Apadana commentary (Atthakatha)

by U Lu Pe Win | 216,848 words

This is the English translation of the commentary on the Apadana (Atthakatha), also known as the Visuddhajana-Vilasini. The Buddhist stories known as apadanas refer to biographies of Buddhas, Buddhist monks and nuns. They are found in the Pali Canon (Khuddaka Nikaya), which is the primary canon of Theravada Buddhism. Alternative titles: Visuddhaja...

Introduction (commentary on the first stanza)

Therefore, to sing together the biography (apadāna) unremittingly and being asked: "Friend Ānanda! Where was the biography (apadāna) of silent buddhas (pacceka Buddha), promulgated?" Venerable Ānanda said:-

83. The expression suṇātha is to be understood as the spoken word to make manifest by way of coming up into existence and being born, statement is made as: "Tathāgatam Jetavane Vasantam and so on. There vasantam is to be understood as: dwelling with either four kinds of postures and living like divinities, brahmās and arahats in the monastery known in such a way that goes by the name of a Jeta prince; just as previous Buddhas beginning with Vipassī, came after having fulfilled all together thirty perfections, so also, our Glorious One have come and therefore He is Tathāgata. That Tathāgata who was dwelling at Jetavana; thus, is the connection. Vedehamuni is to be comprehended as: She is vedehī, resident of videha, because she was born in the kingdom of videha;because he is the son of Vedehī, he is Vedehiputta; although it should be said as 'Vedehiputtamuni' because he is not only the son of Videha lady but also a sage (muni); due to the rule of grammar, beginning with "Vaṇṇagāmo, arrival of a syllable (or an alphabet)", elision is done not only of the vowel 'i' but also its meaning, namely, the word 'putta', son; and statement is made as: 'vedehamuni, the sage of Videha. The venerable Ānanda, placed as top-most (etadagga), thus: "O Monks! of all my disciples, bhikkhus who possess mindfulness (sati), firmness (dhīti), speech (gati), much learning (bahussuta), and devotion to duty d(upaṭṭhāka), this, namely, Ānanda is the chief;" nataṅgo is to be understood as body-member being bent and being with clasped hands, apucchi, asked: "Venerable Sir! What like hermit are they, paccekabuddhā nāma, namely, silent buddhas? This is the connection. Te, those, silent buddhas, Kehihetubhi, with what causes, under what circumstances, bhavanti (do they become) arise. Vīra, O Hero! Thus, the Glorious One was addressed.

84-85. Thence, subsequently, in order to show the indication of answer, said: "Tadāham sabbhññu varo mahesi, then the excellent omniscient great sage said and so on. Here the expression: Sabbaññuvaro is to be understood as: Sabbaññu, omniscience is thus: He knows all such divisions of time, as past time and so on, like unto a fresh hand (hatthāmalaka); that very omniscience is excellent as well as best; mahesi (the great sage) is he who seeks and goes in quest of great mass of precepts, mass of meditation, mass of knowledge, mass of emancipation and mass of intuitive insight of knowledge of emancipation. Āha, said, tadā (then) at that time of asking, Ānanda bhaddam, good Ānanda, with sweet voice; thus, is the connection. O Ānanda! these silent buddhas, pubbabuddhesu, formerly at the time of previous Buddhas;Katādhikārā (having done service) having made accumulation of good deeds; Jinasasānesu aladdha mokkhā (were without getting emancipation in the dispensations of conquerors) had not attained nibbāna; te dhira (they) all the silent buddhas; idha (here) in this world (loka); Samvegamukhena (with remorseful face) after making strenuous effort individually all alone, became silent buddhas; thus, is the meaning. Sutikkhapaññā is to be understood as properly sharp knowledge. Vinā pi Buddhehi, is to be interpreted as: although bereft of Buddhas' advice and admonitions; parittakenapi, even to a small extent; ārammanena paccekabodhim, silent buddhahood with visualisation, anupāpuṇanti (they accordingly attained) accordingly penetrated the enlightenment (bodhi), in between the appearances of Buddhas, each for himself such as enlightenment (bodhi), individually.

86. Sabbamhi lokamhi (all over the world), in the entire three lokas; mamam thapetvā (beside me) barring me: natthi, there is no one, pacceka buddhehi samova, even equal to the silent buddhas; tesam mahāunīham of those great sages, of the silent buddhas; imamvaṇṇam, this description, this qualification; padesamattam (briefly) to the extent of abridgement; aham sādhu vakkhāmi (I say) I shall speak to you properly; thus, is the meaning.

87. being without teachers, sayameva buddhānam, of the silent buddhas becoming by themselves only, mahāisīam amongst ascetics who accordingly penetrated into buddhahood by themselves only;madhū va khuddam, like a small honey-comb; sādhūni vākyāni (good sentences) sweet joyous expressions; anuttaram bhesajjam patthayantā (aspiring for unsurpassable medicine) desiring the medicine-like nibbāna which is bereft of any superior; sabbe (all) you all; supasannacittā, being of well-pleased mind; suṇātha (listen) bear it in your mind; thus, is the meaning.

88-89. Paccekabuddhānam samāgatānam (of the silent buddhas, who have come together) the silent buddhas who have appeared and become a group: Ariṭṭha, Upariṭṭha, Tagarasikhi, Yasassī, Sudassana, Piyadassī, Gandhāra, Piṇḍola, Upāsabha, Nitha, Tatha, Sutavā, Bhāvitatta, Sumbha, Subha, methula, Aṭṭhama, Sumedha, Anīgha, Sudāṭha, Hiṅgu, Hiṅga, two Jālinās, Aṭṭhaka, Kosala, Subābu, Upanemisa, nemisa, Santacitta, Sacca, Tatha, Viraja, Paṇḍita, Kāla, Upakāla, Vijita, Jita, Aṅga, Paṅga, Guttijjita, Passī, Jahī, Upadhi, Dukkhamūla, Aparājita, Sarabhaṅga, lomahamsa, Uccaṅgamāua, Asita, Anāsava, Manomaya, Mānacchida, Bandhumā, tadādhimutta, Vimala, Ketumā, Kotumbaraṅga, Mātaṅga, Ariysa, Accuta, Accutagāmi, Byāmaka, Sumaṅgala, Dibbila, and so on. Yāni the biographies (apadāna) of the hundred silent buddhas, paramparam, in succession, one after another; byākaranāni, biographies, which comprise whatever were ādīnavo yañ ca virāgavatthum, defects and which ever were stories of detachment, doing deeds of uncovetiousness; Yathā, in whatever manner, by whatever circumstance (or cause), bodhim anupāpuṇimsu, attained bodhi accordingly, made the knowledge of four right paths to nibbāna seen personally by attaining silent buddhahood. Sarāgavatthusu, in things with attachment, in sensual pleasures comprising material (vatthu), pleasures of sense and sinful pleasures of sense (kilesa), in things which are liable to get well coveted for, virāgasaññī (possess detached perception having the perception of detachment, rattamhi lokamhi (in the world of attachment) in the natural world of covetousness, virattacittā (being of detached mind) being uncovetous-minded, hitvā papance abandoning the papañcas, having abandoning the papañcas, having abandoned sinful depravity (kilesa), considered as papañca, factors for elongation of existences (or repeated rebirths), comprising lust (rāga papañca), anger (dosapapañca), all sinful forms of depravity (sabbakilesa papañca); jiya phanditāni (having conquered shaken-views) having defeated the shaken sixtytwo courses of wrong views;tatheva (even in that manner) with that doing in this way; bodhim aunpāpuṇimsu (accordingly attained bodhi), they made within their own sight the knowledge of silent buddhas; thus, is the meaning.

90-91. sabbesu bhūtesu nidhāya daṇḍam, having laid down the stick (or weapon) towards all living beings, having let it stand by laying down the equipage of threatening, splitting open, and killing; tesam (their) amongst all living creature; avihethayam without harassing, without oppressing and making miserable; mettena cittena, with loving mind, with mind accompanied by loving kindness thinking thus: "May all beings be happy; hitānukampī (sympathetic towards welfare) the nature of sympathy with a sense of welfare. In other words, sabbesu bhūtesu nidhāya daṇdam can be interpreted as:- sabbesu (in all) this word encompasses entirely without remainder all and sundry because of entirety and everything totally; bhūtesu, in the bhūtas, bhūtas, are said to be minor (tasā) and major (thāvarā), transitory and permanent;those whose thirst, craving desire have not been forsaken; whose danger and horror have not been discarded; they are transitory (tasā). Why are they said to be tasā? They are thirsty they are alarmed, they are tormented, they are afraid and they get into shock; on that account they are said to be tasā. Whose ever's thirst and craving have been forsaken, whose ever's dangers and horrors also have been discarded, they are permanent (thāvarā); On what account are they said to be permanent (thāvarā)? They are firm, they are not shaky, they are not alarmed, they are not tormented, they are not afraid, they do not get shocked; on that account, they are stable (thāvarā).

91.1. Three weapons are: physical weapon, verbal weapon and mental weapon. Three kinds of bodily mis-deed is physical weapon; four kinds of vocal bad deed is verbal weapon; three kinds of mental misdeed is mental weapon. The explanation for the expression: sabbesu bhūtesu nidhāya daṇḍam is: placing down, dropping down, making those three kinds of weapons out of reach, safely, by throwing them away, allaying all and entire living beings and creatures, and not taking the weapons for purposes of harassing any living beings and creatures, and not taking the weapons for purposes of harassing any living creature. The expression: avihethauam aññataram tesam is to be understood thus:- not hurting living creatures, even a single one or another either with the palm of the hand, or by a clod of earth, or with a stick, or with a knife, or with a fetter or with a rope; not oppressing all the living beings and any one of them also, either with the palm of the hand, or by a clod of earth, or with a stick, or with a knife, or with a chain or with a rope. In the Pāli expression: na puttamiccheyya kuto sahāyam, the word na is negative particle indicating rejection, puttam (son) refers to four kinds of sons: son, born of oneself; son's own field; son given by others, and son living within one's household. The word sahāyam companion, sahāya is said to be he with whom it is congenial to go together; going congenially (phāsu), standing congenially, sitting congenially, calling congenially, conversing congenially, calling out congenially; the statement: one should not want a son whence a companion, refers to: One should not desire a son, nor should accept as let there be a con, one should not aspire for a son, one should not long for (or covet) a son, one should not strive after a son; whence a friend, or friend seen together or eating together, or an associate (or companion) should be desired accepted, aspired for, coveted, (or strived for); thus, is a son not desired, whence a companion. the expression: ekocare khaggavisāṇkappo is to be understood thus: that silent Buddha, because he is reckoned as having renounced by becoming a monk, he is single;because he stands alone without a second he is one; because it means that he has forsaken craving desire (taṇhā), he is single; definitely he is free from lust (rāga), he is thus one and single; sure-enough he is free from hatred (dosa), he is thus one and single; surely he is free from delusion (moha), he is thus one and single; certainly he is free from depravity (kilesa), he is thus one and single; he has gone the right path of single approach, he is thus one and single; he has all along attained the unsurpassable silent buddhahood, having been perfectly enlightened, he is thus one and single.

91.2 How is that silent Buddha, because he is reckoned as having renounced by becoming a monk, (he) is single? Indeed, that silent Buddha, having cut off all impediments (or drawbacks) of household life, having severed the hinderance of wife and children, having cut off obstacles of relatives, friends and storing up, having shaved off his hair and beard, covered up his body with yellow garments, left his house, renounced the world to lead a houseless life, went towards the stage of having nothing, wanders alone only, lives singly, moves alone, functions solely, looks after, goes about and keeps himself going all alone. Thus, that silent Buddha is in this way single, because he is reckoned as having renounced and become a monk.

91.3. how is that silent Buddha one and single because he stands alone or because of the meaning: without a second? When he has thus become a monk, he indulges all alone in woody forest-jungles, jungle-road or out-of-the-way monasteries, where there are few sounds, which are noiseless, free from peoples' breath, (janavāta), lying unknown (or secretly) to men, and appropriate for solitude. He stands alone, goes singly, sits solely, makes his lying down all alone, enters alone a village for alms-food, makes departure singly, sits in solitude alone, walks to and for solely, wanders, lives, moves about, functions, looks after, goes about and keeps himself going all alone. Thus, he is one and single in this way without a second.

91.4. how is that silent Buddha one or single by the abandonment of craving desire (taṇhā)? He, singly without a second, living diligently, burning his depravity (kilesa), with his mind directed towards nibbāna, making his great effort, crushed Māra, kinsman of negligence, dark-black enemy who spares nobody (namuci), together with his army, discarded, dispelled and abolished the tangled craving desire (taṇhā), which is far-reaching (visaritam) and adhering (visattika).

Undergoing repeated rebirths for a long period of time, craving desire (taṇhā), is a second man. One does not overcome (or do away with) repeated rebirths, the condition of being a desirable one or otherwise. Having known this defect, craving desire (taṇhā) as productive of misery (dukkha), a bhikku, being free from craving desire (taṇhā), without taking it upon himself, and mindfully aware thoroughly, renounces it.

In this way that silent Buddha is one (or single) because he stands having discarded craving desire (taṇhā).

91.5. How is that silent Buddha one (or single) because he is definitely free from lust (rāga)? because of the fact that he had become bereft of lust (rāga), he is definitely free from lust (rāga) and thus he is one (or single) Because he had become bereft of hatred (dosa) he is surely free from hatred (dosa), and thus, he is one (or single). Because he had become devoid of delusion (moha), he is certainly free from delusion (moha), and thus he is one (or single) Because he had become devoid of depravity, (kilesa), he is sure enough free from depravity (kilesa) and thus, he is one (or single) In this way that silent Buddha is definitely devoid of lust (rāga), and thus he is one d(or single).

91.6. How is that silent Buddha, who had gone the right path of single approach, is thus one (or single)? The right path of single approach is said to be: four kinds of maintaining mindfulness, four kinds of good strenuous effort, four foundations of magical power, five controlling faculties, five kinds of strength, seven elements of enlightenment, eightfold noble path.

One who sees the destruction of birth (jāti), who sympathises with benefit comprehends the right path of single approach; by means of this right path, people, formerly crossed over, they will and they now, cross over the flood.

In this way, he had gone the right path of single approach and thus became one (or single).

91.7. How is that silent Buddha all alone attained the unsurpassable silent buddhahood and full enlightenment and thus became one (or single)? Enlightenment (bodhi), is said to be knowledge regarding the four right paths towards nibbāna. Wisdom (or knowledge) (paññā) is controlling faculty (or sense) of knowledge, strength of knowledge, investigation of dhamma, the element of enlightenment, scrutiny (vīmamsa), spiritual insight (vipassanā), right view. That silent Buddha, with the knowledge of individual enlightenment (paccekabodhi), came to be enlightened as: "All actions (saṅkhāra), are impermanent"; he came to realise. "All actions (saṅkhāra), are miserable, (dukkha)", he came to be enlightened as: "All phenomena (dhamma), are all without self (anatta)." He came to realise that: "Due to ignorance (avijjā), actions (sankhāra) arise"; he realized that: "Due to actions, consciousness (viññāṇa) arises"; he realised that: "Due to consciousness (viññāṇa), name and form, (nāmarūpa) arise"; he realized that: "Due to name and form, six organs of sense (saḷāyatana) arise"; he realised that "Due to six organs of sense, contact (phassa) arises"; he realised that "Due to contact (phassa), sensation (vedanā) arises"; he realised that: "Due to sensation, craving desire (taṇhā) arises"; he realised that "Due to craving desire (taṇhā), attachment (upādāna) arises"; he realised that "Due to attachment (upādāna), becoming (bhava) arises"; he realised that "Due to becoming, birth (jāti) arises"; he realised that "Due to birth (jāti), old age and death arise". He realised that: "Due to cessation of ignorance, there is cessation of actions (saṅkhāra);he realised that "Due to cessation of actions (sankhāra), there is cessation of consciousness (viññāna"):P:; he realised that "Due to cessation of being (bhava), there is cessation of birth (jāti)";he realised that "Due to cessation of birth (jāti), there is cessation of old age and death". he got enlightened that "This is distress (dukkha)"; he understood that "This is the origin of distress (dukkha)"; he comprehended that "This is the cessation of distress (dukkha)"; he realised that "This is the practicalpath leading to the cessation of distress (dukkha)". He became enlightened that "There are cankers (asava)" he realised that "This is the origin of āsava";:P: he realised thus: "The practical path leading to nibbāna (paṭipadā)". He became enlightened that "These phenomena (dhamma) are to be known with higher knowledge"; he realised that "These phenomena (dhamma) are to be discarded"; he understood that "These phenomena (dhamma) are to be seen with one's own eyes";he realised that "These phenomena (dhamma) are to be developed." He became enlightened about the appearance and disappearance, emptiness and defects of the appearance and disappearance, emptiness and defects of the six spheres (āyatana) of touch as well as escape from them; he realised about the appearance of the five aggregates of attachment (upādānakkhandha),and escape from them; he realised about the appearance and disappearance, emptiness and defects of the four great elements, as well as escape from them; he became enlightened thus: "Whatsoever (anything) is subject to beginning (samudaya), all that is subject to end (nirodha)".

91.8. In other words: Whatever is to be enlightened about, accordingly realised, appropriately realised, self-realise specially attained, ought to be touched, should be seen with own eyes, all that he became enlightened of, accordingly realised, self-realised, specially attained, caused to be touched, saw with own eyes, by means of the knowledge of silent buddhahood; thus, that silent Buddha on his own became in this way, specially enlightened by attaining singly the silent buddhahood; thus, he is one (or single).

91.9. The word care is to be understood as eight practices:- practice of physical movements, practice of sense organs, practice of mindfulness, practice of meditation, practice of knowledge, practice of right path, practice of attainment, practice of world-benefit. Practice of motion (iriuyāpatha) is thus:- in the four modes of moving; practice of organs of sense is thus:- in the six internal and external and external organs of sense is thus:- in the six internal and external organs of sense; practice of mindfulness is thus:- in the four kinds of maintenance of mindfulness;practice of concentration (samādhi) is thus:- in the four kinds of jhāna; practice of knowledge is thus:- in the four noble truths; practice of right path is thus:- in the Tathāgatas, in the arahats, in the omniscient Buddhas, from a limited in extent, in silent buddhas and from the point of view of limited extent in the disciples of Buddha.

91.10. Practice of physical movements is also that of those who are endowed with selfdetermination (panidhi); practice of sense organs is also that of those whose doors of controlling faculties are guarded; practice of mindfulness is also that of those who live with diligence; practice of concentration (samādhi) is also that of those who are accordingly connected with higher thought; practice of knowledge is also that of those who are endowed with wisdom (buddhi); practice of the right path is also that of those who had entered upon the right procedure; practice of attainment is also that of those who had arrived at fruition (phala); practice of world benefit is also that of Tathāgatas, arahats, omniscient Buddhas, silent buddhas limitedly and disciples of the Buddha, limitedly. These are eight practices.

91.11. Subsequently also, when the eight practices are highly acquitted (adhimuccanto), he practises with faith (saddhā);uplifting (paggaṇhanto), he practices with exertion; placing near (upaṭṭhapento), he practises with mindfulness; making balance (avikkhepam), he practises with concentration (samādhi); comprehending properly he practises with knowledge; knowing well he practises with the practice of consciousness; saying: In this way, meritorious deeds are made to come to one who has thus carried out he practises with the practice of the sense organs; saying: "One who has achieved thus, attained distinction, he practises with the distinctive practice. These are the eight practices.

91.12. Subsequently also, the eight practices consist of right views (sammādiṭṭhi), also which is the practice of seeing;of right intention (sammāsaṅkappa) also, which is practice of application of the mind; of right speech (sammāvācā) also, which is practice of taking up (pariggaha); of right action (sammākammanta) also, which is the practice of self-activity (samuṭṭhāna); of right mode of living (sammāājīva) also, which is practice of cleansing; of right exertion (sammāvāyāma) also, which is practice of uplift;of right mindfulness (sammāsati) also, which is practice of stationing near (upaṭṭhāna); of right concentration (sammā samādhi) also, which is practice of steadiness (avikkhepa). These are the eight practices.

91.13. The expression khaggavisāṇakappo is to be understood thus: Just as the horn, namely, of rhinoceros is one only, with a second, so also that silent Buddha, is like it, similar to it, counterpart of it. Just as excess of salt is said to be salt-like, extreme bitterness is said to be like being bitter, too much sweet is said to be like sweet, extreme heat is said to be like fire, excess of cold is said to be like snow, a large mass of water is said to be an ocean, a disciple, who had attained the strength of super-knowledge is said to be like the Master, exactly in the same way that silent Buddha is like the rhinoceros horn, similar to the rhinoceros' horn, counterpart of rhinoceros 'horn, singly alone, without a second, released from being bound up, wanders about rightly in the world, lives, moves, functions, guards, goes about and keeps himself going. Thus, he would wander alone like the rhinoceros' horn.

Therefore, the silent buddhas said:

"Having laid down one's weapon amongst all living beings, one should not harm any one of them also. One should not desire a son, whence should therefore be a companion? One should wander singly like a rhinoceros' horn.

To one who comes into contact, there become affection (sneha); consequential to affection this distress (dukkha) come into being; looking at the rise of affection (sneha), as a disadvantage (āddīnava), one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Sympathising with friends and acquaintances one becomes bound (paṭibaddhacitto) to them mentally and makes his welfare forsaken. looking at this danger in companionship, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Just as the bamboo bush gets entangled as soon as it becomes extensive, so also what- ever affection there is for children and wives. Unattached like unto eatable bamboo sprout in a bamboo bush, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Just as an unfastened deer in the forest goes about as it likes for its pasture, a wise man, having regard for his freedom, should wander alone like a rhinoceros's horn.

There is sport and delight amidst companions. Abundant also is love for children. Des- pising separation from affectionate people one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

There is no anger in all the four directions also; with one or the other there is content- ment; unshaken over the endurance of troubles one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Difficult to look after are some, though they are monks; all the more so the householders living in houses. Being free from concern over children of others, one should wander over children of others, one should wander alone like the rhinoceros' horn.

Having cast off marks of a householder, like the coral tree with its leaves thoroughly cut off, the hero, having cut off all bindings of household, should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Should one obtain a mature-minded companion, who wanders with him, and who is firmly wise, leading a good life, overwhelming all dangers, one should wander with him with self-satisfaction and mindfulness.

If one does not obtain a mature- minded companion, who is firmly wise and leads a good life to wander together, one should wander alone like a king abandoning his conquered kingdom and similar to mātaṅga elephant in the forest. Truly do we praise the accomplishment of companionship; best and equal companions should be associated with. when such com- panions are not obtained, one who enjoys innocence should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Having seen the glitter of gold well executed by a youthful gold-smith, knocking against one another on the two arms, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

There is either idle talk (vācābhiāpo) or ill temper (abhisajjanā) on the part of my companion on account of the second in this way. Looking at this danger in future one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Sensual pleasures, indeed, are variegated, sweet, and joyful to the mind. They agitate the mind with various forms and shapes. Seeing the disadvantage in sensual delights, one should wander like the rhinoceros' horn.

This is illness (ītī) as well as sore (gando), as well as calamity, disease, thorn and danger also. Seeing this danger in the sensual plea- sures, one should wander alone like the rhinoceros' horn.

Cold as well as heat, hunger and thirst, burning breeze, mosquitoes and creeping crawling creatures also; having overwhelmed all these, as well, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Just as an immense elephant, lotus-like, born with a big-body having avoided its herd, lives as it pleases, in the forest, so, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

To one who would come into contact with timely emancipation, it is not proper that he takes delight in society. Observing the word of Buddha, kinsman of the sun, one should wander alone like the rhinoceros' horn.

Free form wriggling heresy, having attained the right way, and accordingly acquired the right path to nibbāna, I am one whose knowledge has arisen and not to be led by anybody. One should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Being neither greedy nor fraudulent, nor thirsty, being free from hypocrisy and astringent delusion, (kāsāvamoha), and having become free from inclina- tion, (āsaya), in all the world, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

One should thoroughly avoid an evil companion, who sees nothing beneficial, but is devoted to (nivittham) misconduct (visame). Himself should not resort to negligent pursuits hut should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Keep companionship with a promoter of dhamma of much learning, a friend of great might and ready wit (or wisdom), Knowing the benefits and dis- pelling doubts, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Not adorning oneself with and not coveting sport, delight and sensual bliss in the world, also abstaining from beautifying while speaking truth as well, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Having abandoned children and wife, father and mother, wealth and grains as well as relatives and sensual pleasures according to limits, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

An intelligent man, knowing thus: this one is a fish-hook, this is attachment, happiness here is little, it is unpleasant, all the more there is here misery (dukkha), only, should Wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Having broken asunder all the fetters of attachment (samyojana), like the aquatic wandering creatures tearing away the fishing net, not receding like the burning fire, one should, Wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

With down-cast eyes, not being wanton With one's legs, with controlling faculties guarded, with mind protected, not being lustful, not burning all round, one should wander alone like a rhinos- ceros' horn.

Removing all the signs and symbols of a house- holder, like pruning the flowers of the leafy coral tree, donning the saffron robes and having made great renunciation, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Not making eager desire in tasteful nourish- ments, not being wanton, not being nourished by others, but being an alms-food collector serially from house to house (sapadāna) without being mentally attracted to any of the families, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Having mentally forsaken the five hindrances, having uprooted all the depravity (upakkilesa) having out off the fault of affectionate love and being independent, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Leaving behind bliss and distress and previously even mental pleasure and displeasure, having obtained equanimity, tranquillity and purity, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Being ever-ready with energy for the attainment of best benefit (nibbāna), being detach- minded (alīacitto), not having lazy habits, firm in exerting oneself, being endowed with strength and vigour, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Making mirage of Jhāna exercise in solitude, always practising righteously in all dhamma, investigating the disadvantage in existences, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Being diligent after aspiring for the des- truction of craving desire (taṇhakkhaya), not being deaf and dumb but being full of information and mindfulness, becoming one who has recognised the truth (dhamma), being permanently possessed of strenuous effort, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Like the lion, not being tired but being calm amidst sounds, like the wind not being tangled in a net, and like a lotus flower, not smeared with water, one should wander alone like a rhinos- ceros' horn.

Making use of forest roads and forest abodes like a lion wandering about as a king of beasts, over- whelming them forcefully with the powerful strength of its sharp-teethed jaw, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Indulging in loving kindness, equanimity, mercy, emancipation and also joy at times, without being inimical with the whole world, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

forsaking lust (rāga), hatred (dosa) and delusion (moha), having broken asunder the bonds of life (samyojana), not getting agitated at the final end of life, one should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

Friends who have no axe to grind are hard to be found, today. People attend to you and associate with you for the sake of having some- thing to do with you. Unclean people have knowledge of their own benefits only. One should wander alone like a rhinoceros' horn.

91.14. There, the statement: Sabbesu bhūtesu, amongst all living beings, is the discourse (sutta), one the biography (or doings) of a silent Buddha named Khaggavisāṇa, Rhinoceros' Horn. What is the genesis? There are four kinds of origin of all discourses (sutta): due to his own desire, due to the desire of others, due to narrative, due to a question left over to be answered. There the origin of the discourse on Rhinoceros' horn, Khaggavisāṇa sutta, is ordinarily due to a question to be answered. Distinctively, however, whatever there are here, some stanza, asked by such and such a silent Buddha, the answer to them was made. Without being asked some stanza questions, but by way of making one's joyous utterance only, according to the manner of the attainment of the right path to nibbāna by oneself; therefore the origin is either from some stanza-question that is answered, others from one's own desire. There, whatever this origin is due to question ordinarily that origin should be known thus, first of all, from the beginning:-

91.15. At one time, the glorious One was dwelling in Sāvatthi. Then, indeed, there arose in this way mental contemplation to the venerable Ānanda, who had gone to quiet solitude: "The aspiration and endeavour are visible, so also those of His disciples; but those of the silent buddhas are not to be seen. Good it would be if I approach and ask the Glorious One". He rose up from his sojourn in solitude, approached the Glorious One and asked about this matter in its serial order. Then the Glorious One preached to him the discourse known as Pubbayogā-vacara Sutta.

"Ananda! There are five kinds of benefit in one who is familiar with his previous connection: he pleases another rather cautiously in this very present existence; if he does not cautiously please another in this very present existence, then, at the time of his death he pleases another. Then, becoming a youthful divinity he pleases another. Then, Then he becomes a quick realiser of higher know- ledge in the presence of Buddhas. Then at last he becomes a silent Buddha."

Having said thus, He said again:-

"Ānanda! Silent buddhas, namely, are endowed with endeavour and familiar with their previous connection. Therefore, the aspiration and endeavour of all silent buddhas and disciples of Buddha ought to be desired."

91.16. Ananda asked: "Venerable Sir! how long should be the aspiration of Buddhas?" Buddha answered: "Ananda! The lowest limit of Buddhas is a hundred thousand kappas over and above four innumerable periods of time; the middle limit is one hundred thousand kappas over and above eight innumerable periods of time; the highest limit is one hundred thousand kappas over and above sixteen innumerable periods of time. Their variety also is to be understood in the light of Buddhas of extra-ordinary knowledge, those of extra ordinary faith and those of superior exertion. The faith indeed, of these who are of superior knowledge, is scanty but their knowledge is sharp. knowledge of buddhas of superior faith is moderate, but their faith is keen. Faith and knowledge of Buddhas of extraordinary exertion are scanty but their exertion is excellently sharp. Without reaching, however, the maximum time-limit of a hundred thousand kappas over and above four innumerable periods, although charitable offering is given like the charity of Vessantara day after day, although he accumulates other such spiritual perfections as precept (sīla), and so on, appropriately to that self-same extent, there exists no such thing as that one will become Buddha during the interim period. Why? knowledge does not take conception; it does not arrive at prosperity; it does not go towards thorough maturity. Just as, namely, the crop that is to be harvested with the lapse of three months, four months, and five months, before that and that time is reached, although it is fondled daily a hundred times or a thousand times, although it is sprinkled with water, there does not exist such a phenomenon as the crop finalising itself to be harvested in the interval either within a fortnight or within a month. Why? The crop does not take conception; it does not grow into prosperity; it does not go towards full maturity. Exactly in the same way, without reaching the end-limit of a hundred thousand kappas over and above four innumerable periods, there exists no such phenomenon as one will become Buddha during the interval. Therefore, fulfilling of perfections ought to be done, throughout such time as already stated for the full maturity of knowledge. With so much time also, to one aspiring for Buddhahood, eight excellent attainments are necessary in making the endeavour. These, indeed are:- Humanhood, excellent sex-attainment, cause, seeing the Muster, monkhood, attainment of excellent quality, management, having desire. Over the combination of eight qualifications the endeavour gets accomplished.

91. 17. This expression abbinīhāra is the term for original self-resolution. There manussattam is birth as a human being. Indeed, apart from human birth, in the remaining existences, to one who got established in celestial existence even, the resolution does not materialise. However, with the aspiration, made by one who stood there, in the celestial world, for Buddhahood, should aspire for humanhood even after doing such meritorious deeds as giving charity and so on. Standing in the humanhood, resolution should be made. In this way, indeed, it gets accomplished. Lingasampatti is the condition of being a male man. The resolution of women, sexless and both sex indivi-duals does not get materialised in spite of the fact that they were born as human-beings. However, having been established there, he should aspire to become a male man only after having done such meritorious deeds as giving charity, etc., by one who aspired to become Buddha. Having become established there as a male man, resolution ought to be made. In this way, indeed, it becomes accomplished. The expression hetu is to be understood as: The qualification, which is sufficing condition to attain arahatship. Whoever, indeed, making an effort in that existence of his, is capable of attaining arahatship; his resolution materialises; not that of the other, as in the case of the wise Sumedha. He, Sumedha, indeed, having become monk at the feet of Buddha Dīpaṅkara, was capable of attaining arahatship in that very existence itself. The expression satthāradassanam means seeing Buddhas in their presence. In this way, indeed, there in accomplishment; not in any other way, as in the case of the wise Sumedha. He, indeed, having seen Buddha Dīpaṅkara in His presence made the resolution. Pabhajjā is the becoming of a houseless recluse. he can, indeed, be either in the dispensation of Buddha as a monk or in the organisation of hermits, or Wandering ascetics whose doctrine is action and reaction (kamma), deeds and results, (kiriya), as in the case of the wise Sumedha, made the resolution. Gunasampatti means the gaining of such quality as Jhāna and so on. Indeed, of the monk also, that of one who is endowed with quality materialises; not that of the other as in the case of wise Sumedha. He, indeed, having become one with five kinds of higher knowledge and of eight kinds of meditative attainments (Jhāna), made the resolution. Adhikāro means abnormal deed, thorough sacrifice. Having made such supreme sacrifice as one's own life and so on, the resolution made only then, does materialise; not that of the other, as in the case of wise Sumedha.

He, indeed, having made sacrifice of himself thus:-

"Let the Buddha, together with His disciples, go treading upon me; let Him not tread upon mud. There will be benefit for me."

made the resolution. Chandatā means desire to do. Whoseever's desire is strong, his resolution materialises. That also, whoever were to say thus: "Who wants Buddhahood after being cooked in purgatory, (niraya), for a hundred thousand kappas over and above four innumerable periods." Whoever, after hearing such an announcement as that is capable of saying "I do", his desire should be understood as strong. So also if anyone were to say: who wants Buddhahood after treading upon a realm of flameless embers? Who wants Buddhahood after having passed over treading upon an area scattered over with javelins and spikes? Who wants Buddhahood after crossing the entire universe (cakkavāla), filled with water flush with its shore? Who Wants Buddhahood, having passed over, after treading upon the entire universe covered over, without break, with bamboo bushes?" Hearing that announcement whoever does dare say: " I do," his desire should be recognised as being strong. The wise Sumedha, endowed with such kind of desire as to be willing to do made the resolution.

91. 18. The Bodhisat who made his accomplishing endeavour in this way, never has to go near the eighteen disabilities. Indeed, beginning from the time of his resolution, does not become blind congenitally; not deaf congenitally, not mad, not deaf and dumb, not so lame as to have to go crawling with the help of a chair or to walk on crutches, is not reborn in the family of heretics, is not conceived in the womb of a slave, does not become a confirmed heretic professing wrong views, his sex organs does not get distorted, does not commit the five unatonable offence (anantariya kamma); he does not become a leper; he is not made by evolution to get into the womb of an animal, but with regard elephant it is his last existence and he becomes a superior creature; he is not reborn among the petas, of consuming thirst type (nijjhāmatanhika), afflicted with hunger and thirst, not amongst the titans known as Kālakañcika asura, not in purgatory (avīci niraya), nor is he reborn in between the worlds(lokantarika). In the existences of sensual sphere (kāmāvacara) he does not become māra, in the physical world of brahmā (rūpāvacara), he does not become a brahmā without perception (asaññi); not is he reborn among the pure brahmās (Suddhavāsa); he is not born among the formless brahmās (arūpa); he does not go to another universe (cakkavāla).

91. 19. He is endowed with such four grounds of Buddhahood as: effort, wisdom (ummaṅga), self-resolution (avatthāna), and beneficial behaviour, (hita cariya). There it should be understood thus:-

Ussāha is said to be exertion, ummanga is said to be wisdom, avatthāna is said to be self resolution, hitacariyā is said to be developing loving kindness.

Whatever these are, namely, intense inclination for renunciation, intense inclination for solitude, intense inclination for greedlessness, intense inclination for absence of anger, intense inclination for being devoid of delusion, intense inclination for escape to nibbāna;thus, there is current six intense inclinations for thorough maturity of enlightenment (bodhi). Because of being endowed with such intense inclinations as these, those Because of being endowed with such intense inclinations as these, those Bodhisats who have intense inclination for renunciation are seers of defects in sensual delights; those Bodhisats who have intense inclination for solitude are seers of defects in society; those Bodhisats who have intense inclination for greedlessness are seers of defects in greed; those Bodhisats, who have intense inclination on absence of anger, are intent upon being devoid of delusion, are seers of defect in delusion; those Bodhisats, who have intense inclination for escape towards nibbāna are said to be seers of defect in all existences. With them also he is endowed.

91.20. How long, however, should the aspirations of silent buddhas be? A hundred thousand kappas over and beyond two innumerable periods of time are for the silent buddhas. It cannot be below that. here the matter should be understood in the manner as stated previously. Even with so long a time, five qualifications are necessary for one who aspires for silent buddhahood in making his endeavour. For them, indeed:-

Humanhood, quality of male sex, seeing those whose cankers (āsava), had become exhausted, service and desire. These are matters regarding endeavour.

91.21. There, for the expression Vigatāsava dassana means thus: Seeing any one of such personages as Buddhas, silent buddhas and disciples of Buddha. The rest is in the manner stated already.

91.22. Then "How long should be the aspiration for becoming disciples of Buddha? A hundred thousand kappas over and beyond one innumerable period of time for two topmost disciples. A hundred thousand kappas for becoming one among eighty major disciples of Buddha. So also for becoming an attendant to Buddha's parents and so on. It cannot be below that. There, the matter is in the manner stated already. not only of these but also of all, the endeavour is endowed with two qualifications: Service ((adhikāra) and desire (chandatā).

91.23. Thus, due to this aspiration, and with this endeavour also, having fulfilled perfections for such divisions of time as stated already, Buddhas as they appear in the world, are reborn in the family of either warrior princes or brahmins; silent buddhas in any one of the families princely warriors, or brahmins or wealthy house-holders; topmost disciples of Buddha are reborn like unto Buddha in princely warriors' family or brahmin's family only. All Buddhas never appear in the samvattakappa, during the period under destruction; they appear in vivaṭṭakappa, during the period of evolution. So also do the silent buddhas. They, however, do not appear at the time of appearance of Buddhas. Buddhas become enlightened themselves; They enlightened others also. Silent buddhas become enlightened by themselves but do not enlighten others. They penetrated into the essence of meaning only not the essence of dhamma (truth). Indeed, they are not able to preach the transcendental truth, (lokuttara dhamma) after having it mounted on (or with reference to) manifestations (paññatti). Like the dream dreamt by the dumb, like the delicious curry enjoyed in the city by a forest-wanderer, there is no full grasp of truth (dhammabhisamaya), to them. All arrive at such different attainments as magical power, meditative achievement (jhāna), and analytical knowledge (paṭisambhidā). In superiority of quality, they are below those of Buddhas but above those of disciples of Buddha. They do not novitiate anyone and enforce discipline for good behaviour (ābhisamācārika). They made their conscience clear by observing fastday concisely with this statement: "Mental austerity should be done. One should not become careless," or by simply saying: 'Today is fast day (uposatha). Doing fast duty (Uposatha), they do so having assembled in the bejewelled pandal (māḷa), at the foot of the fragrant Mañjūsaka celestial tree. Thus, the Glorious one related to the venerable Ānanda the all-round characteristics of fulfilment, aspirations and endeavours of silent buddhas. having done so, the Glorious one now spoke of this discourse on Rhinoceros' Horn (Khaggavisāṇsutta) in the manner beginning with 'Sabbesu bhūtesu nidhāva daṇḍam, having laid down the weapon-stick towards all living beings," in order to narrate the story of such and such silent buddhas as had risen due to this aspiration and due to this endeavour. This, so far, is the origin of Khaggavisāṇasutta, the discourse on Rhinoceros' Horn, ordinarily, due to question.

91.24. Now, it should be stated distinctively. There, now, by this stanza the origin should be understood in this way:- It is said this silent Buddha absorbed in the ground of silent bodhisat, fulfilled the perfections for one hundred thousand kappas over and beyond two innumerable periods, became a monk in the dispensation of Buddha Kassapa, made himself a forest dweller, and performed the monk's duty (samaṇadhamma), fulfilling the duty known as gone and come back again (gatapeccā-gatavatta). It is said that there is, namely, no such thing as attaining silent buddhahood, without fulfilling this duty. What, however, is the name of this gatapaccāgatavatta? It is taking (harana) and bringing back (paccāharana). We shall say in such a way that it is clear (vibhūta).

91.25. Here, some bhikkhu takes but does not bring back; some brings back but does not take;some does neither take nor bring back; some does take as well as does bring back. There whichever bhikkhu, having risen-up earliest, did the duty of shrine surrounding and terrace of the bodhi tree, sprinkled water on the bodhi tree, filled the drinking water-pot with drinking water, placed the same on the drinking-water pedestal, performed his duties towards his teacher and spiritual preceptor, (Upajjhāya), and went on, taking upon himself the observance of eightytwo duties specified in the Vinaya Khandhaka as well as fourteen major duties. He, having performed his bodily ablution, entered the monastery, spent his time on a secluded seat till the time came for going on his begging round for alms-food, when he came to know that the time for it had arrived, put on his lower garment, fastened it with his body-belt, wrapped his upper garment, kept his double-robe (saṅghāṭi), on his torso, hung his bowl at his shoulder went to the shrinesurrounding, bearing in his mind his mental exercise (kammaṭṭhāna), paid homage to the shrine as well as to the bodhi tree, properly put on his robe near the village, held the bowl in his hands and entered the village for alms-food. Having thus entered, the bhikkhu, who possessed merit, became gainful, revered and respected by devotees; he returned to the family, who attended to him or to the hall for retreat and when asked this and that question by his devotees, went away, discarding his minding of answering their question, and dealing with the perplexity of preaching the dhamma, when he arrived back at the monastery also, and was asked question by bhikkhus, he spoke, recited dhamma, and became engaged in this or that business. After meal, in the afternoon, as well as in the first and middle watches of the night, having in this way talked much together with the bhikkhus, slept in the last watch of the night also being overpowered by bad bodily clumsiness; neither did he bear in mind his mental exercise, (kammaṭṭhāna). This one is said to be "harati na paccāharati, he takes but does not bring back.

91.26. Whoever, however, has much ailment. Whatever was eaten by him did not digest properly in the morning; having risen up ahead, he was not able to do his duties, or, to mind his mental exercise (kammaṭṭhāna); at any rate being desirous of rice-gruel or something to eat or medicine or meal, took his bowl and robe even early in the morning, entered the village; having obtained there rice-gruel, or something to eat or medicine or meal, took out his bowl, finished eating his meal, sat himself down a seat set ready for him, minded his mental exercise (kammaṭṭhāna), returned to the monastery, whether he had arrived or not at some specific idea or not in his meditation, and stayed there with that very mindedness. This one is said to be "paccāharati na harati, he brings back but does not take." Such bhikkhus as this, who drank ricegruel, developed spiritual insight (vipassanā), arrived at arahatship in the dispensation of Buddha, numbered so many that they became beyond calculation. Even in the island of Sīhaḷa (Ceylon) in these and those villages, that seat does not exist in the hall of seats, where the seated bhikkhus did not attain arahatship after drinking rice-gruel.

91.27. Whoever, however, is one living negligently after having thrown down one's responsibility, having broken all his duties, living with his mind bound by bonds of five kinds of mental obstruction, never occupied with minding his mental exercise, entered the village, and came out empty even after having been busy talking much together with householders. Such a one is said to be "neva harati na paccāharati, he neither takes not brings back.

91.28. Whoever, however, having risen up earliest, ahead of others, made himself complete with all garments in the same manner as before, and minded his mental exercise (kammaṭṭhāna), having sat himself down cross-legged till the arrival of time for going on begging round. Mental exercise (kammaṭṭhāna), is twofold: that concerned with everything (sabbatthaka) and preservation (pārihāriya). There, the do-all, namely, is loving kindness and mindfulness of death; indeed it is said to be sabbatthaka, the do-all, because it is to be desired and needed everywhere. Loving kindness, namely, is to be desired everywhere in residences and so on. Indeed, in residences (āvāsa), a bhikkhu who lives with loving kindness is loved and pleased (manāpo) by brother-bhikkhus leading noble-life together. On that account, he lives in comfort without making anybody angry (asamghattho). One, who lives with loving kindness towards divinities, lives happily being guarded and protected by divinities. One who lives with loving kindness towards kings and great ministers of kings lives happily, being loved by them. One who lives with loving kindness to villages, big and small and so on, lives happily being revered and respected by people everywhere in such matters as going on begging rounds and so on. By means of meditation on death, one dwells deligently forsaking longing for life.

91.29. Whatever, however, should always be preserved, (pariharitabba), is taken favourably; that is one among the ten kings of unpleasant objects, mindfulness of aids to kammaṭṭhāna or even the analysis of four element (dhātu), it is said to be pārihāriya (preservation), from the point of view of what should be always fostered, what should be always protected and what should be always developed. That is the very basic mental exercise (kammaṭṭhāna). Indeed sons of good families, who are desirous of benefit became monks in the Buddha's dispensation, lived ten together, twenty together, thirty together, forty together, fifty together, a hundred together after making mutual promise thus: "Friends! You all have become monks not because you are troubled with debt, not because you are harassed by danger, not because you want to earn a living, but you all have become monks being desirous of escape from existence here. Therefore, restrain the depravity that had risen while going even while you are going. All the depravities that arose while standing, sitting and lying, you all had better restrain while you are still standing, sitting or lying."

91.30. Having made mutual promise thus, they, on going on their begging rounds, there exist rocky stones at every half an usabha or half a gāvutra. With that idea they go making their minds aware of their mental exercise (kammaṭṭhāna). If to any one, there arises while going, any depravity, he restrains the same there and then even. not being able to do so, he stands. Then, although another bhikkhu comes from behind him he remains standing. Saying to himself: "This bhikkhu knows your reflection that has arisen in you; this is not proper for you," he blames himself, develops spiritual insight (vipassanā), and descends on to the ground of the noble (ariya), then and there. Not bring able to do so, he sits. Then, although another bhikkhu comes from behind him he remains seated; thus, he does in that very way. Even if he is unable to descend on the ground of the noble 9ariya), he paralyses that depravity, and goes being even mindful of his mental exercise (kammaṭṭhāna). He does not lift his foot with his mind dissociated with mental exercise, (kammaṭṭhāna). If he does lift, or if he has lifted, he turns back again, and stands at the previous place only. He is like Ālindakavāsī mahāphussadevatthera, the great thera Phussadeva who lived at Ālindaka.

91.31. It is said that he dwelt for nineteen years fulfilling the duty of going and coming back only. People also ploughing, sowing, and treading (maddantā), doing their work, saw the thera going in that manner, spoke together to him thus: "This thera goes receding again, and again. Why! Has he indeed lost his way? Otherwise, has he forgotten anything?" He did not take notice of it, but went on performing the deed (dhamma), of a monk with his mind harnessed to mental exercise (kammaṭṭhāna) and attained arahatship within the period of twenty years. On the very day he attained arahatship, the divinity residing at the extremity of his cloister, stood lighting a lamp with his fingers. The four great celestial kings, as well as Sakka, king of devas together with brahmā Sahampati came to attend to him. Seeing that light, the forest-dweller, thera Mahātissa, asked him on the second day: "At night there was light near your venerable self; what is that?" By way of making confusion, the thera said thus: "Light, namely, can be the light of a lamp; it can also be the light of a gem" and so on. He being urged saying "You should cover it, acknowledged them by saying "Yes"and informed them.

91.32. Also like unto Kāḷavallimaṇḍapavāsī mahānāgathera, the thera Mahānāga, who dwelt at the pavilion Kālavalli, the black creeper. It is said, he also, fulfilling the duty of going and coming, made his self-resolution to pass his time standing and walking to and fro for seven years saying: "First of all, now, I shall do my offering of honour to the great strenuous effort (mahāpadhāna)". Again, for sixteen years he fulfilled the duty of going and coming back and attained arahatship. Going thus to the vicinity of the village, lifting his foot with his mind accordingly harnessed with mental exercise (kammaṭṭhāna), and stepping back the lifted foot with his mind dissociated, he stood as indication of his suspicion: 'Has the cow indeed gone out; has it indeed?" put on his double robe, took his bowl, arrived at the village gate, took water from inside a fig tree, made a mouthful of it, and entered the village, thinking thus:- "When people approach me either to offer my alms-food or for paying me homage, even if I have to say: 'May you all live long', let there be no missing of my mental exercise, (kammaṭṭhāna)." If, however, they asked him about the date thus: "Venerable Sir! What is the date today? Is it the seventh or the eighth?." he swallowed down the water and informed them the date. Should there be no questioner of date, at the time of leaving the village, he spat the water out at the village gate and went his way.

91.33. In the island of Sīhaḷa (Ceylon) like also fifty bhikkhus, who spent their lent, Vassūpāgata, in the monastery of Kalamba tittha, the bathing ghat of Colombo. it is said that they made mutual undertakings on the fast, (Uposatha) day of taking shelter from rain and observing lent, thus: "Let us not speak to each other without attaining arahatship". On entering the village also, they entered it after making their mouths full with water at the village gate. When they were asked about the date they informed it after swallowing down the water in their mouths. When not asked, they spat the water away at the village gate and went to their monastery. People there, seeing spitting spots knew thus: "Today one only came; today two". In this way also they thought "How is it indeed, these bhikkhus do not converse together with us even or to each other among themselves? If they do not mutually converse, surely they must be in dispute. Come! Let us make them apologise each other". All of them went to the monastery. There they did not see two bhikkhus in a single place, among the fifty who had been spending their lent. Thereafter, the man of vision among them said thus: "O friends! The place of living of disputants is not like this; the precincts of the pagoda and the surrounding of the bodhi tree are well levelled evenly; brooms have been well utilised and kept away; drinking water for satisfying thirst has been properly placed in the container." Subsequently, they went away recedingly. Those bhikkhus also, developed spiritual insight (Vipassanā), during the lent even, arrived at arahatship, and on the day of great invitation for criticism (pavāranā), they held the clean and pure ceremony of mutual criticism (visuddhi-pavāranā).

91.34. In this way, like unto the thera Mahānāga resident of Kāḷavallimaṇdapa, and also like unto those bhikkhus who spent their lent in the monastery of kalambatittha, having gone to the vicinity of the village advancing every step with the mind fixed on mental exercise (kammaṭṭhāna), made a mouthful of water, scrutinised properly the village roads, whichever road there happened to be no fierce elephants, horses and so on, he entered upon that road. There, in going about for alms-food, he would not go with speed all in a hurry; there being no such thing as austere practice (dhutanga), which lay down speedy collection of alms-food. On arrival at the surface of uneven piece of land, however, he went steadily without shaking about like the cart carrying water. When he had entered the village from house to house he would linger for some such time as might be sufficient to find out the donor', desire to offer or not, accept the almsfood, sit himself down at a suitable spot, arouse the idea of disgust in food making himself mind the mental exercise (kammaṭṭhāna), nourished himself with the nourishment, endowed with eight characteristics, reflecting upon it in the form of illustration comprising the lubrication of an axle to avoid breaking, applying ointment on a sore, and sore's flesh, not for sportful amusement, not for being intoxicated:P:. After he had taken his meal, he would do the work of washing with water, dispel the fatigue of food-eating for a moment, and mind his mental exercise, (kammaṭṭhāna), after meal, in the first as well as in the last watch of the night exactly as he had done before meal. This is said to be "harati ca paccāharati ca, he takes and he brings back". In this way this is said to be "the duty of taking and bringing back and the duty of going and coming back".

91.35. Fulfilling this and if he has sufficing qualification for arahatship, he would attain arahatship in his first stage of life. Should he not attain at the first stage of his life he would do so in the middle stage of his life. If he did not attain in the middle stage of his life, he would do so at the time of his death. If he did not attain at the time of his death, he would become a divinity and attain the same. If he did not attain it after he had become a divinity, then he would become a silent Buddha and pass away entirely and completely to nibbāna. If he did not pass away completely to nibbāna after becoming a silent Buddha, then he would become a speedy knower of higher knowledge in the presence of Buddhas like unto Thera Bāhitya, or he would become greatly learned like unto Thera Sāriputta.

91.36. This silent bodhisat, however, became a monk in the dispensation of Buddha Kassapa, dwelt in the forest, fulfilled this duty of going and coming back for twenty years, died and sprang up in the heavenly world of sensual divinities, (kāmāvacaradeva). Passing away thence, he took conception in the womb of the chief queen of king of Benares. Skilful women know the condition of their pregnancy on the very day of it; she as well as those other women: therefore, she also informed the king about that pregnancy of hers. This is customary. Whenever a meritorious being springs up in a woman's womb, she obtains proper protection of her pregnancy. Therefore, the king gave proper protection all round to her pregnancy. From that day as a start, she no longer would get any extremely hot nourishment to nourish herself, neither extremely bitter nor extremely sharp. Indeed, when extremely not nourishment is swallowed by an expectant mother it becomes like living in a boiling copper cauldron for the pregnancy. If it is too cold it is like living in purgatory in between the worlds (lokantarika); when extremely sour, salty, bitter and sharp eatables have been eaten, there arise sharp pains to the limbs of the embryo as if they were split open with a knife and sprinkled over with sour liquids and so on. They prohibit the expectant mother doing too much walking to and for, standing, sitting, and lying down also saying: "Let there not be shaking pain to the child in the womb." The expectant mother gets to do to the extent of going to and fro on the ground surfaced with soft spread and so on. She gets to enjoy food and drink which suits her well and is endowed with good colour and accent. Held by a helper only, they let her go to and fro, sit down and rise up.

91.37. Thus being looked after all-round, she entered the lying-in-chamber at the time of full maturity of her pregnancy, and at day-break she gave birth to a son, like unto a lump of mind-cooling stone (manosilā), soaked and pressed with cooking oil, and endowed with characteristics of wealth of grain and merit. Subsequently on the fifth day they showed him, properly dressed and decorated, to the king. Being satisfactorily pleased, the king had his son attended to by sixty-six wet nurses. Growing up with all kinds of luxury he soon attained the age of intelligence. The king anointed him with sovereignty at his age of sixteen years; he was also attended to by all varieties of dancing damsels. The coronated youthful king ruled over his kingdom being known as Brahmā-datta, in the entire Jambudīpa, in the twenty thousand cities. It is said that formerly, there were eight four hundred thousand cities. When they got diminished there became sixty (hundred thousand), subsequently as they got diminished again, it became forty. At the time of wholesale diminution, however, there were twenty thousand. This king Brahmadatta arose at the time of whole diminution. Therefore, there were twenty thousand cities, twenty thousand palaces, twenty thousand elephants, twenty thousand horses, twenty thousand chariots, twenty thousand foot-soldiers, twenty thousand ladies' harems as well as dancing damsels and twenty thousand ministers.

91.38. He, while reigning as a great sovereign did the meditation exercise with objects for contemplation, and brought about for himself the five kinds of higher knowledge (abhiññā), and eight kinds of achievement in meditation (samāpatti). Just because the anointed monarch, namely, had surely to be in session to decide law suits, therefore, one day, ate his morning meal much earlier than usual, and took his seat at the law court for decision. There a high and greatsounding uproar occurred. The king, saying to himself: "This sound is a disturbance to achievement in meditation," went up the height of his palace floor and when he took his seat to attain achievement in meditation (samāpatti). Subsequently he kept himself thinking: "How is it? Which is better? Sovereignty or the dhamma of a monk? Thereafter, he came to know thus: "The bliss of a monarch is minute and full of faults;whereas the happiness of monk's dhamma is prosperous and has many a benefit, also participated by most excellent people". He gave orders to a certain minister thus:- "You administer this kingdom with righteousness and equity; let nobody do any injustice whatsoever". Having handed over the entire administration to that minister, he went up the palace, and passed his time with the happiness of his achievement in meditation (samāpatti). Except those who brought for him and gave him face-washing water, tooth-brush, nourishment, etc., nobody was allowed to go near him.

91.39. Subsequently when about half a month had passed the chief queen enquired thus: "The king is not seen in his going to the royal garden, witnessing the shows of strength (of military parade), the dancing displays and so on; where is he gone. They informed here about the matter. She sent for the minister and said "When you had taken over the sovereignty it means I also have been taken over; let him come and make cohabitation together with me". The minister covered both his ears and declined her offer saying: "This is not hearable". Again also she sent for the minister twice and thrice and threatened him for his unwillingness: "If you do not do what I want you to do, I shall remove you from your place and deprive you of your life also." He became afraid saying: "A woman, namely, is of firm decision; sometime or other she might make me suffer in this manner". One day, the minister went quietly and made cohabitation with her together on her royal bed. She was endowed with merit and her touch was blissful. The minister, being clingingly attracted by her, touch went much often doubtfully and anxiously to her. Gradually, he began to enter her bed chamber without doubtful anxiety (nibbisaṅko) as if he was himself the lord of her household.

91.40. Thereupon the royal retainers informed the king about that matter. The king did not believe it. For the second and third time also they informed the king about it. Subsequently the king, lying hidden in wait, himself saw it, had all the ministers assembled and informed them about it. The ministers pointed out saying: "This royal criminal deserves his hands cut off; he deserves leg-cutting" and all such punishments to be given as to suggest up to impalement. The king said: "In the flogging, binding and whipping this one, it might amount to my ill-treating him; in depriving him of his life, it might mean my sin of killing; in confiscating his wealth, it might mean my sin of theft; enough of inflicting such punishments as these; drag this minister out of my kingdom." The ministers banished him. He took his own essence of wealth, wife and children and went away to a foreign region. There, the king of that country heard about his arrival and asked why he had come. He replied: "Your Majesty! I want to serve under you". That king accepted him. With the lapse of a few days, the minister gained royal favour and said this to the king: "O Great king! I have found honey without bees; there is no one to enjoy it." The king did not listen to him, saying: "Why do you say this for the sake of making fun?". Having obtained an opportunity he said again describing it also in a better way. The king asked: "What is this?" The minister replied: "The kingdom of Benares, your majesty!" The king enquired saying: "Why do you want to guide me there and kill me"? He answered: "Your majesty! Please do not say so;if you do not believe me, please send your men." The king sent out his men there. They went there, dug up the city gate and installed the same at the royal house for sleep.

91.41. The king saw it and enquired: "Whose setting up is it?" The thieves replied that it was their doing. The king had money given to them saying: "Do not do such a thing again"; having thus admonished them, the king set them free. They went back and informed their king about the matter. The king again made investigating tests in that self-same way, twice and thrice also, became convinced that the king of Benares was virtuous, mobilised his fourfold army, approached a city within the boundary of Benares and sent thence a minister-messenger with this ultimatum: "Give me either the city or battle". The messenger informed King Brahmadatta about that matter saying: "Let his majesty pass orders as to whether either battle or city will be given". The king sent back the messenger "Battle should not be fought; give the city and come back". The ministermessenger did accordingly. The rival king also seized that city, and in the remaining cities also he sent a messenger in that self-same way. Those ministers also informed king Brahmadatta in that self-same way and when ordered by their king: "Battle should not be fought; they should come here too Benares city," they all returned to Benares.

91.42. Therefore, the ministers told king Brahmadatta thus: "O Great King! We want to fight battle with him." The king prohibited them saying: "There will occur sin of slaughter to me". The ministers convinced the king by means of many kinds of approach saying: "O Great King! We shall capture him alive and bring him right here; please come, O Great King!" and began to go. The king told them thus: "If you all do not do the deed of plundering, beating and killing creatures, I shall go." The ministers replied: "Your Majesty! We will not do so, we shall show them their danger and make them flee", equipped themselves with their fourfold army, put lighted lamps in jars and marched out at night. The rival king, on that day, captured a city near Benares said to himself: "How then? Now!", had his armour taken off, and dropped down to sleep negligently with his body of strong army, Subsequently, the ministers brought king Brahmadatta, went to the camp, (Khandhāvara), of the rival king, took out the lighted lamps from the jars, made a single mass of lustrous light and made an acclamation of shouting out. The minister of the rival king saw the great body of strong army, became afraid, approached his own king and made a great sound: "Please get up and eat the honey without bees". The second and third minister also did likewise. The rival king woke up because of that sound and met with danger and torture. Hundreds of acclamation occurred. That rival king talked this and that confusedly the whole night saying: "Believing the word of another I have now reached into enemy's hand". One the next day, he thought: "The righteous king would not do any destruction, I shall go and tender him my apology, approached the king, established himself on his knees and said: "O Great King! Please pardon my offence". The king admonished him and said: "Do get up, I pardon you". Immediately it was thus said by the king, he became greatly relieved and he obtained sovereignty of a district in the neighbourhood of the king of Benares.

91.43. Then, king Brahmadatta, seeing the two armies also standing unitedly in cordial harmony, made this utterance:- "On account of guarding the mind of my single self, there has not shed a single drop of blood even to the extent of being drinkable by a small fly in this great body of armed men. Wonderfully good! Wonderfully excellent! May all creatures be happy! May they be free from enmity! May they be free from harm". He then made the successful meditation (jhāna), on loving kindness, and with that very jhāna as foundation, investigated into actions (samkhāra), visualised the knowledge of silent buddhahood and attained the state of sayambhū, a self-dependent silent Buddha. To that king, who was seated on the back of his royal elephant, happy with the bliss of the right paths and their fruition, the ministers, making their adoration (panipata) said thus:- "O Great King! It is time for the victorious army to go; personal honour (sakkāro) should be made to it; food expenses should be given to the vanquished army. He replied: "O ministers! I am no longer a king; I am to be known as silent Buddha." The ministers responded: "What does your majesty say? Silent buddhas are not like this." The king enquired: "My dear friends! What do the silent buddhas look like?" Their answer was: "Silent buddhas, namely, are with two finger breadth of hair and beard and are equipped with their eight essential requisites (parikkhāra)". He rubbed his head with his right hand; at that very moment his house holder's appearance vanished; the guise of a monk became apparent. He became like unto a thera of a hundred years standing equipped with eight essential requisites wearing two finger-breadth of hair and beard. He entered upon the fourth jhāna, went up from the elephant's back to the sky, and sat himself down on a lotus flower. The ministers worshipped him and asked: "Venerable Sir! What is the mental exercise (kammatthana)? How did you achieve it?:" he replied: "Since there was to me the mental exercise, (kammaṭṭhāna), of loving kindness jhāna, I tried to see it clearly with my spiritual insight and achieved it". Therefore, in order to show that matter he recited the poem of joyous utterance as well as the poem of explanation and uttered this selfsame stanza: "Sabbesu bhūtesu nidhāya daṇḍam, laying down the stick-weapon towards all living beings."

91.44. There sabbesu means total without any remainder bhūtesu means among living beings. This is here in brief. In extension, however, we shall say in the commentary on Ratanasutta, the discourse on Three Gems. nidhāya means having thrown down. Daṇḍa is weapon of body, speech and mind; this is the expression for bodily bad behaviour and so on. Indeed, bodily bad behaviour is to be understood as if it is a weapon (daṇḍa), because it punishes; it is a stick weapon because it inflicts and causes to suffer misfortune and misery. In the same way is verbal bad behaviour and mental bad behaviour. The very striking stick itself is a stick weapon. The statement is made thus also: dropping it down. Avihethavam means not harassing. Aññataram means whomever anyone, even a single one also. Tesam means to those all living creatures naputtamiceheyya means one should not desire any and every son amongst these four kinds of sons: One's own offspring, son born on one's land, gift son, given by others and resident-pupil-son. Kutosahāvam means: If one were to say: a companion, however, is desirable, from where even is this companion?

91.45. It is to be understood thus: He is single, all alone, by reckoning him as a renounced recluse; he is single because he stands without a second; he is single because he stands having discarded craving desire (taṇhā); he is single because he is surely devoid of depravity (kilesa); he is single because he had become highly and perfectly enlightened by becoming a silent buddha singly; he is single because he had cut off the fetters of household life even if he indeed moves about amidst a thousand monks. in this way he is single, Pabbajjasamkhātena by being reckoned as a renounced recluse. He stands singly; he goes solely; he sits singly; he makes himself lie down alone.

All alone, he moves and functions; thus, in this way, he is single because of his standing without a second, adutiyaṭṭhena.

Going round repeated rebirths, craving desire (taṇhā), of the second man, and one does not pass over the round of rebirths comprising this existence and another existence. Knowing this disadvantage that craving desire (taṇhā), is the cause of distress (dukkha), a bhikkhu should renounce all round by being free from craving desire, (taṇhā), without taking it up and being mindful.

In this way, he is single by the abandonment of craving desire (taṇhā), taṇhāpahānatthena. In this way, he is single thus: ekantavigata kilesa, surely having got away from depravity, he is such as had discarded all depravity, cut off all depravity from their roots, had done like a stump of a palm tree, obliterated all depravity in such a way that they are not liable to rise up again in future. He is single thus: eko pacceka sambodhim abhisambuddho, having become highly and fully enlightened by becoming a silent buddha all alone, being without a teacher in this way, he becomes self-dependent;(sayambhū), he, by himself only becomes a silent buddha having attained higher and full enlightenment.

91.46. By the expression: Care, it must be understood thus:- Such eight sorts of behaviour as these, namely: the four moving postures (iriyāpatha) of those who are endowed with selfresolution (paṇidhi), the behaviour of moving posture, (iriyāpatha); amongst the six internal organs of sense of those who have guarded doors in their controlling faculties (indriya), the behaviour of sense organs; of the four foundations of mindfulness of these who dwell deligently, the behaviour of awareness; among the four jhānas of those who are engaged in the fixation of mind (adhicitta), the behaviour of meditation; among the four noble truths of those endowed with enlightenment (buddhi), the behaviour of knowledge; among the four noble truths of those who had entered upon right practice the behaviour of right path (magga); among the four fruits of monkhood, of the people who had achieved fruition (phala), the behaviour of attainment; among all living beings, of the three kinds of Buddhas the behaviour for the benefit of the world (loka); there as portion of the silent buddhas and of disciples of Buddha. Accordingly, we say: "Cariya, behaviour means eight sorts of behaviour the behaviour of moving posture.". One should become endowed with those sorts of behaviour; thus is the meaning. In other words, particularly becoming clear about these, one behaves with faith (saddhā), uplifting them, one behaves with exertion; attending to them, one behaves with mindfulness; being undistracted, one behaves with meditation; knowing with spiritual insight, one behaves with knowledge; having entered upon practice in this way, one achieves distinction; thus, he behaves for the behaviour of distinction; thus, in this way, other eight practices also had been stated. With these also one should become endowed; thus, is the meaning. The expression: Khaggavisāṇakappo is to be understood thus:- Here, the horn of rhinoceros, namely, is the horn of dagger beast (khaggamiga). I shall make clear about the meaning of the word kappa in extenso in the commentary of Maṅgala-Sutta. Here, however, this resemblance is to be understood as in such context as: "Oh! It is said that consulting together with the disciple who resembles the Master" and so on. Thus, Khaggavisanakappo is said to be the same as the expression khaggavisāṇasadiso, similar to the horn of a rhinoceros. This so far, here, is the commentary, word for word.

91.47. The meaning according to sequence, however, should be understood in this way:- This aforesaid weapon, in being wielded on the living beings, is of no benefit; by not wielding that weapon on those living beings, with loving kindness which is it's opposite, and by bringing about benefit of others, one is said to have thrown down the stick-weapon harmlessly towards all living beings; because of the fact that the weapon had been dropped even, one is not going to harass like those creatures, who had not dropped their weapons and who harasses living beings either with a stick-weapon, or with a sword or with his palm of the hand or with a clod of earth; I achieved this silent buddhahood, having seen clearly with my spiritual insight some one of them also, who had arrived at sensation there, as well as perception, action and consciousness, and also the phenomenon in consequence of that and the materialisation of that and other things also, due to this mental exercise (kammaṭṭhāna), of loving kindness. Thus, this so far, is the significance.

91.48. This, however, is the sequence -- When said thus, those ministers asked thus: "Venerable Sir! where are you going? Thereafter, when they got the reply from him saying: "Wherever previous silent buddhas dwelt", which he came to know after mentally investigating to be" in "Gandhamādan hill", they again said: "Venerable Sir! Do you now forsake us? Do you not want us?" Then the silent buddha said thus: "One should not desire a son" and all. The import there, is:-I would not want any kind of son amongst offspring of oneself and so on. Whence, therefore, a companion like you all? Therefore, whoever among you desires to become like me and go with me, he should practise all alone like the horn of a rhinoceros. In other words, on being said by them: "Venerable Sir! Do you now forsake us? Do you not want us?" that silent buddha replied to them saying: "One should not want a son, whence is a companion?", saw the quality of practising alone according to the stated circumstance and being joyful and becoming full of jest and mental delight, made this joyous utterance: "One should practise alone like the horn of a rhinoceros." Having said thus, he went up the sky, while the great mass of people were just looking on, and proceeded to Gandhamādana.

91.49. Gandhamādana, namely, is full of snow and situated beyond the seven hills: Cūlakāla (small black) hill; Mahākāla (big black) hill; Nāgapalivethana (the coiling dragon) hill; Canda (moon) hill; Sūriya (sun) hill; Suvaṇṇapassa (gold-side) hill; the Himavanta (snow-covered) hill. There, the cave known as nandamūlaka is the residential place of silent buddhas; the caves are three in number: gold cave, gem cave and silver cave. There, at the doorway of gem-cave, is a tree, Mañjūsaka, by name, a yojana in height, and a yojana in breadth. As many as there are flowers whether in the water or on land that tree out-flower all of them, especially on the day of arrival of a silent buddha. Above that tree there is an all-gem pavillion. There the sweeping breeze discards the garbage; the levelling wind makes sand, made up of all kinds of gems, evenly level. The sprinkling wind brings water from the Anotatta lake and sprinkle it. Sweet-scent-making wind brings perfumes of all sweet-scented trees from Himavanta hill. The plucking wind plucks down flowers. The spreading wind spreads the flowers all over everywhere. There are always well-prepared seats, as well, there, where on the day of appearance of a silent buddha as well as on the Uposatha Fast day, all silent buddhas assemble together and take their seats. This is quite normal there. This silent buddha went there and sat himself down on the prepared seat. Subsequently, if at that time other silent buddhas were already there, they also, that very moment, would assemble together and sit themselves down on the prepared seats. having sat down also, they would enter upon any successful mediation (samāpatti), and rise up. Thereafter the senior of the assembly would ask the recently arrived silent buddha about his mental exercise (kammaṭṭhāna), for the felicitation of all others thus: "How have you made this achievement?" On that occasion also, he recited that self same poem of his own joyous utterance and its explanation. Thera Ānanda also had sung together (Ānando pi saṅgītiyam). In the same way each and every;stanza was sung together at the site of attainment of silent buddhahood, on the pavillion of Mañjūsaka, at the time of being asked by the thera Ānanda. The recitation was made four times.

Here ended the commentary on the first stanza.

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