adhimuttaka, Asoka, Bhaginīmālā, Aṅkola and bimbijāla bloom forth in my hermitage.

149.1. There, the flower-bearing Adhimuttaka tree and flower-bearing Asokā tree as well as flower-bearing bhagināmālā tree, flower-bearing Aṅkola tree and also flower-bearing bimbijāla tree; these trees bear flowers which grace my hermitage; thus, is the connection.

150. ketakā kandali ceva, Godhukā tiṇasūlikā; Dibbagandham sampavantā, sobbhayanti mama'ssamam.

There Ketaka is the sweet scented ketaka shrub, and kandali tree, as well as the Godhuka tree, and also the shrub known as tiṇasūlikā, emitting smell like celestial scent, grace my hermitage.

150.1. There, the sweet-smelling ketakā shrub, the kandali and Godhukā trees as well as Tiṇa sūlika shrub, all these tree species, emitting celestial scent, grave my entire hermitage; thus, is the meaning.

151. Kaṇikārā Kaṇṇikā ca, Asanā Ajjunā bahū Dibbagandham sampavantā sobhayanti mama' ssamam.

Many such trees as Kaṇikārā, kaṇṇikā, Asanā and ajjunā emitting celestial scent grace my hermitage.

151.1. These trees beginning with Kaṇikārā and so on, gracing my entire hermitage emit celestial scent; thus, is the connection.

152. Punnāgā Giripannāgā, koviḷārā ca pupphitā Dibbagandham sampavantā, sobhayanti mama' ssamam.

The flower-bearing Punnāgā, Giripunnāgā and koviḷārā (coral trees), emitting celestial scent, grace my hermitage;

152.1. trees beginning with Punnāgā and so on, emitting celestial scent, grace my hermitage; thus, is the meaning.

153. Uddālakā ca kuṭajā, kadambā vakulā bahū; Dibbagandham sampavantā, sobhayanti mama' ssamam.

Many such trees as Uddālaka, kuṭaja, ladabā and Vakula, emitting celestial scent, grace my hermitage.

153.1. Trees, beginning with Uddālakā and so on, emitting celestial scent, grace my hermitage; thus, is the connection.

154. Āḷakā Isimuggā ca, kadali Mātulungiyo gandhodakena samvāḍḍhā, phalānidhārayanti te.

Such shrubs, as Āḷaka, Isimugga, kadali and Mātulungi, develop scented water and they bear fruits.

154.1. There, these shrubs beginning with Āḷaka and so on, having developed (or become replete with) such sweet scents as Sandal water, bearing gold fruits grace my hermitage; thus, is the meaning.

155. Aññe pupphanti padumā, aññe jāyanti kesarī

Aññe opupphā padumā, pupphitā taḷāke tadā. At that time in the pond, there blossomed such some lotuses as paduma, kesarī and puppha.

155.1. There, Aññe pupphanti padumā is: in the pond near my hermitage other some paduma lotuses bloom; some kesarī paduma lotuses; jāyanti spring up and come into being; some opupphā, paduma lotuses shed their petals and hairy pollens; thus, is the meaning.

156. Gabbham gaṇhanti padumā, niddhāvanti mūlāliyo. Siṅghātipattamākiṇṇā, sobhanti taḷāke tadā.

Paduma lotus plants capture their buds; roots of paduma lotus plants shoot down deep; strewn with sweet-smelling petals; they, at that time, grace the lake.

156.1. there, gabbham gaṇhanti padumā is to be explained thus:- At the time of my dwelling in my hermitage, having become a hermit, some paduma lotuses inside the lake capture buds, blooms and so on. mulāliyo is: roots of paduma lotus plants; niddhāvanti, is, they go from here, i.e. emerge from inside the mud like tusks of elephants; thus, is the meaning.

157. Nayitā Ambagandhī ca, Uttalī bandhujīvakā; Dibbagandhā sampavanti, pupphitā tāḷake tadā.

At the lake, then, there blossomed and emitted celestial fragrance, such shrubs as Nayitā, Abbagandhī and Uttalī as well as Bandhujīvakā.

157.1. Tadā (at that time) is at the time I was dwelling there; all such shrubs as Nayitā, Ambagandhī, ca, also, Uttalī and Bandhujīvakā, pupphitā, blossomed, near the lake and emitted good fragrance, gracing it; thus, is the meaning.

158. Pāṭhīnā Pāvusā macchā, Balajā Muñjarohitā Samgulā Maggurā ceva, vasanti taḷāke tadā.

At that time, these lived in the lake such fishes as Pāṭhinā, Pavusa, Balaja, Muñjaro- hita, Samgula, and Maggura also.

158.1. Tadā (then) is: at the time of my dwelling there, fearless fishes beginning with Pāṭhinā and so on, lived, taḷāke (in the lake).

159. Kumbīlā Susumārā ca, Tantigāhā ca Rakkhasā; Oguhā Ajagarā ca, vasanti taḷāke tadā.

At that time, there lived in the lake, such aquatic creatures as alligators, crocodiles, and such fish as Tantigaha, Rakkhasa, Oguha and Ajagara.

159.1. Tadā (then) at the time of my dwelling there, taḷāke (in the lake) near my hermitage, there lived these aquatic creatures beginning with alligators, fish and so on without fear and danger.

160. Pārevata Ravihamsā, Cakkavākā nadīcarā; Kokilā suka Sāḷikā, Upajīvanti tam saram.

There lived, depending upon that lake, such birds as Pārevatā, ravihamsa (singing swans), Nadīcarā Cakkavakā (the ruddy goose, roaming about rivers), Kokilā (cuckoos), Suka (parrots) and Sāḷikā (mynas).

160.1. There, near my hermitage, depending on the lake, lived such birds as Parevata (doves or pigeons), Ravihamsa (singing swans or sun-swans), nadicaracakkavāka (river roaming ruddy goose), Kokilā (cuckoo birds), Sukā (parrots) and Sāḷikā (mynas). Those winged creatures lived near that lake.

161. Kukuṭṭhakā Kuḷīrakā, vane Pokkharasāṭakā; Dindibhā suvapotā ca, upajīvanti tam saram.

Living near that lake were such birds as those named Kukuṭṭhaka (crab-bird), Kuḷīraka (crab-bird), Pokkharasāṭaka (a species of crane in the forest), birds named Dindibha, and Suvapota (young parrots).

161.1. there, Kukuṭṭhaka (crab-eating birds) winged creatures so named, Kuḷīraka, (crab birds) winged creatures so named, Pokkharasāṭaka (lotus-garment crane) in the forest, dindimā, the winged creatures and suvapotā (young parrots); all those winged creatures lived depending upon that lake near my hermitage, thus, is the connection.

162. Hamsā Koñcā Mayūrā ca, Kokilā Tambaculakā; Pammakā Jīvamjīvā ca, Upajīvanti tam saram.

Such birds as swans, herons, peacocks, cuckoos, the copper-colour-crested-bird, (Tambaculaka), the birds named Psmmaka, and the pheasants (jivamjīva) lived near that lake.

162.1. All these winged creatures beginning with swans and so on lived, looking after their lives depending on that lake; thus, is the meaning.

163. Kosikā Poṭṭhasīsā ca Kurarā Senakā bahū; Mahākālā ca sakuṇā, upajīvanti tam saram.

Many such birds as owls (Kosikā), Poṭṭhasīsā, ospreys (Kurarā), hawks (Senakā), and the big black bird (Mahakāla) lived near that lake.

163.1. There, the winged creatures Kosikā (owls) Poṭṭhasīsā, by name, Kurarā (ospreys), Senakā (hawks) mahākālā (the big black birds) which bahū (were abundant) on land, jīvanti (lived), made their living near that lake.

164. Pasadā ca Varāhā ca, Camarā Gaṇḍakā bahū; Rohiccā Sukapotā ca, upajīvanti tam saram.

Many kinds of such beasts as Pasadā (spotted antelopes), Varāhā (wild hogs) Camarā (yak oxen) and the game anumal (aṇḍakas), the deer Rohicca and Sukapota lived near that lake.

164.1. There, such beasts of prey as spotted deer tam saram, near that lake, (this word is connected with the meaning, land) lived, looking after (their) lives; thus, is the meaning.

165. Sīhabyagghā ca dīpīca, acchakokataraccharā; Tidhā pābhinnamātaṅgā, upajīvanti tam saram.

Lions, tigers and panthers, bears, wolves, hyenas, mātaṅga elephants with three different varieties of bursting rut (tidhā pabhinna) lived near that lake.

165.1. Such quadrupeds as lions and so on lived near the lake, devoid of danger; thus, is the connection.

166. Kinnarā Vānarā cova, atho pi vanakammikā; Cetā ca luddakā c'eva, upajīvanti tam saram.

Human-headed birds (kinnara), and monkeys as well, and moreover, workers in woods, (vanakammika), decoy-birds (cetā) and hunters (luddakā), as well, lived near that lake.

166.1. here, such of these and so named creatures as human-head-birds (kinnarā) and so on, lived near that lake; thus, is the meaning.

167. Tiṇḍukāni Piyālāni, madhuke Kāsumārīyo; Dhuvamphalāni dhārenti, avidūre mama'ssamam.

Not far from my hermitage, such fruit-bearing trees as: Tiṇḍuka, (fig), Piyāla, Madhuka, and Kāsumāri, perennially (or permanently) bore fruits.

167.1. There, these trees, beginning with Tiṇḍuka and so on, growing not far from my hermitage, bore sweet fruits at all times during the three seasons, counted as snowy, sunny and rainy seasons; thus, is the connection.

168. Kosambā Saḷalā Nimmā, Sādu phalasamāyutā; Dhuvam phalani dhārenti, avidūre mamassamam.

Such trees as kosomba, the sweet-scented Saḷala, and Nimma well-yoked with good fruits, permanently bore fruits, not far from my hermitage.

168.1. There, these trees beginning with Kosamba, and so on, whose fruits are tasteful, sweet and most excellent, Samāyutā is (sam, well, properly āyuta, yoked) constituted or well supplied, always bore fruits, adorned the neighbourhood of my hermitage; thus, is the meaning.

169. Harītakā āmalakā, ambajambuvibhītakā; Kolā bhallātakā bhillā, phalāni dhāratanti te.

Those such trees as: yellow myrobalan tree (Harītaka), embolic myrobalan tree (āmalakā), the mango tree (Amba), the Eugenia tree, (Jambu), Beleric Myrobalan tree (Vibhītaka), the Jujulh fruit-tree (Kolā), the Marking Nut tree (Bhallātaka), the Bilva tree (Bhilla), bore fruits.

169.1. Those trees, beginning with yellow myrobalan and so on which grew near my hermitage bore fruits constantly; thus, is the connection.

170. Āluvā ca Kalambā ca Biḷālī takkaḷāni ca; Jīvakā Sutakā c'eva, bahukā mama assame.

In my hermitage, there were many such plants, as: Bulbous plant (Āluva), radish (Kaḷamba), tuber plant (Biḷāli), tuberose (Takkaḷa) and the jīvaka plant as well as sutaka plant.

170.1. These slightly sweet root-fruits beginning with Āluva and so on, were plentiful near my hermitage; thus, is the connection.

171. Assamassāvidūramhi, taḷākāsum sunimmitā; Acchodakā sītajalā, supatiṭṭhā manoramā.

Not far away from my hermitage, there were well-created lakes with cool water, crystal clear, delightful to the mind, with their excellent landing spots.

171.1. there, Assamassāvidūramhi (not far from hermitage) near the hermitage, sunimmitā (well created) (i.e. creatively made) facilitating good ascending and descending; Acchodakā (clear water) transparently clear water;sītajalā (cool water) cold water; Supatiṭṭhā (good ghat) excellent landing place; manoramā (delightful to the mind) lakes which please the mind; āsum (were) became; thus, is the meaning.

172. Padumuppalasañchannā; puṇḍarikasamāyutā; Mandālakehisañchannā, dibbagandho pavāyati.

These lakes, covered with red and white lotus flowers, and yoked together with puṇḍarika lotus as well as being covered with mandālaka flowers, emit celestial scent.

172.1. There, Sañchannā (well-covered) filled all round with paduma lotus and uppala lotus flowers; puṇḍarikehi, with puṇḍarika lotus flowers, samāyutā (well yoked with) endowed with; mandālakehi ca sañchannā (well-covered with Mandalaka flowers also) crowded with forest of flowers, the lakes sent out breezes of celestial?????? blew from all surrounding sides; thus, is the meaning.

173. Evam sabbaṅgasampanne, pupphite phalite vane; Sukate assameramme, viharāmi ahaṃ tadā.

At that time, I dwelt in the delightful hermitage, well-built in the forest of flowers and fruits endowed with all characteristics in this way.

173.1. There, Evam sabbaṅga sampanne, thus endowed with all characteristics, endowed and all-round complete with all such details as rivulets (or rivers) and so on, with flowerblooming, fruit-bearing trees becoming crowded-bushy jungle to constitute to, vane sukate in the well-made forest, delightful; Assame (in the hermitage) in the forest abode; tadā (then) at the time I was hermit, I lived (or dwelt); thus, is the meaning.

173.2. having pointed out the comforts of his hermitage so far, in order to show now his own achievements of such quality as precepts and so on, he said thus:-

174. “Sīlavā vata sampanno, jhāyījhānarato sadā; Pañcabhiññābalapatto, Surucināma tāpaso.” ti,

The ascetic named Suruci was, indeed, endowed with precepts (Sīla), and duties (vata); possessing jhāna, he was always joyous of jhāna (achievement in meditation); he had attained the strength of five kinds of higher knowledge.

174.1. There, Sīlavā (possessor of precepts) is to be interpreted thus:- “Well-filled with five precepts which are like the four peerlessly pure precepts associated with jhāna”; thus, is the meaning. Vatasampanno is to be explained as: One who is endowed with undertaking upon oneself the performance of duties saying: “Beginning from now, I shall not indulge in the five strands of sensual pleasure of household life”. Jhāyād (meditator) one who has precept (or habit) of jhāna, possessor of jhāna, with comprehensive insight of characteristics (lakkhaṇa) and objects of contemplation, (ārammaṇa). Jhānarato (one who takes delight in jhāna) one who adheres to joyfully in these jhānas;sadā (always) properly filled with. Pañcabhiññabalapatto (attained the vigour of five kinds of higher knowledge) perfectly filled and endowed with strength of distinguished knowledge, which is higher knowledge of five kinds counted as: Kinds of magical power, divine ear, knowing the thoughts of others, recollection of previous residences, divine eye; thus, is the meaning. Suruci nāma (named Suruci) is: having become the ascetic Suruci by name, I lived;thus, is the connection.

174.2. Having pointed out his own achievement with this much, he recited this stanza and so on in order to show his glory of assembly, thus:-

175. “Catuvīsasahasāni sissā mayham upaṭṭhahum; Sabbe mam brāhmaṇā etc. jātimanto yasassino,” ti.

Twenty four thousand pupils attended upon me; all these brahmins of mine had good breeding and were of good repute.

175.1. There, all these pupils of mine, the twenty four thousand brahmins were jātimanto (possessors of birth) of good breeding, endowed with high birth; yasassino (well-reputed) endowed with retinue, attended upon me, served me; thus, is the connection.

176. Lakkhaṇe itihāse ca, sanighaṇḍu sakeṭubhe; Pakakā Veyyakuraṇā, Saddhamme pāranungatā. They had perfected themselves in the brāhmaṇa lore (saddhamme), became versed in the lines and words, (padapatha), of the vedas (padakā), together with grammatical explanations, in the signs and characteristics on palms (lakkhaṇa), as well as in traditional records (litihāsa), together with gloss, (nighaṇḍu), and along with rituals, (keṭubha).

176.1. There, lakkhaṇe (in signs) is to be interpreted as the science of palmistry. he knows the signs and characteristics of all worldly men and women thus:- “They become miserable or poverty-stricken when endowed with these signs; with these, they are well off or happy”. The treatise which clarifies that is lakkhaṇa. In that treatise of signs, (lakkhaṇa). Itihāse, traditional records, is to be explained thus:- In the treatise which appropriately illuminates the stated words: “Thus, said this part; thus, stated this portion”. Pāramim gatā (gone to perfection) is: gone to the end of the treatise on signs, (lakkhaṇa), and the treatise on traditional record (Itihāsa). The treatise which explained the names of trees, hills, and so on is said to be ‘Nighaṇḍa’ (gloss or vocabulary). ‘Keṭubhe’ (rituals) is the treatise which is the benefactor of learned men in their functions suitable or otherwise. It turns out to be together with gloss (Nighaṇḍu); thus, it is Sanighaṇḍu; it turns out to be together with rituals (ketubha); thus, it is Sakeṭubha. They had gone to or attained perfection in those three vedas together with gloss (nighaṇḍu), and rituals (keṭubha); thus, is the connection. Padakā (versed in words) is to be explained as: clever in such words as nouns, compound words, Taddhita participles, finite verbs, kita or kitaka participles and so on. Veyyākaraṇāni (grammatical explanations) is they are experts in such treatises on grammar as Canda, Pāṇinī, Kalāpa, and so on. Sadhammepāramim gatā (they had perfected or accomplished themselves in their lore) is to be interpreted as: They had attained, gone to the end and perfected themselves in the three vedas, the Brahmin lore, their own lore (dhamma); thus, is the meaning.

177. Uppātesu nimittesu, lakkhaṇesa ca kovidā; Pathabyā bhūmantalikkha, mama sissā susikkhitā.

My pupils had been well taught in the science of earth, ground and sky; they had become specialists in the risen signs and characteristics.

177.1. There uppātesu nimittesu (risen signs) is to be interpreted as: in such signs as the falling down of stars, earthquakes and so on, as well as in pleasant and unpleasant signs, (nimitta), in the characteristics of women, men and great personages; kovidā (clever) is to be learned. Pathabyābhūmantalikkhe (on earth, ground and in the sky) is on earth as well as on the ground also in the whole world and in the sky as well; thus, everywhere in all respects had my pupils been well trained (or taught).

178. Appicchā nipakā etc, appāhārā alolupāl Lābhālābhena santuṭṭhā, parivārenti mam sadā.

Their needs were few, they were mature in knowledge, meagre was their nourishment; they were greedless and contented whether they gained or not. Constantly they were around me.

178.1. There, Appicchā (few needs) is they would carry on even with inpayā, mature endowed with a little knowledge or wisdom reckoned as maturity. Appāhārā (meagre nourishment) is of one single meal, eating food once only; thus, is the meaning. Alolupā (greedless) is no occurrence of greedy lust. Lābhālāhena with gain or otherwise) with gainfulness or gainlessness; Santuṭṭhā, contented, these pupils of mine, delighted in mind; sadā, (always) at all times, permanently;parivārenti (surrounded me) attended upon me or served me; thus, is the meaning.

179. Jhāyī Jhānaratā dhīrā, santacittā samāhita; Akiñcaññam patthayantā, parivārenti mam sadā.

They were with jhāna, delighted in jhāna and firmly wise; they were tranquil in mind and absorbed in meditative attainments; aspiring for nothingness, they always hung round to serve me.

179.1. There jhāyī (with jhāna) is being endowed with perceptive indulgence in characteristics, (lakkhaṇa) and sense-object contemplation; or precept practice in jhāna. Jhānaratā (to adhere to and take delight in jhāna) as well as in those. (Dhīrā (firmly wise) endowed with firmness. Santacittā (tranquil mind) is mind at peace. Samāhitā (concentrated) is one-pointed mind. Akiñcaññam (nothingness) the condition of having no bother (palibodha). Patthavantā (aspiring) wishing. Agreeable were my pupils who always hung round me to attend upon me and serve me; thus, is the connection.

180. Abhiññā pāramīppattā, pettike gocare ratā; Antalikkhacarā dhīrā, parivārenti mam sadā.

They had attained perfection in higher knowledge, were delighted in paternal pasture, wanderers in the sky and firmly wise; they hung round me constantly.

180.1. There, Abhiññāpāramīppattā (attained perfection in higher knowledge) is:- having fulfilled and attained the entire end of perfection in the five kinds of higher knowledge; thus, is the meaning. Pettike gocare ratā (delighted in paternal pasture) is to be interpreted thus:- Had pleasure in the nourishment obtained without physical or verbal hint as approved by Buddha; thus, is the meaning. Antalikkhacarā (wanderers in the sky) is going and coming through the atmospheric sky; thus, is the meaning. Dhīrā (firmly wise) is to be interpreted as: become firm; have the nature of not trembling amidst such dangers as lion, tiger and so on; thus, is the meaning. Thus, had my hermits become, who hung round, attending always upon me;thus, is the meaning.

181. Samvutā chasu dvāresu, anejā rakkhitindriyā; Asamsaṭṭhā ca te dhīrā, mama sissā durāsadā.

Well restrained were they at the six doors free from craving with their controlling faculties, well-guarded, they never got mixed up, but firmly wise; my pupils were difficult to attack and conquer.

181.1. There, samvutā (well restrained) is to be interpreted thus:- protected and guarded doors, covered and closed or such six doors as eyes, etc., and with regard such six sense-objects (ārammaṅa), as visible forms and so on; thus, is the meaning. Anejā is free from craving (taṇhā);rakkhitindriyā, such controlling faculties as eyes, and so on, guarded;asamsaṭṭhā (unmixed) is to be explained as: not become mixed with relative householders; thus, is the meaning. Durāsadā (difficult of attack) is to be explained as:- difficult for attack or conquest, unable to clash, attack and conquer; unyoked; thus, is the meaning.

182. Pallaṅkena nisajjāya, ṭhānacaṅkamanena ca; Vītināmenti te rattim, mama sissā durāsadā.

My pupils spent their nights sitting cross- legged, standing and walking to and fro. They were unassailable, hard to conquer.

182.1. There, Pallaṅkena (cross-legged) is to be explained thus:- my pupils, with sitting cross-legged, seated by binding things, avoiding lying down, with standing and walking to and fro, atināmenti (spent) made to pass beyond, distinguishedly, the entire night; thus, is the connection.

183. Rajanīye na rajjanti, dussanīye na dussare; Mohanīye na muyhanti, mama sissā durāsadā.

In matters provoking lust, they were not lustful; in things provoking anger, they were not angry; in deludable affair they were not deluded; my pupils were difficult of attack and conquest.

183.1. Those agreeable pupils of mine who were hermits, rajanīye (in things dyeable) in things liable to be lustful, na rajjanti (did not get dyed) did not arouse stainful lust. Dussanīye (in hateables) in things which should be angry with, in basic things befitting to arouse hatred or anger, na dussare (did not get offended) did not incur anger or hatred. Mohanīye (indeludable affairs) in basic matters fit to get deluded, na muyhanti (they did not get deluded) they did not do delusion; they became associated with knowledge or wisdom; thus, is the meaning.

184. Iddhim vimamsamānā te, vattanti niccakālikam; Pathavim te pakampenti, sārambhena durāsadā.

Putting their magical power to test, they turned out to be at all times permanently; they made the earth quake; they were hard to be conquered by quarrelling.

184.1. Those pupils of min, niccakālikam vimamsamāmā putting to test permanently, at all times (or constantly) by displaying such different miracles as “having been one and single, which became many; after having been many, become one and single,” in this way they turned out to be; thus, is the connection. Those pupils of mine, having created earth in the sky and in water, let their postures (iriyāpatha) shake (or move) Ārambhena is to be explained as: by domineering and making quarrel, they are not to be attacked or conquered; thus, is the meaning.

185. Kiḷamānā ca te sissā, kīḷanti jhānakīḷitam; Jambuto phalamānenti, mama sissā durāsadā.

While sporting, those pupils sported the sport of jhāna; they brought the eugenia fruit from the Jambu tree; my pupils were difficult of attack.

185.1. Those pupils of mine, Kīḷamānā (sporting) sported such sports as the first jhāna and so on; they thus dallied and bemused themselves; thus, is the meaning. Jambuto phalamānenti (they brought eugenia fruit from Jambu tree) is to be explained thus:- They went by means of their magical powers and brought the jar-sized jambu (or eugenia) fruit from the Jambu (or Eugenia) tree, a hundred yojanas in height in the Himavanta mountain ranges;thus, is the meaning thus, is the meaning.

186. Aññe gacchanti Goyānam aññe Pubbanidehakam; Aññe ca Uttarakura, esanāya durāsadā.

Some went to the West island; some went to East island; some went to North island; my pupils, difficult of conquest, went in search (of necessities).

186.1. Amongst those pupils of mine, aññe (some) a few of them, Goyāna, (West island) went to the island of Aparagoyāna; some of them Pubbavidehakam (to East island) went to the island of Pubbavideha; some of them Uttarakurum (to North island) went to the island of uttarakuru. They being difficult of conquest in these places, asanāya (in search of) they went in order to seek their requisites (or necessities); thus, is the connection.

187. Purato pesenti khārim, pacchato ca vajanti te; Catuvīsa sahassāni chāditam hoti ambaram.

They sent ahead before them their carrying- pole and went behind it; the sky was covered by twenty-four thousand hermits.

187.1. Those pupils of mine, in going through the sky, Khārim (carrying pole) sent ahead, before them, their carrying-pole that would bear and bring back ascetic requisites, having first of all sent forwards, themselves went behind that carrying-pole. Thus, by the twenty four thousand hermits going in that manner, ambaram (the sky) the heavenly surface, chāditam (covered), became hidden;thus, is the connection.

188. Aggipākī anaggīca, danto-cukkhalikāpi ca. Asmena koṭṭitā keci, pavattaphalabhojanā.

Some cooked their food on fire; some ate raw without using fire; some ate using teeth, like mortar and pestle; some ate after crushing with stone; some ate fallen fruits.

188.1. There, Keci (some) is: a few of my pupils; aggipākī (cookers on fire) ate after cooking fruits and non-fruits, leaves, etc.; some anaggī (were fireless) ate but raw without cooking on fire; some were teeth-employers; they ate after peeling the skins with teeth even. Some were udukkhalikā (like unto mortar and pestle) they ate after pounding with pestle in mortar. Some asmena koṭṭitā (were crushers by means of stone) they ate after beating or crushing with stone. Some nourished themselves with self-fallen fruits; this, is the connection.

189. Udakorohanā keci, sayam pāto sucīratā; Toyābhisecanakarā, mama sissā durāsadā.

Some were??descenders down the water evening and morning being delighted in cleansing themselves; others were makers of sprinkling water on their bodies; so were my pupils, who were difficult of attack.

189.1. Some of my pupils, who were difficult of attack, Suciratā (delighting in cleanliness) desirous of purity, in the evening as well as in the morning, udakorohanā. (??descenders down to water) they made their entry into the water; thus, is the meaning. Some tovābhisecanakarā (doors of water sprinkling) did the sprinkling with water on themselves; thus, is the meaning.

190. Parūḷhakacchanakhalomā, paṅka-dantā rajassirā Gandhitā sīlagandhena, mama sissā durāsadā.

Grown-hair in armpits and nails got long; teeth had turned tartar and head had become dusty. But my pupils, difficult of attack were fragrant with the scent of precepts (sīla).

190.1. There, those pupils of mine, difficult of attack, kacchesu (in armpits) in both armpits as well as on hands and feet; parūḷhā (mounted) there had sprung up, long nails and hair; thus, is the meaning. Due to absence of razor work, undecorated and unembellished; thus, is what is meant. Paṅkadantā (teeth turned tartar), teeth which had taken in dirty matter, because of not making any washing with such dentifrice (or dental cleanser) as brick-powder, milk-stone powder and so on; thus, is the meaning. Rajassirā (dusty head) their heads soiled with dust (dhūlīhi) because of the absence of such toilet as smearing with oil and so on; thus, is the meaning. Gandhitā sīlagandhena (fragrant with the perfume of precept),(sīla), had become sweet scented everywhere in all respects with perfume of worldly precepts because they were endowed with well connected precepts with jhāna, concentration and meditative attainments; thus, is the meaning. Mama sissā du āsadā (my pupils were difficult of attack) would not be able to attack and knock against my pupils, because of the fact that they were endowed with these said characteristic qualities; thus, is the connection.

191. Pāto va sannipatitvā, jaṭilā uggatāpanā; Lābhālābham pakittetvā gacchanti ambare tadā.

Having assembled even early in the morning, the plaited-hair ascetic whose austere practices were obvious, announced their major and minor gains, went up the sky then.

191.1. There, Pāto va sannipatitvā, having assembled early in the morning, the caseending ‘to’ is employed here to express the meaning of the seventh post positions, even at the time of sun-rise, they became grouped together in my presence. Uggatāpanā (practitioners of highest austerity) obvious austerity-practitioner, stretched or spread out austerity-devotee. Jatilā (plaited-hair ascetics) hermits who were braided-hair Lābhālabham pakittetvā (having made obvious of the gains, small and large; tadā (then) at that time; ambare (in the sky) they went on the heavenly surface; thus, is the connection.

192. Again making their qualities even to be clearly evident. recited the stanza, starting with Etesam pakkamantānam. There either in the sky or on dry land, Pakkamantānam (departing) going; etesam (their) of the hermits; there turned out to be a big noise born of reed robes, of the ascetics; thus, is the meaning. Muditā honti devatā (the divinities became joyful) being well satisfied with the sound of antelopes' skins of those hermits having turned out big noise in this way, the divinities became delighted in mind saying: “Well-done, well-done, out lords!”, muditā (glad) became satisfied; thus, is the connection.

193. Disodisam (directions and sub-directions) in those hermits; antalikkhacarā (wanderers in the sky) those who went about in the sky, pakkamanti (departed) went to south direction and sub-direction;thus, is the connection. Sake balenupatthaddhā (being endowed with either their own bodily strength) or the vigour of jhāna; yadicchakam (wherever they wanted to go) there and there even they went; thus, is the connection.

194. Again in order to make manifest their power even, recited the stanza beginning with Pathavī kampakā etc. At that time ete (these) who wandered everywhere they wanted, pathavikampakā (the earthquakers) these who could bring forth the quaking of earth, nabhacārino (travellers in the sky) who wandered in the sky. Uggatejā (people of high power) rising power, stretched or spread-out power;duppasahā (difficult of defeat) would not be able to turn out to be after defeating and overwhelming; thus, is duppasahā, people difficult of defeat. Sāgaro va akhobhiyā (undisturbed like the ocean) similar to the great expanse of water, the mighty ocean not being disturbed and molested by others, they would not be disturbed and shaken by others; thus, is the connection.

195. Ṭhānacaṅkamino keci (some were standers and promenaders) amongst those pupils of mine, some hermits were endowed with such postures as standing and walking to and fro; some hermits were Nesajjikā (sitters) endowed with sitting posture; some hermits were pavattabhojanā (eaters of whatever turned out), those who nourished themselves with self-fallen leaves; since they were connected with such qualities as said, they were difficult of defeat; thus, is the connection.

196. Praising them all, he recited the stanza, starting with Mettavihārino. There, mettavihārino is to be explained thus: They turned out themselves to be, they lived pervading with loving-kindness, the symbol of affection saying thus: “May the unlimited number of living creatures in hundreds of universes (or countless cakkavāḷa) be all happy”, and so on, those pupils of mine; thus, is the meaning. All those hermits were hitesī (seekers of welfare) bestowers of benefits towards sabbapāṇīnam (all living-beings) every creature. They were anattukkamsakā (not self-praisers) free from pride and would not speak highly of themselves; navambhenti (they would not reproach) did not think lowly kassaci (of anyone) any person whosoever; thus, is the meaning.

197. Those pupils of mine, because of being associated with such qualities as precept, concentration, and meditative attainments (samāpatti) achambhitā (were unshaken), free from danger, resembling the lion-king; gajarājā iva, (king-elephant-like), similar to the elephant-king. They were balamabā (possessor of strength) endowed with the strength of their bodies and vigour of their jhāna; like unto the tiger-king, they were durāsadā (difficult of defeat) unable to be knocked against; they came into my presence; thus, is the connection.

198. Thereafter, making manifest, by the pretext of showing his own power, recited the ;stanza beginning with Vijjādharā. There, knowers and reciters of charms, sorcerers (vijjādharā), divinities of earth who dwell on trees and hills, Nāgā (dragons) serpents stationed on earth and dry land, gandhabba (celestial musicians) fierce rakkhasā, (ogres), kumbhaṇḍā, guardian divinities) Dānavā, (titans) who are capable of creating whatever they want and Garuḷā (the big birds) lived depending upon that lake; thus, is the connection.

199. Again also, praising the qualities of those self-same hermits, who were his own pupils, recited these stanzas, beginning with: Tejaṭā khāribhāritā. All that is but openly clear in meaning. Khāribhāra is such ascetic requisites as bucket for drawing water out of a well, the water-pot with long spout and so on.

207. Again also, making manifest his own qualities he recited the stanza, beginning with Uppate supine ca pi. There, the explanation is thus:- Then, at the time of my hermithood, I was the repository of all the sections of charms, signs and symbols, the course of knowledge, that were current in the entire Jambudīpa, being well trained in foretelling over the signs and symbols on the palms of hands and feet of all men and women, and also in foretelling about dreams and their effects, because of my cleverness in reading the stars and planets and because I had become accomplished in Brahmanic science, thus:- “The rising star of this young prince is pleasant or otherwise”, and on being asked with regard the risen sign or symbol and the occurrence in dream, thus: “This dream is auspicious; this dream is unfortunate;” Thus, is the connection.

208. Making manifest his own exposition headed by;;the qualities of Buddha, he uttered the stanza, beginning with Anomadassī. There, not low (or inferior) is Anomā. That Glorious One is Anomadassī, because of His superior sight, namely, seeing and looking at all living beings with His such eyes as: physical eye, celestial eye, universal eye, spiritual eye and Buddha's eye. He is Bhagavā (Glorious One) under the circumstances of His having fortune (or good luck) and so on. He is Lokajeṭṭho (world-eldest) because of the fact that He is the eldest and most excellent of the world; there are three oldest oxen thus: the Usabha bull, Nisabha bull and Āsabha bull. These, the eldest of a hundred oxen is Usabha; the eldest of a thousand oxen is Nisabha; the eldest of a hundred thousand oxen is Āsabha; Narāsabho, the Āsabha-bull of men;Sambuddha is He who had properly penetrated into every dhamma; vivekakāmo (desirous of solitude) wanted to be single one, alone. Himavantam, went towards the Himalaya mountain range; thus, is the connection.

209. Ajjhogāhetvā Himavantam (dived into Himavanta) having gone deep into the vicinity of Himalaya, and entered it;thus, is the meaning. The rest is but clear.

210.1. Jalitam (burning) blazing or brilliant like the blue water-lily;hūtāsanam, the seat of sacred sacrifice; ādittam (burning) like a mass of fire associated with light; gagane (in the sky) like lightning that is shining like the stately Sal tree properly flowering, I saw the patron of the world, seated; thus, is the connection.

213. (212-13?) The celestial being of the divine beings is Devadevo, the god of gods; having seen that Devadeva, God of gods, Buddha, lakkhaṇamupadhāresim, I closely observed His characteristics, I investigated whether He was Buddha or not by making myself know the thirty-two signs, symbols, or characteristics of a great personage of His. By that doing (or circumstance) I saw the Conqueror, cakkhumam (sight possessor), owner of five kinds of eyes; thus, is the connection.

214. Caraṇuttame (on the most excellent feet) (caraṇa), on the most excellent soles of His feet. Sahassarāni, circular signs or wheel symbols are seen; when I saw in the Tathāgata those characteristics of that Glorious One, niṭṭham gacchim (I arrived at my conclusion) I went towards self-determination and became doubtless, thus, is the meaning. The rest is but clear in meaning.

218. Sayambhu (self-become one) became but by themselves. Amitodaya (the place of springing up) the rising of unlimited and incomparable qualities; these two words are but terms of address (alapana). Imaṃ lokaṃ, this world of living creatures; sam (properly) well;uddharasi (drew out or dragged out), having pulled out from the round of rebirths, let them arrive at the dry land of Nibbāna; thus, is the meaning. All those living beings āgamma, having come for the sake of seeing you, came, and Kaṅkhasotam taranti (cross the stream of doubt) went over beyond the great flood of doubt; thus, is the connection.

219. Praising the Glorious One, the hermit recited the stanza beginning with: tuvam satthā. There, Venerable Omniscient Buddha! You are Satthā (Master) the teacher of this world together with the celestial world; you yourself being established as most excellent are Ketu (banner) high; You yourself are dhajo, (flag) because you are manifestly established in the whole world; You, yourself are yūpo, (sacrificial post) like the erected pillar, because you had risen up in the three worlds;(pāṅīnam (of living-beings), for all living creatures you, yourself are parāyano (final end) relief, the highest or most excellent reachable place. You yourself are patiṭṭhā (standing spot), place of protection; You; yourself are dīpo; (lamp) like an oil-lamp, since you had dispelled the deluding darkness of the world; dvipaduttamo, (the most excellent man), the most excellent and best among such bipeds as divinities, brahmās and human beings; thus, is the connection.

220. Again, praising the Glorious One, even, uttered the stanza, beginning with Sakkā samudde udakam. There, the water of the ocean, eighty-four thousand yojanas deep, would be possible to pametum, to measure, by means of a peg; Venerable Omniscient Buddha! It is simply not possible even, to pametave, measure as “So much in size or quantity”, Your knowledge; thus, is the meaning.

221. Having placed tulamaṇḍale in the measuring hall, weighing cage, it is possible to bear the weight of earth;Venerable Omniscient Buddha! It is not at all possible to weigh Your knowledge.

222. Venerable Omniscient Buddha! It might be possible to measure ākāso (sky), the entire open space, either with rope or finger, Your sky-like knowledge and wisdom, however, could not at all be pametave, measured; thus, is the meaning.

223. Mahāsamudde Udakam, water of the great ocean, eighty four-thousand-yojanasdeep ocean. Akhilam udakañca, unfallen water, four nahutas over and above two hundred thousand yojanas in expanse;akhiḷam; akhiḷam pathavim, unfallow land; jahe (would forsake) might abandon, might go beyond, might make equal, Buddha's knowledge, upādāva (having regard) having taken, might weigh, might balance. upamato (as example), by way of illustration; na yujjare (should not be yoked), might not be placed together; His knowledge is but much more; thus, is the meaning.

224. Cakkhuma (O Eye-owner!) O Possessor of five kinds of eyes! This is word of address. Sahadevehi, together with the celestial beings, of the current world; it is a possessive word in the locative sense;inside the world together with the heavenly world; yesam, whosoever, of this number of living-beings, the mind happens (pavattati). Etc, these, so many living beings with their minds, in Your knowledge, antojālagatā, gone into the net, in the net of knowledge, had entered inside; thus, is the connection; You look at all living beings by means of Your net of knowledge;thus, is the meaning.

225. Venerable Sabbaññū. Omniscient Buddha! Yena ñāṇena (by which knowledge) by proper association with four right and noble paths, bodhim patto (attained wakefulness) achieved nibbāna, the most excellent of everything, asi (were) became; by that knowledge, paratitthiye maddasi (You trampled down other heretics) overwhelmed other religious leaders; thus, is the connection.

226. In order to make clear the praise-making, done by that hermit, the theras of collecting together of the dhamma, the theras of the first Buddhist Council, said thus: Imā gāthā thavitvāna. There, imā gāthā (these stanzas) is with so many stanzas; thavitvāna (having praised) the hermit, suruci, by name, having made the eulogy; Sesaṭṭhakathāsu, in other commentaries, however, there came thus:- “Sāradalmāṇavo, the lad Sārada”. That word is the measure or limit, which is but the reading (or reader) according to aṭṭhakathānaya, the commentarial method. In other words, one who might have good, delightful or pleasant wish or desire to have Nibbāna as his resting place; thus, he is Suruci (good pleasure). One who proceeds, goes and turns out to be with subdued sense-faculties, thus, is Sārada (subdued going). Thus, both also are his name even. That hermit Suruci, having spread the antelope's skin, sat himself down; having avoided such six faults of sitting as being too near and so on, Sārada took his seat; thus, is the meaning.

227. The hermit who was seated there, praising the self-same knowledge of that Glorious One, uttered the stanza, beginning with cullāsītisahassāni. There cullāsītisahassāni is eighty-four thousand; girirājā (monarch of mountains) is the hill-king Meru; Mahaṇṇave is in the ocean; ajjhogāblo, (dived into) is: dived deeply into, entered; tāvadeva (that much even) such quantity as eighty-four thousand; accuggato (excessively gone up) now is said to be having gone up excessively; thus, is the connection.

228. Tāva accuggato, like that Neru or Meru mountain had gone up to excessive heights; that great Neru or mighty Meru āyato had extended, in height as well as in breadth in this way, the great Neru king is a hundred thousand crores by way of variety of reckoning;cuṇṇito (was made into pieces and powder).

229. Venerable Omniscient Buddha! When your knowledge is placed in the high numeral of lakh, when place after making droppings one by one of your knowledge as either hundred or thousand or a hundred thousand, that very powder of the great Neru might go exhausted, it is not in the least possible pametave (to measure your knowledge) to calculate the quantity of your wisdom; thus, is the connection.

230. Sukhummacchikena (fine fish) whoever were to parikkhipe (surround) make circumspection from all sides by surrounding the water of the entire mighty ocean with a lot of fine holes (or very small holes), when thus circumspected, whatever creatures who were born in water all of those aquatic beings, siyam (would be), would become gone into the net; thus, is the meaning.

231. Pointing out that illustrative comparison, he uttered this stanza beginning with Tath eva hi. There, just as aquatic animals become gone into the net, so also, O Great Hero! Mahāvīra (Great Hero! Maker of exertion for the achievement of great Buddhahood! Whoever are puthu, many, titthivā (heretics), makers of wrong views, diṭṭhigahaṇapakkhandā having entered the forest-jungle reckoned as heresy, parāmāsena, due to the characteristic handling from the point of view of sincerity or otherwise, mohitā, were deluded or befuddled or covered up.

232. Suddhena (with purity) is with your knowledge free from impure depravity (kilesa); anāvaraṇadassinā (by the unobstructed seer) by One who has the precept or habit of seeing without obstruction all the truths, (dhamma); etc. (these), all heretics;antojālagatā (gone into the net), or, who had been made to enter the inside of knowledge-net, likewise; thus, is the connection. Nāṇam to nātivattare;(they could not surpass your knowledge) those heretics could not go beyond your knowledge; thus, is the meaning.

233. At the end of his having spoken in praise of the Glorious One in this way, he recited this stanza, beginning with: Bhagavā tamhi samaye, in order to show his effort of making his own explanation. There, at whatever time the hermit praised the Glorious One, at that time of the termination of praise, the Glorious One, Anomadassī, who was reputedly with such a retinue as would be beyond calculation, because of His having conquered depravity, (kilesa), Māra etc., is jina, the conqueror. Samādhimhā (from concentration), having risen up from His engrossed concentration (samādhi), He looked at or surveyed with his divine eye, the entire Jambu island; thus, is the connection.

234.5. The disciple, Nisaba, by name of that Glorious One Anomadassī, munino, of the sage, who was endowed with such knowledge, as was reckoned to be mona, santacittehi, (with tranquil thoughts), with mind devoid of depravity (kilesa), tādihi, with such ones as arahats, who had exhausted their cankers (āsava), because of their untrembling (or unperturbed) nature amidst desirables and undesirables; suddhehi (with the pure things), associated with perfectly pure bodily actions and so on, with such achievements as six kinds of higher knowledge, with the nature of not being perturbed or agitated by the eight kinds of ups and downs of life (lokadhamma), surrounded by a hundred thousand; aññāya (having known), having come to know the mind of Buddha, upesi (approached), went near the patron of the world, at that selfsame time; thus, is the connection.

236. They having come in that manner tattha (there) to the vicinity of the Glorious One; antalikkhe (in the atmosphere) stood in the sky and circumambulated the Glorious One, They all, pañjalikā (clasp-handed) worshipping from the sky and otarum (descended) went down to the presence of the Buddha; thus, is the connection.

237. Again, in order to make manifest the making of the early portion of the giving of explanation, he uttered this stanza, beginning with Sitam pātukarī. All that is but clear.

241. Yomam pupphena, the hermit whose mind was pleased with me or who roused up his pious mind in me, honoured me by offering many a flower;anuthavi, he praised my knowledge again and again; tamahaṃ kittayissāmi, I shall make manifest (or clear announcement of), that hermit; mama bhāsato suṇotha (make yourself minded), make within your hearing the words spoken by me.

250. Pacchime bhavasampatte, thus, the Glorious One said in order to give his explanation (or make His prophecy). There, pacchime (at last), when the existence which became final had reached. Manussattam (human status), gamissati, will go to the birth as a human being; he will be reborn in the human world; thus, is the meaning. The brahmin lady Sārī, so named because of possessing such essence as the essence of beauty, the essence of wealth, the essence of age, the essence of family, the essence of luxury, the essence of merit and so on, will bear in her womb.

253. Aparimeyye ito kappe, immeasurable kappas hence, thus, He began the root or origin of His prophecy (byākaraṇa). Here, the perfection of the two chief disciples are fulfilled in the long period of one innumerable aeons and a hundred thousand aeons (kappas); in spite of being so, for the sake of ease in poetic composition of the stanza, it was thus said with reference to intervening aeons (antara kappa); thus, it should be looked at.

254. The prophecy (byākaraṇa) is given thus:- “He will be chief disciple known by the name of Sāriputta”. Having given the prophecy (byākaraṇa), praising him, that Glorious One said thus: “Ayam Bhāgīrathī” and so on; this first great river, known as Bhāgīrathī, among these five rivers, namely, Ganges, (Gaṅgā), (Jumna), Yamunā, Sarabhū, Mahī and Aciravatī. Himavantā pabhāvitā (originated from Himavanta) originated from the Anotatta lake and had come down from the Himalaya. Mahodadhim (great ocean) the massive mass of water; appayanita (reach) arrive at; Mahāsamuddam, the big ocean; appeti, just as they go near or towards;in that same way also, this Sāriputta, Sake tīsu visārado (confident in his own three) would be one whose knowledge or wisdom will stretch or spread out, unstumbled or unstaggered being confidently versed in the three vedas current in his own family. Paññāya pāramim gantvā, having gone to the final end of his own disciple-knowledge;pāṇīne all the living beings; tappayissati (will satisfy) will make them contented and will bring about their excellent welfare; thus, is the meaning.

257. Himavantamupādāya, having made Himalaya hill the beginning; making mahodadhim, the great ocean, sāgaram, the bearer of water, the final end; etthantare (inside this), in the middle of these two, mountain and ocean; yampulinam, as much as there are heaps and collection of sand; gananato, by way of calculation or counting asaṅkhiyam (innumerable), beyond reckoning or enumerating; numberless.

258. Tampi sakkā asesena, even those heaps of sand without remainder, saṅkhātum (to count), It could become possible to count, as so and so is that total number; thus, is the connection. Likewise, anto (the end), the final end of Sāriputta's knowledge will not happen (bhavissati) at all; thus, is the meaning.

259. Lakkhe;:P: bhavissati; here, lakkhe (in writ or lakh) is: in knowledge writ or lakh, a portion of knowledge;ṭhapiyamānamhi (when placed), is: should it be placed, sands of Ganges; Khiye (exhausted), would go completely exhausted; thus, is the meaning.

260. Mahāsamudde (in the big ocean), is: in the four great oceans, eighty four thousand yojanas deep. Umiyo (waves), such varieties of heaps of waves as gāvuta and so on. gananato asaṅkhiya (innumerable from counting) is: just as they are beyond calculation, so also, the extent of Sāriputta's knowledge, anto (end), the extreme end, na hessati (will not be) will not become; thus, is the connection.

261. Thus, that Sāriputta was learned or possessor of knowledge; because of the Gotama clan Gotamam, Gotama, the eldest in the Sakyan-family, the bull-man of the Sakyans, the selfenlightened (or self-awakened) Buddha; ārādhayitvā (having pleased), having done the pleasing of the mind with proper practice of duties, good precepts and good conduct, etc., paññāyā, of knowledge, of disciple's knowledge, pāramim (perfection), having gone to complete conclusion, he will become the chief disciple of that Glorious One; thus, is the connection.

262. Having thus attained the position of chief disciple, dhammacakkam anuvattessati (will subsequently turn the wheel of dhamma) will bear the burden of maintaining the good dhamma, made manifest and kept current without the nature of being shaken amidst desirables and undesirables, by the Glorious One, the Son of Sakya. Dhammavuṭṭhiyo (the rain showers of dhamma) rain-showers reckoned as the preaching of noble truths; vassanto (raining) showering (or preaching), clarifying, opening, sharing, simplifying, he will turn out to be; thus, is the meaning.

263. The Glorious One, Gotama, the bull-man of the Sakyans, abhiññāya (by means of higher knowledge) having known by means of His distinguished knowledge, all these; bhikkhusaṅghe (in the congregation of bhikkhus), having sat Himself down in the midst of noble (ariya) individuals; aggaṭṭhāne (at the top place, will establish him in the highest place of one who has particular pleasure in such mass of qualities as entire knowledge and so on; thus, is the connection.

264. Having thus obtained the prophesy, he became good-hearted (or delighted), and making his joyously solemn utterance by way of zest and delight, uttered this stanza beginning with: Aho me sukatam kammam and so on. There, Aho is an indeclinable particle to express astonishment; Satthuno (of the Master), of the Glorious One Anomadassī, the Teacher; sukatam (well-done) properly done, having believed and made; kammam (deed) the share of merit is indeed, alas! wonderfully powerful, unthinkably; thus, is the meaning Yassa (whose) of the Glorious One; ahaṃ karam (I, making) having done the accumulation of merit; sabbattha, (everywhere), in the mass of all qualities;pāramim (perfection) entire end; gato, (gone) attained the absolute limit;O indeed! That Glorious One is wonderful! Thus, is the connection.

265. Aparimeyyo (immeasurable) the good deed done during the period of time beyond calculation; me (my) idha, in his last and final existence; phalam (fruit) showed the result. Sumutto (well emancipated) properly released, jhāpayim (I caused to burn), I set fire to all my depravities (kilesa), by the fruition of that merit like unto the speed of arrow shot by the clever archer; thus, is the meaning.

266. Making manifest his own exertion even, he uttered this stanza starting with Asaṅkhataṃ. There, asaṅkhataṃ (uncreated), is not self-made; not done due to causes;thus, is the meaning. Acalam padam gavesanto (seeding the unshakable path), in my quest for that uncreated Nibbāna, by means of absence of the obscurity of depravity and by the sense of establishment of accumulated good-deeds; sabbe titthiye (all heretics) all the individuals, who set up heresy, and brought about wrong views; vicinam (investigating), closely checking, esāham (this I); bhave (the existences) such existences as the sensual world and so on;saṃsāriṃ (underwent rebirths) I thoroughly rolled round; thus, is the connection.

267.8 Making manifest his own meaning, he uttered this stanza beginning with:- Yathā pi byādhito poso. There, byādhito (diseased) is oppressed with ailment; poso (man) a person, just as a sick man would seek medicinal remedy, so also I, seeking Nibbāna, the uncreated path of immortality, abbokiṇṇam (not mixed down) without any break, uninterruptedly, without interval, pañcasatam (five hundred) I did the renunciation of hermithood in five hundred of my rebirths or existences; thus, is the connection.

271. Kuttitthe sañcarim ahaṃ (I went through rounds of rebirths at a bad landing place) I wandered round the travelling road at the sinful landing-place.

272. Sāratthiko poso (essence-desiring man) a man who is the seeker of essence. Kadalim chetvāna phālaye (having cut plantain, he would burst open) having cut off the trunk of banana tree, he would split it into two; Na tattha sāram vindeyya (he would not obtain essence there) having split it also, he would not get or gain essence there, in the banana trunk, however' that man is ritto (devoid of) empty of essence thus, is the connection.

273. Just as the banana trunk is ritto (devoid of) empty of essence, tatheva (so also) even likewise, in the world, titthiyā (heretics) many people who follow different wrong views are rittā (devoid of) empty of Nibbāna, the uncreated; thus, is the connection. The word: se is but an indeclinable particle (nipāta).

274. Pacchimabhave (in the last existence) in the final-most birth, brahmabandhu (relative of Brahmā) I was born in a brahmin family;thus, is the meaning; mahābhogamchāḍḍetvāna (having discarded large wealth), having thrown away the mighty mass of wealth as if it were a lump of saliva; anāgāriyam (houseless life), devoid or shorn of such occupations as ploughing trading and so on, pabbajiṃ (I became a recluse) entered upon the renunciation of hermithood; thus, is the meaning.

The commentary on the first recital occasion has ended.

275.7. Ajjhāyako:- munim mone samāhitam, The reciter.. etc.... the sage whose mind is properly or absorbedly concentrated in knowledge. Mona is said to be knowledge or intelligence (ñāṇa);(mona) the mind well concentrated, properly placed in that knowledge (mona);thus, is the meaning. One is a nāga (elephant) because he does not do evil reckoned as offence (āgu); the thera Assaji; that great elephant (mahānāga), shining gracefully similar to flowering lotus, blooming properly; thus, is the meaning.

278-281. Disvā me pucchitum amotam padam, Having seen by me.. etc... to ask about the immortal path. The meaning is but clear.

282. Vithintare is: vithi antare, inside the street; anuppattam (arrived after), that thera who had gone near and reached; upagantvāna (having approached), I went near and asked; thus, is the connection.

284. Kīdisam te mahāvīra (O Great hero! How are they like?) O Great hero, you, who had attained arahatship, when the wheel of dhamma was first turned, inside (or amidst) the arahats, in the dispensation; O All-firm Man! Mahāyasa te (Great fame to you) because of resembling having many followers or much retinue in which how like you are unto Buddha! Sāsanam dhammam (dispensation doctrine) the dispensation reckoned as preaching of dhamma; thus, is the connection. Bho, friend! Good Face! bhadramukha! me, my; sādhu, well, the good dispensation or teaching;kathayassu, kathehi, you please speak (or say); thus, is the meaning.

285. thereafter in order to show the character of speech or preaching, uttered this stanza, starting with so me puṭṭho. There so (he), is the thera Assaji; me, by me, puṭṭho (asked), when spoken to thus: “How is the dispensation or teaching like?”, he preached the whole teaching (or discourse). Gambhīram (deep), the whole preaching or dispensation being profound in meaning; gambhīram (profound), because of the depth for penetrating the dhamma preached by Buddha; nipuṇampadam (subtle path, Nibbāna) which is subtle by way of ascertainment of perfectly significant noble truth, etc.; hantāram (killing) doing the destruction of the thorn of craving desire, and of the entire misery of rounds of rebirths;apanudanam (uprooting) have the nature (dhamma), of being thrown away; thus, is the connection.

286. In order to show the character of preaching by him, he uttered this stanza, starting with ye dhammā. hetuppabhāvā (origination from cause) which was particularly born, ordinarily born, properly produced had become, happened, sprung up from cause, and circumstance; dhammā (whichever things) whichever, things of nature along with causes, are present, do exist, obtain; thus, is the connection. Tesam (their) of the dhamma, hetum, cause circumstance; āha (said) the Tathāgata preached. Tesañca yo nirodho, (whatever cessation of tem also) whatever cessation, the nature of coming to an end of those which are subject to cause; evam vādī mahāsamano (the great Monk is such a speaker) the Glorious One was the Great Monk, Mahāsamaṇa, because of the greatness of his retinue of such qualities as precepts (sīla), concentration (samādhi), knowledge or wisdom (paññā) and so on, because of the cessation of his evils and because of the complete destruction of his evils, was the speaker in this wise, spoke so, because He was in the habit of speaking such sayings as the entire cessation of causes and so on;thus, is the meaning.

287. thereafter, having heard the dhamma that was spoken or preached to him, he recited this stanza, beginning with so'ham in order to show the character of what was done by himself at that present (or seen) moment. That is but clear.

289. Es'eva dhammo yaditāvadeva (In case this self-same dhamma is that much only) should there be nothing beyond this, to this very extent, this very fruition of the first noble righteous path (sotāpatti), ought to be attained. Like-wise is but this dhamma even; thus, is the meaning. Paccabyatha, padam, the path, you all penetrate into the anxiety-free Nibbāna. This path had not but been seen for such a long period of time as many aeons (kappa), counted by nahuta, namely, by us.

290. Y'āham dhammam gavesento is: yo ahaṃ, this I, seeking dhamma, going in search of, in quest of the dhamma of tranquil path; kutitthe (on the bad landing place) on the despicable landing place, on the blamable landing place; sañcarim (I had wandered myself), rolled myself round; thus, is the meaning. So me attho anuppatto (that desire of mine had materialised), that welfare (or benefit) which ought to be sought for had been appropriately attained and reached by me; now, me, my, nappamajjitum (not to forget (or) be negligent) it is time to become diligent; thus, is the meaning.

291. Tosito (gladdened) I was made delighted by the thera Assaji, acalam patvāna (having attained the unshakable) having attained Nibbāna, the never shakable; sahāyakam, the associate, the lad Kolita; gavesanto (seeking) i went to the basic recluses' residence in search of; thus, is the meaning.

292. Dūrato va mamam disvā (Having seen me from afar even) having seen me coming from afar even from his basic recluses' residence; me (my) the well-disciplined companion of mine; sampanno (endowed with) being replete with such postures as standing, sitting and so on; idam (this), the above would-be-said words, abravi (spoke), said; thus, is the meaning.

293. O Associate! Pasanna mukhanettosi (you are with clear pleasant face and eyes) you are endowed with pleasant, graceful, brilliantly shining face and eyes. Dissati (seen), in you there looms large like unto the state of a sage; amatādhigato, (achieved immortality), certainly definite, you must have achieved Nibbāna, the immortal peace;kacci accutam padam have you in any way made for the immortal path?, I ask you thus: “Has Nibbāna, the immortal path, been achieved by you?” -thus, is the meaning.

294. Xubhānurūpo āyāsi (you have come looking pleasant) having become similar to one of graceful and pleasing complexion, you have come and reached here. Āneñjakārito viya, as if made imperturbable, like unto the unperturbed elephant, done by such weapons as: the lance of an elephant driver and so on; danto va (but tamed) as if well-disciplined for three months; brāhmaṇa danto damatho (subdued and tamed brahmin) because of having driven out evil, he is a brahmin, trained in discipline, he asked: are you well tranquillised in the path of Nibbāna?

295. When asked by him, Sāriputta replied: Amatam mayā, by me the immortality, and so on. That is but clear.

299. Apariyositasaaṅkappo (not completely ended intention) the intention not yet materialised, the extreme end of the aspiration, aspired thus:- “May I become chief disciple, of a Buddha, in future” thus, is the meaning. Kutitthe, (bad landing) the journey or road that ought not to be gone; ahaṃ sañcarim (I wandered myself) rolled about myself. venerable Gotama! O Eldest of the world! āgamma (come) I have arrived here to see you, and having come, mama saṅkappo (my intention) my aspiration; pūrito (fulfilled) I am now completely filled with the attainment of the knowledge of disciples perfection with the achievement of the right path of noble arahatship; thus, is the meaning.

300. Pathaviyam patiṭṭhāya (established on the earth) being born on earth, samaye (at the time) in the cold season, pupphanti (bloom) flower; dibbagandhā (divine fragrance) good and excellent scent; pavanti (blow) bring breeze, emit;sabbapāṇīnam (to all beings) all human and divine beings;tosenti (gladden), as if they make to be associated with mental pleasure.

301. Tathevāham mahāvīra (Likewise even I, o Great hero!) O you who have great retinue, Son of Sakyan family, possessed of enormous exertion! Te (your) in your dispensation;patiṭṭhāya (having established myself) I stood; pupphitum (to blossom) to flower with the knowledge of the righteous path of noble arahatship; samayam, time, esāmi (I seek) likewise even, I shall go inquest; thus, is the connection.

302. Vimuttipuppham (the flower of emancipation) the flower reckoned as the emancipation of the fruit of righteous noble arahatship, because of being released from and becoming free from all kinds of depravity (kilesa), one gets, emancipation (vimutti); esanto (seeking) going in search of, that, also indeed, bhavasamsāramocanam (escape from the rounds of rebirths) going, wandering oneself in such existences as sensual existence and so on is: wandering round the existences (bhavasamsāra) escape from it is: escape from rounds of repeated rebirths; vimuttipupphalābhena (with the gain of fruit of escape or emancipation) either escaping the escape, or accumulation done by this, is: emancipation or escape, the topmost fruit; the guidable (or leadable) bloom and flower by this, thus, is flower; the flower of freedom even, is the flower of emancipation; the getting is gain, the getting of the flower of freedom is the gaining of emancipation flower; with that gaining of freedom flower and achievement, sabbapāṇīnam (all living beings) tosemi (I gladden), I make for them attainment of delight; thus, is the meaning.

303. “Yāvatā Buddhakhettamhi” “(as far as Buddha's field)” and so on. Here, cakkhuma (O Possessor of Eye) O Possessor of five kinds of eyes! As far as the place where the power and influence of such paritta, protective incantations, as Ratana Sutta, Gem-like discourse, and so on turn out to be so far and wide in the field of Buddha, reckoned as a hundred thousand crores of universes (cakkavāḷa); ṭhapetvāna Mahāmunim (putting the Great Sage) aside, avoiding the Self-enlightened or Omniscient buddha, no one else amongst the remaining living-beings; tava puttassa (of your son) with me, your son; paññāya sadiso (resembling in knowledge) there is no equal; thus, is the connection. The rest is but easy or clear.

308. Paṭipannā (properly attained) replete with four right noble paths (magga) also phalaṭṭhā (stood in the fruition) also established in the fruition of arahatship; sekhaphalasamaṅgino (initiated, and endowed with fruition) also endowed with three lower fruitions, these eight categories of noble bhikkhus; uttamattham (the most excellent benefit) Nibbāna; āsīsatā (aiming at) seeking for; tam (that) the possessor of knowledge; parivārenti sadā (always surrounded) at all times they approach, serve and attend upon; thus, is the meaning.

310. kusalā (clever) expert in the four foundations of mindfulness reckoned as, seeing the body, sensation, mind and dhamma, with spiritual insight; bhāvanāya (by developing) by increasing the seven elements of self-enlightenment beginning with mindfulness as element of self-enlightenment; ratā (delighted) adhered to.

314. Ulurājāva (like the star-sovereign) it shines also like unto the king of stars and planets.

315. Dharaṇīruhā (riding on the ground) trees, the earth or ground is dharaṇī, because it bears trees, hills, gems, living beings and so on; riding on, growing, increasing or prospering on the earth or ground is dharaṇīruhā trees; ruhanti (ride on) having properly established or stood on the ground, they increase and proceed to develop and grow up, Vepullatam (the state of prosperity) the condition of being full all round pāpuṇanti, attained; te (they) those trees, in succession, phalam dassayanti (show fruits) become fruit-bearers.

317.9. Again also, praising the glorious One in the self-same manner, uttered this stanza, starting with Sindhu sarassatī. there such names as Sindhu and so on, such names as Gaṅgā and Sarassatī, and such names as Gaṅgā and Yamunā, also are rivers; sandsamānānam (flowing) going; etāsam (of these) of the rivers; sāgaro va (like the ocean) the ocean even; Sampaṭicchati (consents) accepts, bears; at that time, then, all these rivers; purimam nāmam (former name) such previous name, designation, terminology as Sindhu, etc., Ganges and so on; jahanti (forsake) discard; sāgaro teva (as sagara only) even as the ocean;ñāyati (known) just as become evident. Tatheva (likewise) even as that time catubbaṇṇā (the four colours) four families reckoned as princely warrior, brahmin, mercantile trader and common cultivator; tavantike (in your presence) your vicinity, nearby; pabbajitvā (having become monks) wandering round as bearers of begging bowls and yellow robes; purimam nāmam (former name) designation word bearing such names as princely warrior and so on; jahanti (forsake) cast off; buddhaputtā (buddha's sons) bosom children of Buddha; ñāraye, known, would become evidently clear.

320.4. Cando (moon) the disc of moon; Vimalo (stainless) free from impurities, devoid of dirt, because of having got rid of such five clinging corruptions (kilesa), as clouds, earth fumes, dust, smoke, saturn or eclipse;ākāsa dhātuyā (in the sky-element) in the womb of the sky;gaccham (going) travelling; sabbe (all) the collection of stars, atirocati (outshines) just as it shines with brilliance in the world, treading upon or overwhelming by its light; tatheva (even likewise) you are like that.

325.7. Udake jātā (born in water) kumuda and mandālaka lotus flowers which develop themselves in water; bahū (many) beyond calculation; toyena (with water) with soft-soil muddy water; upalimpanti (smear) just as they adhere to or stick to; so also bahukāsattā (many creatures) incalculable living beings in the world; jātā (born) developed or increased aṭṭitā (attacked or harassed) bound by lust and anger; virūhare (ride) mount; just as the lotus flower rides, springs up by itself in the mud; kesarī (lotus) name of lily.

329.30. Rammake māse (Rammaka month) in the month of kattika, because it has been said. “The four-months period of Kumuda lotuses”. Vārijā (products of water) paduma lotus flowers and so on; bahū (many) flowers; pupphanti (bloom) flower; tam māsam (that month) the water-born lotus flowers do not turn out to be beyond that kattika month; thus, is the connection. Samayo pupphanāya so (that is the flowering time) that kattika month, is the time and season for (blossomed) just as lotuses bloom, likewise, O Son of the Sakyan! you became blossomed. Pupphito te vimuttiyā (blossomed for your emancipation) those pupils of yours, bhikkhus who had made their accumulation of means for freedom, bloomed and flowered with the knowledge of fruition of arahatship. Nātivattanti (do not occur beyond) do not go beyond the admonition and advice in the teaching or dispensation of yours, likewise, just as the water-born paduma lotus flower does not go beyond the flowering season;thus, is the meaning.

33.4. Yathā pi Selo Himavā (just as also the stony Himavā hill) the hill made of stone Himavā, by name; sabbapāṇinam (of all creatures), to all living-beings, afflicted with ailment; osadho (medicine) of all dragons, of all titans, of all divinities, possessing medicine;ālayo (resting place) just as has become a house; likewise, O Great Hero! You resemble medicine because you made for the escape of all living beings from such sickness as old age, disease, death, and so on; just as that Himavā hill is the resting place or house of dragons and so on, likewise, pāramim gatā (having gone to perfection) attained the three kinds of wisdom (vijjā), six kinds of higher knowledge (abhiññā), and magical powers (iddhi), live depending upon you; thus, is the connection. either below or above, methods of connection of stanzas, one should know clearly well, by way of similes and examples.

342. Āsayānusayam ñatvā; here, āsaya (desire) is keen desire,practice; anusaya (chronic condition) the depravity that had gone strong, having known the ordinary desire, chronic desire and occurrence of depravity, with such a remark as: “This one is lust-addict”, this one is the meaning. Indriyānam balābalam (strength and weakness of controlling faculties) having known the strength and weakness in such a way as: whether the candidate is to be easily made to understand or otherwise, i.e. difficulty, of good of bad symptoms of sharp or soft faculties in such five controlling or developable faculties as the faculty of clear piety (saddhā) and so on. Bhabbābhabbe vidivāna (having known the possible and impossible) having known and made self-seen thus: “This person is possibly able to properly penetrate into the truth (dhamma) preached by me, this person is not possible”, Venerable Omniscient buddha! Like the great fourisland rain, You gajjasi (thundered) made a great roaring voice, unanimously echoing the whole universe (cakkavāḷa), with the fearless roar, with the roar of a lion of preaching truth (dhamma). 343.4. Cakkavāḷapariyantā (extreme boundary of the universe) the audience would be seated filling up the womb or surface of the universe (cakkavāḷa), on all sides. Nānā diṭṭhi (different heresy-holders) having thus seated, they who held many a view, disputing, entered into controversy, having become two factions or divisions (dveḷhaka); Vimaticchedanāya (for cutting off doubt) for the purpose of cutting down that bad intelligence of their; sabbesam (of all) of all living beings, cittamaññāya (having known the mind) knowing the propensity of their mind; opammakusala (clever in illustration) the expert in similes and examples; ekam pañham kathento va (just speaking of one problem) by answering but a single question, vimatim chindati (cut away doubt) made doubtless the doubts of living beings, seated on the surface of the whole universe (cakkavāḷa) thus, is the meaning.

345. Upadisasadiseheva, indeed even like the aquatic plant or moss (upadisa); here, seen and become clearly evident above water;thus, it is moss (upadisā), aquatic plant (sevālā); identical with moss are human-beings, resembling moss (upadisa); just as, indeed, moss and aquatic plants are stationed, having spread themselves over the water, making water, making water unseeable, so also vasudhā (earth) the earth would become filled by the establishment after having spread or stretched out without intervening interval by those human beings, resembling those moss even;pañjalikā (clasp-hand) with clasped hands raised on head; kittayum lokanāyakam (eulogised the world-patron) would speak of the qualities of Buddha, the protector of the world.

346. Te (they) all human and divine beings; kappamya (world or), the whole worldperiod (kappa); Kittayanta, eulogising, speaking of qualities also; nānāvaṇṇehi (with varieties of colours) they eulogised with different varieties of qualities; in spite of that also, they all parimetum (to measure) to speak of the quantity of qualities, napappeyum (would not make reach) would not arrive well, would not be able;appameyyo tathāgato (the Tathāgata is immeasurable) the Self-enlightened Omniscient buddha is all round immeasurable, He has many a quality; by this, he illuminates the greatness of buddha's qualities.

347. Sakena thāmena (with one's own strength) by means of his own vigour, by way of similes and examples, below; jino (conqueror) Buddha who had conquered depravity (kilesa), mayā kittiyo (eulogised by me) just as He had been praised by me, kittentā pakittayum (would eulogise in praising) exactly in the same way, all celestial and human beings would speak in praise for crores of world-periods (or aeons) and for hundred crores of world cycles; thus, is the meaning.

348. again also in order to light up the immeasurableness of Buddha's qualities, he uttered this stanza, starting with: Sace hi koci devo vā, pūritam parikāḍḍheyya filled and drawn towards surroundings, the filled up water in the great ocean would pull itself to all surrounding sides; so (he) that person, vighātam, death, misery (dukkha), even; labheyya, would attain or arrive at; thus, is the meaning.

350. Vattemi jinasāsanam (I keep turning the teaching (or dispensation) of the conqueror) I keep turning and turning and look after the entire three piṭakas, preached by the conqueror; thus, is the meaning. Dhammasenāpati (the generalissimo of truth) he is the prominent lord of assembly, reckoned as the Glorious One's fourfold assembly (or audience), by his knowledge of truth (dhamma); thus, he is the commander-in-chief of truth (dhammasenāpati), Sākyaputtassa, (of Sākya's) son, in the dispensation or preaching of the Glorious One; ajja (now) in this current occasion, I guard the entire dispensation of the Buddha similar to the eldest son of a world-king.

352.3. In order to show his own rolling round of repeated rebirths, he uttered this starting with: Yo kocimanujo bhāram. Manujo (man) any bhāram (load) head load; matthake (on the head) placed on his head; dhāreyya (would bear) would take; sadā at all times, bhārena dukkhito (distressed by load) that man, being oppressed and overwhelmed by that load (or burden); assa (would be) burden, borne load, burdened; exceedingly burdened. Tathā (like that) by that manner, I, being burnt by three kinds of fire, reckoned as the fire of lust, anger and delusion, girim uddharito yathā (just as the hill had been held up) having lifted up, held up and placed the mighty meru mountain on my head; bhavabhārena (by the burden of existence) with the burden of springing up in the cycle of existences; bhārito (had been burdened) distressed in the existences, saṃsāriṃ (I went through the rounds of rebirths) I rolled myself round; thus, is the connection.

354. Oropito ca me bhāro (my burden had been dropped down also) now, beginning from the time of my becoming monk, that burden of existence had been dropped and thrown down. bhavā ugghātitā mayā (existences had been killed by me) all new existences had been crushed by me; Sākyaputtassa (of the Sakyan son) in the dispensation of the Glorious One Karaṇīyam (that ought to be done) whatever should be done by a series of right noble paths (magga) there is the work of smashing up the depravity (kilesa), all that had been done by me;thus, is the meaning.

355. Again, in order to show his own distinction, he uttered the stanza, beginning with: Yāvatā Buddhakhettamhi. There, yāvatā (as far as) as extensive as all over Buddha's field, reckoned as the ten thousand universes (cakkavāḷa), sekyapuṅgavam (the Sakyan man-bull) having placed (or left aside) the Glorious One, the eldest in the families of Sakya, no one else, among the remaining living beings, me (with me) is equal to me in knowledge or wisdom; thus, he illuminates. Therefore, Buddha said: “I am topmost in knowledge; similar to me, there does not exist.”

356. Again, to make evidently clear, is own power or influence, he uttered this stanza, starting with samādhimhi. That would be well understood only.

360. Jhānavimokkhānakhippapaṭilābhī (quick gainer of jhāna and emancipation) is: He attains quickly being quick getter of such jhānas as the first stage of success fully effective meditation, and so on, and of the eight kinds of transcendental emancipation which had gone to be reckoned as escape (vimokkha), due to freedom from the ordinary world.

362. In order to make clearly evident his possession of abundant respect towards his own fellow holy-life leaders, in spite of his having great power or influence, he uttered this stanza, starting with Uddhataviso va. There, Uddhataviso (poison-taken off) like the venomous snake with its violent venom extracted; chinnavisāṇova (like horn cut off) like the bovine bull, whose horns are cut off, I, now nikkhittamānadappo va (even having thrown down pride and arrogance or wantonness) simply with discarded clan-conceit, etc., pride and arrogance, gaṇam (group) to (or in) the presence of the clergy; garugāravena (with solemn respect), with much measure of reverence; upemi (I approach) I go near.

363. Now, in order to make the greatness of his own knowledge clearly evident, he uttered this stanza beginning with Yadi rūpinī. My knowledge is so great that, though it is formless, should it be with form, then that knowledge of mine world be vasupatīnam sameyya (equal to lord of land) reigning monarchs of earth; thus, is the meaning. Having thus shown the greatness of his own knowledge, thereafter, remembering his form bodes, uttered this stanza, beginning with Anomadassissa. There, this greatness is knowledge of mine is the result or fruition of the praise made by me of the knowledge of the Glorious One Anomadassī; thus, is the meaning.

364. Pavattitam dhammacakkam (the wheel of truth (dhamma), was turned) here, this word cakka, however, turns out to be with regard to such conveyance or transport as: “catucakkayāna, four-wheeled carriage”, and so on; this is such Buddha's preaching as in: “Pavattite ca pana bhagavatā dhammacakke, when the wheel of truth was turned, however, by the Glorious One”, and so on; in such contexts as: “Cakkamvattaya sabbapānīnam, turning the wheel towards, or circle of distributing (food) to all living beings”, and so on, this word cakka is act of merit made of charitable offering; in such contexts as: “Cakkamvatteti ahorattam, cause to turn the wheel day and night”, and so on, it occurs, in postures; (iriyāpathe); in such contexts as: “Icchāhatassa posassa, cakkam bhamati matthake, the wheel rolls on the head of a man brought by his desire”, and so on, it occurs in, razor-wheel (khuracakka); in such contexts as: “Rājācakkavatti cakkānubhavena vattanako, the world-king who turns out to be, by means of the power of his wheel”, and so on, it occurs, in the wheel gem (ratanacakka), jewel-wheel; here, however, this word is with regard to Buddha's preaching (desanā). Tādinā (with such) by that wise! by one who is endowed with such qualities (tādi); Sakyaputtena (Sakya's Son) by the Selfenlightened Omniscient Buddha Gotama; pavattitam (turned) preached or pointed out; dhammacakkam (the wheel of truth) reckoned as three piṭakas, sammā (well) without distortion; anuvattemi (I turn after Buddha) I follow and turn, point out and make the preaching; idam (this) the follow-up turning, having gone after what had been preached, preaching afterwards, which is the result or fruition of my performance of praising the knowledge of previous Buddhas' thus, is the connection.

365. Thereafter, in order to show the result or fruition of such merit as reliance on good people, wise mental attention and so on, he uttered this stanza, starting with Mā me kadāci pāpiccho. There, pāpiccho (having evil desire) endowed with inferior or sinful desire; in the performance of different kinds of duties, and in such postures as standing, sitting and so on, also a person of evil conduct, Kūsito (lazy also) in doing such deeds as jhāna (effective meditation) concentration, development of right noble path and so on, hīnavīriyo (given up exertion also) because of absence of heavy duty of learning treatises and heavy duty of developing spiritual insight, appassuto (little learned) because of being bereft of good behaviour or practice among such personages as teacher, preceptor (upajjhāya), and so on, he is anācāra, a person without proper practice also; kadāci (sometimes) at times, katthaci (anywhere), in places; me (by me) together with me; sameto (come well) come together, mā ahu (let it not be) do not let it become; thus, is the connection.

366. Bahussuto (much learned) there are two kinds of much learned men by way of being learned in the treatises of teaching and proper penetration into the truths preached; medhāvī (wise) man) endowed with wise knowledge also; sīlesu susamāhito (well concentrated in the precepts) well-placed and established mind in such precepts as: the four perfectly pure precepts, the precept connected or associated with the right noble path, the eight fold precepts in observing fast, and so on; cetosamathānuyutto (devoted to tranquillising the mind) a person, who also is devoted to one and single state of mind; appmuddhani tiṭṭhatu (let him stand on my head even) let this alike man stand on the top of my head even; thus, is the meaning.

367. Having spoken about the benefits or advantages gained by himself, he uttered this stanza starting with Tam vo vadāmi bhaddante, urging others there,

368-9. Yamahaṃ, this I, paṭhamam (first) this I, having seen the thera Assaji for the first time (or on the first occasion); vimalo (stainless) devoid of impurities, because of having forsaken such kinds of depravity (kilesa), as self-heresy (sakkāya-diṭṭhi), and so on, due to the good gain of the first stage of sanctification (sotāpatti), ahum (was) I became; so (he) the thera Asajji, me (my), of mine; ācariyo (teacher) he was the trainer to me in transcendental truth (dhamma); I became the generalissimo of truth (dhamma), now, on account of his appropriate admonition by my listening to his teaching; sabbattha (everywhere) in all the qualities; pāramim patto (arrived at perfection) attained the extreme end;anāsavo (free from cankers) I live devoid of depravity, (kilesa).

370. In order to show his own respect (or reverence) in his own teacher he uttered this stanza, starting with: Yo me ācariyo. Yo (this) the thera named Assaji, the disciple of the master; me (my) my teacher; asi (was) he became; Yassam disāyam (whatever direction) in whatsoever quarter (or portion of direction) that thera dwells, ussīsamhi (I placed my head) I made that portion of direction (or quarter), the higher (or top) portion for my head; thus is the connection.

371. Thereafter, in order to show his own attainment of high position, he recited this stanza beginning with mama kammam Gotamo, the Glorious One; Sakya puṅgavo (the Bull Sakyan) the banner of the Sakyan family; saritvāna ( having known my deeds done formerly by means of His Omniscient knowledge, seated in the midst of congregation of bhikkhus, aggatthāne (in the top place) placed me in the position of His chief disciple; thus, is the connection.

374. Paṭisambhidāmagge (in the right noble path of analytical knowledge) these four kinds of analytical knowledge, namely: Atthapaṭisambhidā (analytical knowledge of meaning) dhammapaṭisambhidā (the analytical knowledge of text) niruttipaṭisambhidā (analytical knowledge of philology) paṭibhāṇa paṭisambhidā (analytical knowledge of ready reply) their variety has but been stated; sacchikatā (visualised) made self-seeing of, the eight kinds of exquisite escape (vimokkha) and the deeds (dhamma), conducive towards freedom from rounds of rebirths, as well as the six forms of higher knowledge, beginning with all kinds of magical powers (iddhividha) either by way of four right-noble paths and four noble fruitions or by way of form-jhāna and formless-jhāna; katam Buddhassa sāsanam (had carried out the Buddhas instruction) I had carried out and completed by means of my knowledge of Arahat's noble path the dispensation reckoned as Buddha's admonishing advice; thus, is the meaning.

Ittham sudam, thus; Here, ittham is indeclinable particle which means pointing out, with this variety; thus, is the meaning. Sudam, is an indeclinable particle in filling up a word; āyasmā (venerable) word of regard and respect; Sāriputto, the name of thera whose naming was made by way of mother's name; imā gāthāyo (these stanzas) he uttered, recited all these stanzas of the biography of the thera Sāriputta iti (thus) the word is an indeclinable particle in the meaning of creation of audience, the entire biography of Sāriputta has ended; thus, is the meaning.

The commentary on the biography of Sāriputta has ended.

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