Apadana commentary (Atthakatha)

by U Lu Pe Win | 216,848 words

This is the English translation of the commentary on the Apadana (Atthakatha), also known as the Visuddhajana-Vilasini. The Buddhist stories known as apadanas refer to biographies of Buddhas, Buddhist monks and nuns. They are found in the Pali Canon (Khuddaka Nikaya), which is the primary canon of Theravada Buddhism. Alternative titles: Visuddhaja...

Commentary on the Biography of Buddha (Buddha-apadāna-vaṇṇanā)

5.11 now, I want to speak of the commentary on the Apadāna immediately after the inside preface (abbhantara nidāna).

"The uninterrupted biography (sapadāna apadāna), the preaching in variegated ways, which noble sages sang together in the small collection, (Khuddaka Nikāya); for the time) has now arrived to comment upon, in the successive order of ex- positional commentary.

5.12. There, since it is stated: "The entire teaching of Buddha is but one and only essence of emancipation (vimuttirasa)", now, Apadāna is such that it is classified in the category of a single essence. Amongst the first, middle and last words of Buddha, Apadāna is classified in the category of the middle teaching of Buddha. Amongst the three Piṭakas; Vinaya, Abhidhamma and Sutta, it is classified in the category of Sutta. Amongst the five divisions (Nikāyas), the longdiscourse division, (dīgha nikāya), middle-length (majjima), kindred sayings (samyutta), numerical sayings (Anguttara), and division of small sayings (Khuddakanikāya), it is classified in the category of khuddaka Nikāya. Amongst the nine characteristics of dispensation according to matter (sāsanaṅga), 'discoursive' narration (sutta), mixed prose and verse literature (geyya), exposition (veyyakarana), stanza (gāthā), joyous utterance (udāna), book of quotations (Itivuttaka), birth stories (jātaka), supernormal sayings (abbhuta) and catechetical discourse (vedalla), it is to be classified in the category of gāthā.

"Eighty-two I took from Buddha; two thousand from bhikkhu; these beneficial dhammas are such as numbering eighty-four thousand.

5.13. Now, the expression: "Innumerable are the spiritual sovereigns, who had properly fulfilled the thirty perfections (timsapāramīsampunnā, dhammarājā asaṅkhiyā)", is made to show that Apadāna. There, the very ten perfections become altogether thirty perfections by way of lowest (pacchima), medium (majjhima) and highest (ukkaṭṭha). Excellently filled with them, well-filled, possessed of, provided with (samyutta) with them; thus, is timsapāramīsampuṇṇā. Kings (rājāno), are those who make the big body of beings who live in all the three worlds (loka), and who make their own bodies to be glad as well as near and dear, by being of one mind or by living the life of the attainment of fruition of the paths destined for nibbāna or by means of jhānic attainments of four noble lives comprising loving kindness, sympathy, gladness over the good fortunes of others and equanimity over adversaries. dhammarājā, righteous kings are such kings as are with dhamma (righteousness) buddhas stated by way of not being able to count as ten, hundred, thousand, ten thousand, hundred thousand, ten hundred thousand, crore (koṭi), ten crores (pakoṭi), a thousand crores (koṭi-pakoṭi0, ten thousand crores (nahuta), a hundred thousand crores (ninnahuta), akkhobhini, bindu, abbuda, nirabbuda, ahaha, ababa, atata, sogandhika, uppala, kumuda, puṇḍarika, paduma, kathāna, makākathāna, Buddhas, Kings of dhamma, are beyond calculation; the meaning being: they are past, gone away, ceased, and vanished.

6. when asked by the thera Ānanda about the devoted service (adhikāra), rendered to those previous Buddhas, and the accumulation (sambhāra), made by Himself as world-king while He was a bodhisat, the Glorious One said "Self-enlightenment (sam-bodhi), of most excellent Buddhas", and so on. "O Ānanda! Listen to my biography (apadāna); thus, is what is meant. "O Ānanda! Formerly, at the time. I adored with my head the enlightenment (sambodhi), the knowledge of the right path. of the four noble truths or the omniscient knowledge of Buddhas, who are most excellent, who are praise-worthy and who had penetrated the four noble truths; thus, is the connection. The expression sasamghe, together with samgha, is to be explained as: along with the organisation of disciples. Lokanāyake is to be interpreted as the eldest personages of the world;Buddhas; namassitvā is to be explained as paying homage (vanditvā) with both clasped hands and ten fingers. sirasā is to be explained as (sisena) with head. Abhivādaye, is to be interpreted as meaning: "I do the adoration, performing the praise with respect.

7. The expression: "Yāvatā Buddhakhettesu (as far as the fields of Buddha,)" is to be interpreted as: in the ten thousand (cakkavāḷa) of the sphere of Buddha. Ākāsaṭṭha (standing on ether) is to be interpreted as gone to be interpreted as gone to the sky. Bhūmatthā (standing on earth) is to be interpreted as gone to the surface of the earth. Lapis lazuli (or beryl) etc., the seven gem jewels (ratana), asankhiya (innumerable) is to be interpreted as beyond calculation. Yāvatā, (as far as) is to be interpreted as to such an extent; vijjanti (exist). Manasā Samāhare is to be interpreted as meaning: I shall bring, after making up my mind properly, all of them. I make heaps around my palace, is what is meant.

8. There the expression: Tattha rūpiya bhūmiyam means: there on those innumerable pieces of land and palace apartments made of silver (rūpiyā) and silver (rajata) have been created. The expression ahamratanamayam pāsādam mapayim is to be interpreted as: I created a palace of many hundred storeys, made of seven kinds of gems; ubbiddham (high) is to be explained as going up (uggata), nabamuggatam (going up the sky) is to be explained by shining with brilliance in the sky.

9. spreading in praise of that very palace, statement is made thus: Vicittathambha (variegated pillar) etc. The commentary is: raised on posts of the countless colours of cat's-eye commented on as properly done (sutthu katam); properly distributed (vibhatta) by way of being associated with characteristics (lakkhaṇa), such as height and girth. Mahāraham (greatly costly), because it was built along with gate-ways worth many a hundred crore. Again, how is it eminent? kanakamayasaṅghatam, (tangled mass made of gold) is to be commented on as: composed of gold balance-making, tangle making and bracelet making. There the connection (sambandha) is: It is maṇḍitam, i.e. decorated, made good-looking and pleasing with hoisted standards and umbrellas also.

10. Again, speaking well of the grandeur of the self same palace, statement is made: "Pathamā veluriya bhūmi(the first storey is of beryl gem) etc." The meaning is to be construed thus: Pathamā bhūmi, the first floor of that palace which had many a hundred flat was delightful (subha), like the cloud free from impurity, made of beryl gem and sapphire-blue coloured. The meaning here is: ākiṇṇa, spread over or become one and the same with lotuses sticking to a mass of water, and kañcana bhūmiyā, looks handsome like the gold mansion.

11. Kācibhūmipavāḷamsā, some coral portion of the flat of that self-same palace, its share of coral is, pavālavaṇṇā, of the colour of coral. Some flats which are subhā (delightfuld) excite the mind; others which are indagopakavaṇṇābhā, of the shining colour of a red beetle (indagopaka), are emitting rays; some flats disāobhāsati radiate directionally in the ten directions this is what is meant.

12. In that self-same palace, niyyūbā, the turrets (or pinnacles), the protruding foremost hall also is suvibhattā, well distributed, appropriately apportioned, each and everything made separately from the point of view of sharing in the distribution. Sīhapañjara (the lion-cage) is to be interpreted as the lion door. The expression caturovedikā (the four cornices or railings) is to be explained as with enclosure railings and with net enclosures. Manoramā (delightful to the mind) is to be explained as: desirable (or adhering) to the mind; and the word gandhaveḷā (scented garland) means perfumed wreaths are also hanging down.

13. In that self-same palace, sattaratana bhūsitā (adorned with seven gems) are gabled houses which shine with seven kinds of gem-jewels. How has it happened? Nītā (sapphire-blue) blue colour, pītā (golden) yellow colour, gold colour; lohitakā (blood red), the colour of blood, red colour; oātā (clean, clean colour) white, colour; suddhakālakā (pure black) unmixed black colour; kuṭāgāravarūpetā (endowed with excellent gable-roofed houses) means: that palace is provided with, complete with excellent gabled (or pinnacled) roofs, with good gabled housetops.

14. In that self-same palace, olokamaya (sightly of good-looking), up-faced, paduma (lotus) well-blooming paduma lotus flowers look lovely. It means that the said palace is also shining with flocks of such winged creatures as swans (hamsa), herons (koñca), peacocks (mayura), and so on. What is meant here is: That palace is maṇḍito, adorned with candasūrehi (sun and moon) i.e. seemingly with sun and moon mixed with stars, planets and constellations because it was so very high that it reached up to the sky.

15. that self-same palace of the world-king was complete with hemajālena (glow of gold) gold net (or blaze), being sañchanno (fully covered over) with gold net; being soṇṇakiṅkaṇikāyuto (connected with gold bracelets) attracted by and endowed with nets of gold bracelets; manoramā (pleasing to the mind) adhering to the mind, soṇṇamālā (gold garland) rows of gold flowers; vātavegena (with wind-speed) with the bloweing of the breeze; kūjanti, they coo, they make sound; thus, is the meaning.

16. Mañjeṭṭhukam (crimson) the crimson colour; lohitakam (red) blood red colour; pītakam (yellow) gloden yellow colour; haripiñjaram (yellow heap) the flag of jambonada gold colour and heap of gold colour; nānāraṅgehi (differently dyed) with many a colour. Sampītam (properly yellow) dyed flag; usitam (hoisted) had the flag flown aloft in that palace; the expression: dhajamālini (garlanded flags) is made by way of a distortion of gender; the meaning is: that palace was replete with garlanded flags.

17. In describing the spreāds (or mats) and so on, in that palace, such a statement as: Nanam bahū (not many it is) and so on, is made. It means: there in that palace, there is no such thing as does not exist in abundance. Nānāsayanavicitta (variegated resting places of different denominations), many a resting place comprising couch, chair and so on, which were shining and variegated with many a sheet and spread;anekasata (many a hundred) hundreds; in number. How has it happened Phalika (crystal) made of crystal gem, done with crystal; rajatamayā (silver make) made of silver; maṇimayā (made of gem) done with blue sapphire gem;lohitaṅga (bloodred ruby) done with normal red ruby, masāragallamayā (made of masāragalla cat's eye gem) done with spotted-coloured gem; saṇhakāsikasanthatā (being spread over with tender Benares muslin) the condition of being spread over with fine, delicate kāsi cloth.

18. Pāvurā is the same as pāvuraṇa (mantle) cloak; what is it like? kambalā (cloth) is such a piece of cloth as had been woven with hair-yarn; dukūtā (silk) made of silk cloth; cina (Chinese) made of Chinese cloth; Pattuṇṇa (name of a place, made of cloth) the product of Pattuṇṇa region;pan̄ du, yellow, light yellow colour; vicittaṭṭharanam (variegated spread) marvellous with many a spread-over sheet and mantle also;sabbam (all) every resting place; manasā (mentally) with mind (or heart);aham paññāpesim (I ahd the same arranged) I caused them to be prepared. thus is the meaning.

19. Describing the self-same palace, statement is made thus; "Tāsu tāsveva bhūmīsu (in those and those very flats or storeys)" and so on, There, the meaning of ratanakūṭalañkatam (the ornamented bejewelled top) is adorned and graceful with tops made of gems, and bejewelled corners. Maṇiverocanāukkā (sunradiant gem torch) done with sun-shining gems, red gems; ukkā (torch) lamp-sticks; the meaning of dhārayantā sutṭṭhare (holding and standing well) many a hundred people stood well seizing and carrying carefully aloft towards the sky.

20. Again, describing that self-same palace, statement is made thus: "Sobhantiesikā thambhā (pillars and posts are graceful)" and so on. There, esikā thambhā (pillars and posts) namely, in order to make things beautiful, posts were dug in, at the city gate; subhā (pleasant) desirable; kancanatoraṇā (golden gate-ways) made of gold; jambonadā (the eugines riverproduct) made also of gold, of jambonada quality; sāramayā (made of essence) also made of the essence of acacia tree; rajatamayā (made of silver) the gate-ways look beautiful; the meaning is pillars as well as gate-ways make that palace look graceful.

21. the meaning is: In that palace, suvibhattā anekā sandhī (numerous joints are welldistributed) with door-panels as well as bolts (or cross-bars); cittitā (resplendent with) made graceful, joints and surroundings are made beautiful. Ubhato (both sides) is to be understood as: on both sides of that palace; puṇṇaghatā, full jars, with many a lotus (paduma) red lotus and with many a lily (uppala), white lotus, samyuta (well-provided) filled containers make that palace graceful.

22-3. Having thus described the grace of the palace, statement is made thus: "Atīte sabbaBuddhe ca (all previous Buddhas as well)" and so on, in order to give information about the honour as well. There, atīte (in the past) when the time that had passed and gone away, was born and become; sasamghe (together with the clergy) accompanied by assembly of disciples; sabbe lokanāyake (all leaders of loka) Buddhas;ripen, with natural and normal complexion as well as form; sasāvake (together with disciples) Buddhas accompanied by their own disciples;nimminitvā (having created) by whatever door, the palace ought to be entered, tena dvārena pavīsitvā (having entered by that door) sasāvakā sabbe Buddhā (all Buddhas accompanied by their own disciples); sabbasoṇṇamaye (wholly made of gold); pīṭhe nisinnā (sat themselves down on the chairs); ariyamaṇḍalā (became an assemblage of holy Ones). This is the meaning.

24-5. Etarahi (now) at the present time; anuttarā (no superior) being devoid of any superior; ye ca Buddhā atthi (whichever, Buddhas have existed) have come into being; those paccekabuddhe anekasate sayambhū (silent buddhas, many a hundred self-dependents) who became arahats by themselves only, without the aid of any other teacher;aparājite (unconquered by others) unconquered by such five kinds of Māra, as aggregates (khandha), depravity (kilesa), accumulation of actions (abhisaṅkhāra), death and youthful divinity; the meaning is that He was satisfied with the gaining of victory. Bhavanam (mansion), my palace in the past and at present, also; sabbe-buddhā samāruhum (all buddhas climbed well), the ascended properly, thus is the meaning.

26. Ye dibbā (whoever are divine) because of divine existence, one is celestial, born in the world of celestial-beings Ye ca bahū kapparukkhā atthi (there exist many world trees of all types). Ye ca mānusā (whoever also are human beings) for human beings, there grew many world trees of all types. Thereafter, sabbam dussam samāhantvā (having brought properly garments) having brought properly, had a set of three roves made, and acchādemi (I cover) offered the sets of three robes to those silent buddhas; thus, is the connection.

27. having thus offered the sets of three robes to be dressed up and cloaked with them, to those silent buddhas who were seated, sampannam (well-cooked) sweet, khajjam (hard eatable) that ought to be chewed, some such thing as cake and so on; seweet bhojjam (soft eatable) the nourishment that ought to be eaten; sweet sāyaniyam (savory) that ought to be licked; Sampannam (well prepared) eight kinds of sweet drinks which are drink-able; bhojanam (soft food) nourishment, which should be eaten; subha (pleasant) good; manimaye, made of stone; patte (in the begging bowl) sam 9proper;y) well; pūretvā adāsim (filled and offered) I had them accepted;this is the meaning.

28. Sabbe te ariyamandalā (all those circles of holy ones) all those assemblages of holy Ones; dibbacakkhu samā hutvā matthā (who have polished the divine eye that they gained), being possessors of celestial eyes, which keep shining and adhering, as well as polished because they have nothing to do with depravity (kilesa);cīvarasamyutā, (well-equipped with robes) possessed of sets of three robes; the meaning is they were tappita (satiated with) catered for, and entirely filled with paramannena (most excellent meal) most superior food, made of sweet sugar, oil, and sweet (or honey) molasses.

29. those assemblages of holy Ones, having thus been catered for to their satisfaction, pavisitvā, entered, ratangabbham (bejewelled chamber) the dwelling and chamber built with seven kinds of gems;kesarīva (like lion) resembling the hairy lion, guhāsaya (lair-lying) lying (or living) in the lair (or cave); mahārahamhi sayane (in the resting place of great value) on priceless couch, sīhaseyyamakappayum (made the lion's lying down) just as, the lion, king of beasts, lying with its right side down, neatly placing its foot on its foot, making its right hand, pillow for its head, placing its left hand straight, making its tail lie between the thighs, and sleeps still without shaking; in this way, they lay themselves down; thus, is the meaning.

30. they, having thus laid down similar to lion's lying down, sampajanā (mindfully) being endowed with awareness and mindfulness; samuṭṭhāya (having risen up well) got up properly, sayane pallaṅkamābhujum (sat cross-legged on the bed) made themselves seated binding their thighs; thus, is the meaning.

31. Gocaram sabbabuddhānam (the begging round of all buddhas) the sphere of action, which has become the basis of operation of all Buddhas, past and future; jhānaratisamappitā, (concentrated on the pleasure of jhāna) means: They were possessed of and concentrated properly upon the joy of meditative achievements. Aññedhammāni desenti (others preach the dhamma) amongst those silent buddhas, some preach dhamma;aññe (others) some, iddhiyā (with power) with the display of first jhāna and so on; kilanti (sport) amuse themselves.

32. Aññe (others) some few of them; abhiññā (super-knowledge) five kinds of superknowledge; vasibhāvita (developed mastery) attained mastership; in five kinds of superknowledge, with five kinds of mastership, counted as: (i) apprehending (āvajjana) (ii) proper production (samāpajjana), (iii) rising (vuṭṭhāna) (iv) resolving (adiṭṭhāna) (v) reflecting (paccavekkhama); gone, proceeding towards, attained the state of mastery; appenti (made to attain) properly gained the five kinds of super-knowledge. Aññe (others) some few of them; anekasahassiyo vikubhanāni, many a thousand performances, single though he is, he becomes multitudinous; although having become many, the self-same many can become one; vikubbanit, (perform) in this way and so on, they make performances (of manifestations) of powers.

33. Buddhā pi buddhe pucchanti (Buddhas ask buddhas) when the silent buddhas have thus assembled, silent buddhas ask perfect Buddhas questions in connection with, visa 9scope or range) object of contemplation of omniscient knowledge; thus, is the meaning. Buddhas to paññāya vinibujjhare (enlighten them intelligently), make them comprehend distinctively and completely by means of their knowledge, gambhīam nipunam thānam (profound and subtle matter), profound and subtle meaning.

34. then, Sāvaka (disciples) also, who were assembled in my palace, buddhe pucchanti asked Buddhas questions. Buddhā (Buddhas), sāvake pucchanti (asked their disciples), pupils, questions. Te (they), Buddhas as well as disciples, aññamaññam pucchitvā (having asked each other), byākaronti (answer), gave their answers mutually.

35. Again, in order to show them all together, statement is made thus: "Buddhā paccekabuddhāca" and so on. There, Buddhā (Buddhas) means omniscient Buddhas; paccekabuddhā, silent buddhas; sāvakā(disciples) pupils; paricārakā (attendants) all these dependents; sakāya (individual), ones own;rativā (with joy) enjoying; pāsāde abhiramanti (they feel deeply delighted in my palace) and became attached thereto.

36. Having thus pointed out the proper attainment of practice, in order to make manifest his own power, that world-king, the conqueror of the three worlds (loka), statement is made as:

"Chattā tiṭṭhanut ratanā" and so on. There, ratanā, (gems) made of seven kinds of gems; chattā kañcanāveḷapantikā, (sunshades or umbrellas) rows of massive gold, hung with gold nets; tiṭṭhantu, let them stand;muttājālaparikkhittā (thrown round with pearl nets), surrounded by pearl nets; sabbe, all umbrellas (or sunshades); matthake (on the head) over my head; dhārenti (let them be held); the very moment it was thus thought, the umbrellas become apparent; thus, is the meaning.

37. Soṇṇatāraka cittitā (variegated gold stars) resplendent with gold stars; celavitānā (cloth-awning); bhavantu (let it become) let it be produced. Vicittā (variegated) be of many colours; malyavitatā (diffused with garlands) spread over with flowers; sabbe (all) many an awning; matthake (over the head), on the above portion of the sitting place, dhārentu, let it be held; thus, is the meaning.

38-40. Malyadāmehi (with garland-ropes) with many a sweet-scented flower-ropes; vitatā (diffused) thoroughly mixed up; gandhadāmehi (with perfumed ropes) with perfumed ropes of sandal-wood, saffron (kuṅkuma), incense (tagara), and so on; sobhitā (shining) lotus lake; thus, is the connection. Dussadāmehi (with cloth ropes) with priceless cloth-ropes of birds' feathers (patta), wool (uṇṇa), China (cina), and so on; parikiṇṇā (thoroughly mixed) the lotus lade is ornamented and adorned with ropes of seven sorts of gems. Pupphābhikiṇṇā (well profused with flowers) with such sweetly scented flowers as fragrant yellow champaka, sweet scented salala, the white water-lily (sogandhika), and so on; abhikiṇṇā (well profused) well variegated and shining; again, how is the lotus lake? It is adorned and permeated with fragrant scent and proper perfume. On all sides, gandhapañcaṅgulalaṅkata (ornamented with five finger measure of perfume) adorned with unguents smeared with five fingers; hemacchadanachādita (covered with gold covering) covered over with gold counterpanes, and gold canopies; cātuddisā (four directions) in the four directions of the palace; khāyantu (let it appear) let there appear lotus lades well spread over and covered over with lotus flowers (paduma) and lilies (uppala), of gold complexion and gold colour; padmareṇurajuggatā (lotus pollens raging up) let the lotus lades shine being in profusion with lotus pollens (reṇu), and petals (dhūli) thus, is the meaning.

41. Pāsādassa samantato pādapā (drinkers from the roots on all sides of the palace) such trees as champak (campaka), and so on, all round my victory palace; sabbe pupphantu (let all blossom) let all these flowering trees bloom Savamevapupphā muñcitvā (having released flowers by themselves) even, having dropped )blossoms);gantvā bhavanam okirum (went and scattered over the mansion) let them make scattering down all over the palace; thus, is the meaning.

42. Tattha (there), in that victory palace of mine;sikhino (crested birds) peacocks, naccamtu, let them dance; dibbahamsā (celestial swans) divine swans, pakūjare (let them cry) let them make sounds; karavikāca, (cuckoo) sweet-voiced, graceful cuckoos, karavika birds, gāvantu (let them sing) let them make singing of songs;dijasamghā (flocks of birds) other nondescript (anuttā), flocks of birds; samantato (round about) let them cry sweet cry on all sides of the palace.

43. Pāsādassa samantato, all round the palace, sabbā bherivo vajjantu, let all kinds of drums, one side-closed variety (ātata), two sides-closed variety (vitata), be struck (or beaten);sabbā tā vīṇā, may all those lutes with many a string, rasantu, make their sweet sounds; sabbā saṅgītive vattantu, let all i.e. many a variety of singing together occur, i.e. be sund on all sides of the palace.

44-5. Yāvatā, as far as, in such and such a place, buddhakhettamhi, in the field of Buddha, in the ten thousand universes (cakkavāḷa); tato pare cakkavāḷā, brilliantly shining, acchinnā, without a break, all round the palace, mahantā ratanamayā soṇṇā pallankā tiṭṭhantu, let high pedestals (pallaṅkā), made of gold and studded with gems of seven sorts, stand; on all sides of the palace, dīparukkhā jalantu, may trees bearing oil-lamps be brilliantly lighted;dasasahassiparamparā, a succession of ten thousands, i.e. ten thousand lamps altogether; ekapajjotā bhavantu, may they give light in unison to appear as if a single lamp is burning; thus, is the meaning.

46. Gaṇikā, dancing damsels, who are proficient in dancing and singing, as well as lāsikā, singers, who are makers of sounds by means of their mouths; pāsādassa samantato naccantu, let them dance all round the palace; accharāgaṇā, hordes of heavenly maidens, let them dance; nānāraṅga, variety of colouring dyes, of many a colour, different dyes and disc let them dance all round the palace; padissantu, may they be seen, may they be obvious; thus, is the meaning.

47. At that time, I became a world-king, named Tilokavijaya, the victor of three worlds (loka); dumagge, on top of trees all over the entire universe (callavāḷā), pabbatagge, on top of Himalayas and cakkavāḷa mountains and so on, as well as on top of Sineru mountain, in all places, vicittam, variegated with many a colour;pañcavaṇṇikam sabbam dhajam ussāpemi, I had all flags of five such colours as blue, yellow and so on, hoisted; thus, is the meaning. (men, in between the worlds (lokantara); nāgā)

48. Narāca, as well as dragons (nāga), of the dragon domain, (nāgaloka); gandhabhā ca devā, the gandharva fairies and divine beings from the divine world (devaloka); sabbe upentu, let all of them approach (or come to) my presence. To, those men etc.;namassantā, doing the act of adoration to me; pañjalikā, making their hands clasped causing a hole to contain offerings; pāsādam parivārayum, surrounded my victory palace; thus, is the meaning.

49. That world-king Tilokavijaya, having thus eulogise the palace and his own power, made such a statement as: "Yam kiñci kusalam Kammam and so on, in order to rouse up the fruit of good deeds done by him and achievements gained by him. Yam kiñci kusalakammam, whatever can be counted as good deeds, kiriyam kattabbam, there is to be done, all that, mama, my or, by me, kāyena either by body or vācāya, by words, or manasā by mind, by means of three openings (dvāra), katam tidase sukatam (done properly) done to be worthy of being reborn in the Tāvatimsa heavenly mansion, thus, is the meaning.

50. Again he said: "Ye sattā saññino"and so on in order to rouse up his good deeds. There, ve sattā, either human beings, divine beings or brahmās, saññino, who are with perception (saññā); atthi, there are; ye ca sattā asaññino, whatever creatures who are devoid of perception, (saññā), without memory (saññā), there are; te sabbe, all those living beings; katampuññaphalam bhāgī bhavantu, let them have shares (or become share-gainers) of the deeds done by them; thus, is the meaning.

51. The Bodhisat said: "Yesam katam" and so on in order to rouse up his good deeds yet again. The meritorious deed, katam, done by me, suviditam, well-known by such creatures as human-beings, dragons, celestial musicians 9gandhabba) and divine beings; mavā dinnam puññaphalam, to them the fruition of the meritorious acts performed by me; ye, human beings, etc; na jānanti, do not know; devā gantvā, divine beings went and nivedayum let them know, being informed of it; thus, is the meaning.

52. Sabbalokambi ye sattā, whatever living beings are in the entire world (loka), jīvanti, they live, depending upon nourishment; manuññam bhojanam sabbam mama cetasā labhantu, let them all obtain delightful soft food, on account of the power of my good deeds, thus, is the meaning.

53. Manasā, with pleasing mind; Dānam mayā dinnam, whatever offering has been given by me; pasādam āgatim, in that charity given by me, I arrived at delightful pleasure, i.e. by my mind I caused my delightful pleasure to arise. Sammāsambuddhā, omniscient Buddhas also, paccekā (one by one) individually, Jinasāvakā, the disciples of the Conqueror, an well pūjitā, have been honoured and adored by me, the world-king.

54. Sukatena tena kammena, with that deed well-done, i.e. due to the good deed having been done after believing; cetanāpaṇidhī ca, with volitional resolution, i.e. with the aspiration done by mind, as well, mānusam deham jahitvā, having forsaken the human body, aham Tāvatimsam agacehim, I went to the heavenly world, i.e. I sprang up there as if awakened from sleep, thus, is the meaning.

55. Thereafter, the world-king, Tilokavijaya passed away; beginning from that time onwards, duve bhave, two existence pajānāmi devatte, I know divine existence; mānuse,human existence as well. Beyond these two rebirths aṅṅam gatim (other going) other springing up, na jānāmi (I do not know) I do not see;manasā, with mind, by means of mind, patthanāphalam (fruit of aspiration) fruition of aspiration; thus, is the meaning

56. Devānam adhiko homi, I am the chief of divinities, (deva), in case I was reborn among divine beings, I was the chief eldest and best among divinities, on account of age, complexion, strength and power; thus, is the meaning. In case I was born among human-beings, manujādhipo bhavāmi, I became chief and ruler of men. Sampanno (endowed with) i.e. having become like that, a king, I was properly and fully equipped with such characteristics as handsome beauty, physical attainment, as well as such characteristics as height, girth and so on; bhave, in every existence, I was born, paññāya with the knowledge of understanding the absolute significance; asamo (peerless) devoid of equal. What is meant here is thus: "There is no one identical with me".

57. As a result of good deeds done by me and the accumulation of merit gained by me, wherever i was born in every one of my existences, seṭṭham, I was the most excellent, great and sweet;vividham, many a variety; bhojana ñui anappakam, much soft-eatable as well;ratanañ ca vividhāni, many a seven assorted gem; vatthā many a variety of such clothes as woollen sheets, silk sheets and so on, as well;nabhā, from the sky; mam, in my presence; khippam quickly; upenti (approach) go near.

58-66. Pathabyā, on the ground; pabbate on the hill;ākāse, in the sky also; udake, in water; vane, in the forest as well;yam yam, wherever and wherever; hattham pasāremi, I stretch (or throw) out my hand; from there and thence, dibbā bhakkhā (celestial eatable) divine nourishment; mam, to my presence; upenti (come near) approach; what is meant by this is: "They make themselves clearly visible". So also in due order, sabbe ratanā, all gems; sabbe gandhā, all such scents as sandal wood and so on; yānā, all conveyances; sabbe mālā, all such flowers as: Champak, nāga, punnāga and so on;alaṅkārā, all adornments; sabbā dibba kaññā, all divine damsels; madhusakkharā, all honey-sugar; sabbe khajjā, such hard chewable food, as cakes and so on; mam, to my presence; upenti, approach, come near.

67-68. sambodhivarapattiyā, for the attainment of excellent Sambodhi, for the attainment of gaining highest knowledge of the four paths, leading to nibbāna; pabbatam, hill, whatever most excellent charitable offering had been made and fulfilled by me, by that most excellent charity the hill counted as rocky stone; bahalam giram, making a single echoing sound gajjento, making abundantly loud voice; sadevakam, the divine world together with the entire world of human beings; hāsayanto, making them attain happiness of heart; loke, the whole of three worlds; Buddho aham bhavāmi, I am Buddha, who cut off the rounds of repeated rebirths and had gone beyond it.

69. Disā dasavidhā loke, in the universal world, there are ten kinds and ten divisions of directions. Yayato, for me who am going about there all over the divisions of directions; antakam natthi (there is no end no death); thus, is the meaning. Or when I was world-king, tasmim, there, wherever I went and went, in that portion of direction;Buddhakhettā, spheres of influence of Buddha; asaṅkhiyā, beyond calculation.

70. Pabhā pakittitā, rays announced, then, when I was world-king, mayham (my rays of light) rays of light of such of my treasures as wheel treasure, gem treasure and so on; yamakā, having become pairs after pairs; ramsivāhanā (bearers of rays) releasing rays, became pronounced and clear; etthantare, within here, inside the ten thousand universes (cakkavāḷa); ramsijālam (net of rays) collected mass of rays; āloko vipulo bhave there came abundant light) there was much more light; thus, is the meaning.

71. Ettake lokadhātumhi in the ten thousand universes (cakkavāḷā;), sabbe janā mam passantu, let all the people see me; thus, is the meaning. Sabbe, all divine-beings; yāva brahmā nivesanā, up to the world of brahmā; mam anuvattantu (follow me) let them be agreeable to me.

72. Visiṭṭhamadhunādena, with prominently and well enunciated sweet sound; amata bharimāhanim, I did beat the celestial immortal drum; etthantare (within here) in these ten thousand universes (cakkavāla); sabbe janā madhuram giram suṇantu, let all the people listen to and pay attention to my sweet voice.

73. Dhammameghena vassante, when the rain of dhamma showered, with the sound made by the preaching of dhamma; in other words, when the rain of paramount, profound, sweet and subtle significance showers down by the potent power of omniscient Buddha; sabbe (all bhikkhus, bhikkhunis) brethren and sisters, and so on; anasavā (free from cankers) devoid of depravity (kilesa) hontu (let them be) may they become. Yettha pacchimakā sattā (whoever here are back-benchers) here, among these groups and grade formations, among the four kinds of assemblies of beings, whoever are last and most inferior from the point of view of quality; te sotāpannā bhavantu, may they all become winners of the first stage of sanctification (sotāpanna), thus, is the significance.

74. Then, at the time when I was the world-king, Tilokavijaya, dātabbam dānam, I made a charitable offering of what should be given; asesato (without any remainder) leaving nothing; sīlam pūretvā, fulfilled the perfection in precepts; nekkhamme pāramim, reached the extreme limit of perfection in renunciation; uttamam sambodhim patto, attained the most excellent sambodhi, I realise the knowledge of the four right paths towards nibbāna.

75. Paṇḍite paripucchitvā (having thoroughly asked wise men) I asked wise people, who possessed knowledge, such questions as: "Venerable Sir! What should be done? what is it, that ought not to be done? what is good deed? what is evil deed? having done what, one becomes the share-gainer of two benefits, namely, heaven and emancipation?" in this way, I fulfilled the perfection in knowledge; thus, is the meaning. katvā vīriyamuttamam (having performed the best exertion) I fulfilled the perfection in exertion, having made relentless effort in such matters and in such places and seats and so on as are most excellent and best; thus, is the meaning. Khantiyā pāramim gantvā (I fulfilled the perfection in patience) having gone to the extreme limit of perfection in patience, the endurance (or forbearance) of disrespect done by the entire mass of people, in opposition; uttamam sambodhim patto, (I attained the highest sambodhi) I became the most excellent ominiscient Buddha.

76. Katvā dalhamadhiṭṭhānam (having made firm resolution) I performed the perfection in self-resolution firmly by way of being unshakable saying: "Even when my body and life are destroyed, I shall not desist from the performance of good deeds of merit." Pūriya (having fulfilled) I carried out the practice of perfection in truth to its ultimate limit, saying to myself: "Even when my head is being cut off, I shall not speak falsehood. Having arrived at the extreme end of perfection in loving kindness, uttamam sambodhim patto, I attained the most excellent sambodhi by becoming Buddha; thus, is the meaning.

77. Lābhe (in the gaining) in the getting of animate and inanimate, living or lifeless, objects or things, alābhe (in not gaining) in the not getting of them as well, sukhe (in the happiness) in physical and mental bliss, dukkhe (in misery) so also in physical and mental distress, sammāne in the appreciation made by people who have respect as well as omāne in depreciation by insulting people, ca, also, sabbattha samako (being equal everywhere) I am ever even-minded, having fulfilled the perfection in equanimity, uttamam sambodhim patto, I attained the most excellent sambodhi by becoming Buddha; thus, is the meaning.

78. Kosajjam (idleness) indolence; bhayato, from the point of view of danger, disvā (seeing) knowing: "It has a tendency towards miserable suffering in purgatory", one should be free from idleness and indolence and conduct oneself prudently; viriyam khemato, exertion for being secure, for the sake of safety; disvā having seen seeing (or knowing) that exertion leads to nibbāna; āraddha vīrivā hotha, should be ever-ready with exertion. So Buddhānusāsanī, that is the admonition, advice of Buddhas.

79. Vivādam bhayato disvā, seeing dispute and quarrel from the point of view of danger and knowing it to be conducive toward purgatory, avivādam khemato disvā, seeing (or knowing) that abstinence (or abstaining) from dispute (or quarrel) leads to security, the attainment of nibbāna; samaggā, to be of one-pointed mind, unanimity of thought, sakhilā hotha, you all should be congenial (or kindly) in speech, adhering to each other with loving kindness, and shining by having gone to the fore-front; thus, is the meaning. Esā, (this), discourse (counsel or utterance), anusāsanī, is the gift of advice of Buddhas.

80. Pamādam (negligence/sloth) mis-carriage due to dwelling without mindfulness in such things as place, seat and so on;bhayato disvā, seeing from the angle of danger, knowing thus: "The automatic occurrence of such mishaps as misery, ugliness, lack of food and drink and so on, in every existence where one may be reborn, as well as the going-to purgatory and so on"; apamādam khemato disvā (seeing diligence from the angle of all security) knowing from personal experience, the dwelling with mindfulness doings from the point of view of prosperity, namely: the certain attainment of nibbāna. Atthaṅgikam maggam bhāvetha (develop the eightfold noble path) you should increase and make mindful as being minded about the means of arriving at the journey to self-achieved Buddhahood, the eight categories, namely: right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right meditation. Esā buddhānusāsanī (this is the admonition of Buddhas) this is the discourse, dispensation and utterance as well as instruction of buddhas; thus, is the meaning.

81. Samāgatā bahū buddhā (many buddhas come together) silent buddhas, many a hundred thousand in number come together and became a big mass; sabbaso arahantā (all round arahats) many a hundred thousand, arahats, cankerless (khīṇāsavā) in all respect came together and became a big mass. Therefore, arahante vanda-māne namassatha (bow yourselves down in adoration to the arahats) bend down with all your major and minor bodily characteristics and pay homage in adoration to those buddhas and arahats, who are worthy of worship.

82. Evam acintiyā Buddhā (thus Buddhas are inconceivable) in this manner as explained by me, Buddhas are such as are impossible to think of. Buddhadhammā, the dhamma of Buddhas, the four establishments of mindfulness,:P: the eightfold noble path, the five khandhas, the dependent (paccaya). cause (hetu) the dependent sense-object (ārammaṇa paccaya) and so on which constitute dhammas preached by Buddhas. On the nature (sabhāva) of Buddhas is inconceivable, not possible to think about; acintiye(inconceivable) beyond the sphere of thinking;pasannanam vipāko hoti (there is the result of conscientious pleasure), the beneficial result of the clear and conscientious faith of the divine and human beings is beyond calculation, it is impossible to think about the quantity of divine and human glory and the glory (sampetti) of nibbāna.

82.1 thus, this much and just as people going on a journey, on account of their asking:- "Inform us of the way to go", when told "Take the right, leaving the left" went by that way, finished doing whatever should be done in villages, and market towns (nigama), as well as in royal cities; and again as they went also by the other one, namely, the left road which they had avoided, they accomplished whatever work there was to be done by them in, villages, market towns (nigama) and king's capital cities, exactly in the same way, having had the biography of Buddha, in the form of doing good deeds, finished, this asking of question had to be done to speak extensively the self-same biography from the point of view of evil deeds:-

"Difficult deeds (dukkaram), and slander again another slander, slanderous accusation, hit by stone, and splinter pain. Nāḷāgiri elephant, knife-cut, head-suffering, corn eating, back-pain, purging blood: these constitute the doing of evil deeds."

82.2 There in the first question Dukkara means doing difficult deeds for six years. Long ago at the time of the omniscient Buddha Kassapa, Bodhisat was reborn as a brahmin youth named jotipāla. Due to the influence of his brahmin birth, he had no clear faith in the dispensation of that Glorious One. Because of the outcome of bondage work (to that Glorious One), having heard: "Kassapa, the Glorious One", he remarked: "Whence is the bodhi, the becoming of Buddha for that bald-headed monk? Buddhahood is absolutely difficult to gain". As an outcome of that deed, he suffered misery in purgatory and so on, in many a hundred of his births, and in the wake of that very Glorious One and by the act of prediction made by and obtained from that very Buddha, had without intermission His round of rebirths thrown away (khepetvā) and in the end attained the state of Vessantara. On His passing away thence, He was reborn in the Tusita divine mansion. Due to the request of divinities, He passed away thence, and was reborn in the Sakiyan family. Because of the thorough maturity of his knowledge, He rejected the sovereignty over the entire Jambu with His sword, well-whetted, on the bank of the Anomā river, accepted te eight recluse-requisites, which sprang up in the cavity of lotus bud, at the time of resurrection of kappa, brought by Brahmā by means of his magical power, became a monk, and since in the beginning, His insight into Bodhi-knowledge of becoming Buddha had not yet fully matured, He did not know the right or wrong way of becoming Buddha and performed the strenuous effort (padhāna), enormous effort; and difficult deed (dukkara kārika), in the very manner stated in the Padhānasutta, for six years in the region of Uruvela, comprising: eating a single meal only, eating a morsel only, a single individual, a single journey, a single meal of a single sitting until His body became like unto the shape of the peta, with no flesh and blood. he be thought the fact that the difficult deed was not the right path for complete enlightenment to become Buddha, enjoyed excellent nourishment in villages, market towns (nigama), and royal cities, became lovely-looking in the matter of His controlling faculties, reendowed fully with thirtytwo characteristics of a great personage, in due course went towards the Bodhitree terrace, conquered the five Māras and became Buddha.

I, jotipāla, then spoke about the Sugata Kassapa; Whence is Buddhahood for the bald-headed. Buddhahood is absolutely difficult to gain. Due to the consequence of that deed, I had to practise very difficult deeds for six years in Uruvela and thereafter I attained enlightenment and became Buddha. I did not attain the highest Bodhi by means of that right path; being obstructed by my former deed, I was in the quest for that attainment by the bad road. I shall enter nibbāna as One, who had done away with all merit and demerit, who had renounced all anxious worries, who had become free from anxiety, and turbulence as well as cankers (āsava).

82.3 In the second question, The expression abbhakkhānam is to be interpreted as increasing tale-telling, abuse, slander. Long ago, it is said, the Bodhisat was born in inferior social-grade (sudda) family. He was not well-known; he was of few accomplishments; and he led his life as a rogue, named Munāḷi. At that time, a silent Buddha of high magical powers and great influence, named Surabhi, arrived at his neighbourhood, in connection with something to be done. As soon as he saw the silent Buddha, he accused the latter with such words of slander as: "This monk is wicked in precepts with tendency towards evil dhamma" and so on. As the outcome of that sinful deed, he suffered misery for many a thousand years in purgatory and so on, and in this final existence, as and when, heretics (titthiya) were first of all well known and popular, at the time, when the Glorious One-to-be was living in Tusita divine mansion, and wandering about demonstrating their sixty-two views, deceiving the entire mass of people; then, He passed away from the Tusita heavenly city, was born in the royal family of the Sākiyans and eventually became Buddha. The heretics became bereft of gain and fame like unto fire flies at sun-rise, and therefore wandered about, harbouring malice against Buddha. On that occasion, the banker of Rājagaha, while sporting himself in the Ganges river, after fastening and fixing a net, saw a vessel made of red sandal wood, bethought thus: "In our house, sandal wood are abundant; mounting this one on a lathe a begging bowl of that wood is to be carved by turners and hung on successive heights of bamboo." He did accordingly and made announcement by beat of drum, which went about, thus: "Whoever, might come over by means of their magical power and take this bowl, their caterer of meal, I shall be".

82.4 Then, the heretics muttered to themselves: "We are now ruined! We are now ruined! The son of Nāta, Nigaṇṭha, the Jain leader, said thus to his own assembly: "I shall go to the vicinity of the bamboo and do the act of soaring up into the sky: you all prohibit me seizing me by my torso saying: "Please do not perform miracle on account of a bowl made of wretched wood". They went accordingly and did accordingly.

82.5 At that time, Piṇḍolabhāradvāja and Moggallāna theras, stood on top of a rocky stone-hill of the size of three gāvutas, put on their upper robes for the purpose of collecting almsfood in their bowls, and heard about that announcement (kolāhala). Between them, Moggallāna said to Piṇḍolabhāradvāja thus: "You go through the air and take that bowl". The latter replied thus: "Venerable Sir! you, yourself was placed by the Glorious One at the top position amongst His disciples possessing powers and therefore please take the same yourself". Inspite of such a reply as that, Piṇḍola was ordered thus: "I command you. You are but to take it". Being under command, Piṇḍola made the rocky hill of three gāvutas on which he himself was standing to adhere to the soles of his feet, like unto the lid-cover of a rice-boiling pot and covered the entire city of Rāgagaha. Thereupon, the citizens, seeing, that thera like unto gem-thread wound round a hilly-mass of crystal-gem, made a tumultuous cry: "Venerable Bhāradvāja! Please protect us". being afraid, they covered their heads with winnowing baskets. The thera, then, released that hill at the site where it stood, went in the sky by means of his magical power and took that bowl. On that occasion residents of the city made a great uproar.

82.6 Seated in the Bamboo Grove monastery, the Glorious One heard that tumultuous sound and asked Ānanda thus: "What is this sound?" Ānanda replied: "Venerable Sir! Because of the fact that the bowl was taken by Bhāradvāja, citizens were well satisfied and made uproarious sound." Thereupon, the Glorious One had that bowl brought to Him, caused it to be broken, made powdered ointment for the eyes, and had them given to the bhikkhus, in order to get rid of fault-finding of others in future. Having had the same given away, however, Buddha laid down a disciplinary rule thus: "O monks! The display of magical powers should not be done. Whosoever does it, he is guilty of offence known as had performance (dukkata).

82.7 Consequently, the heretics, saying to themselves: "We are told that a rule of discipline was laid down by the monk Gotama for His disciples; they are not to transgress that rule because their lives are in danger; we shall perform the display of our magical powers", formed themselves into groups and gatherings hither and made an uproar. Then king Bimbisāra heard about it, went to the presence of the Glorious One, paid his homage to Him, sat on one side and said thus to the Glorious One: "Venerable Sir! heretics are making an uproar saying that they would perform display of their magical powers". Buddha reacted: "O great king! I also shall perform it". the king asked: "Venerable Sir! was it not that a rule of discipline has been laid down for the disciples by the Glorious One?" Buddha put a counter question: "O great king! I could ask you, yourself, in your laying down a rule prescribing punishment, saying so much would be the penalty for those who are guilty of eating the mangoes and so on in your royal garden, do you include yourself also among others regarding the offence and punishment?" The king answered: "Venerable Sir! There is no penalty for me". Buddha concluded: "O great king! In the same way, there is no such thing as promulgating any disciplinary rule for me."The king then asked: "Venerable Sir! Where is your display going to be? Buddha replied: "O great king! It is going to be at the foot of Kaṇḍa's mango tree near Sāvatthi". king Bimbisāra said: "Very well, Venerable Sir! We shall see it". Consequently, the heretics, hearing thus: "They say that there is going to be display of miracle at the foot of Kaṇḍa's mango tree", had mango trees cut down all round the city. the citizens fastened and arranged one couch upon another as well as high platforms and so on to use as watch-towers in the large space of courtyard. Residents of the entire jambu island(India) formed themselves into groups and gatherings, and in the east direction they stood spreading themselves for twelve yojanas. In the remaining directions also they assembled together accordingly in that self-same manner.

82.8 The glorious One also, when the time arrived, early in the morning, on the full-moon day of the month of āsāḷha. had all that should be done finished. went to that place and sat Himself down. At that moment, the gardener, named kaṇḍa, seeing a well-ripe mango fruit in a leafy-nest of ants, said to himself: "If I were to deliver this mango to the king, I would get such essential reward as gold coins (kahāpaṇa), and so on; on the other hand, when it is offered to the Glorious One, there will be prosperity for me in this world (loka) as well as in the next world", and offered the mango to the Glorious one. The Glorious One accepted it and passed orders to the Thera Āanada thus: "Crush this fruit and give me its juice to drink". The thera did accordingly. The glorious One drank the mango juice, handed back the stone of the mango to the guardian of the garden and said: "Plant this seed". The gardener removed the layer of sand and planted it. The thera Ānanda sprinkled water by means of a goblet. That very moment, mango sprang up and while the large mass of men were looking on, there on, there came into appearance a well-developed mango tree with its boughs and branches, sprouts and twigs bearing flowers and fruits. In eating the fallen mango fruits, the entire Jambu islanders were not able to get them all exhausted.

82.9 thereafter, the Glorious One created a bejewelled promenade on the top of the mighty meru, from the eastern universe (cakkavāḷa), as far as the western universe that far in this our universe (cakkavāḷa), made a great display of His magical power, in the manner as related in the commentary of the Dhammapada, roaring the roar of lion in the company of many an assembly, crushed the heretics, made them arrive at confusion as well as disorder, went up to the divine mansion of Tāvatimsa, in conformity with the practice of previous Buddhas at the end of His making the miracle, spent the lent season there, preached, without an interval, the Abhidhamma throughout the three months, made the achievement of the first stage of sanctification (sotāpatti), available to many a divine-being headed by his mother, arranged to descend from heaven after He had spent the rainy season, lent, went down, surrounded by many a group of devas and brahmās, to the city-gate of Saṅkassa, and performed the uplift of the world (loka). By that time, the gain and reverence received by the Glorious One overwhelmed the Jambu island, like unto the five great rivers.

82.10 Consequently, the heretics became dwindled in gain and respect, distressed, downhearted, broken down and had to sit themselves down with down-cast faces. Thereupon, their lady-devotee named Cinca-māṇavikā, who was exceedingly beautiful, on seeing them seated in that manner, asked thus: "Venerable Sirs! Why is it that you all are seated thus distressed and downhearted?" They replied: "O Sister! Why are you unconcerned? She enquired: "Venerable Sirs! What is the matter?" They complained: "O Sister! Beginning from the appearance of Monk Gotama, we lost our gain and respect; citizens have no regard for us". "What is to be done by us in this matter?" asked the young lady. They suggested: "You should raise a scandal for the Monk Gotama. She said: "This is not burdensome to me". Making endeavour in that matter, she went to Jetavana at an unearthly hour, stayed in the asylum of heretics, and came out in the morning as if from the Jetavana itself at the time of arrival there of the citizens with such offerings as perfumes and so on, in order to pay homage to pay homage to the Glorious One. When she was asked: "Where did you sleep?" she replied: "Of what use to you all is my sleeping place? and went away. Gradually, in course of time, when asked again she eventually answered: "I have come away after sleeping with monk Gotama in one and the same fragrant chamber". Foolish people of common category (puthujjana) believed her story. Such wise people as were stream winners (sotāpanna) and so on did not believe her. One day, she fastened a wooden disc on her belly over which she placed a red piece of cloth (pata) all round, went and spoke thus to the Glorious One, who was seated for the purpose of preaching the dhamma, to the assembly of listeners which included the king himself: "O Monk! You preach the dhamma; but you do not look after your expected son in my womb that has sprung up on account of you, with garlic, black pepper and so on." The Glorious One reacted: "Sister! You yourself, as well as I, know such a condition as that!" She remarked: "Exactly so; two only know the time of sexual intercourse; not any other individual"

82.11 At that moment, the light-yellow velvet-like stone seat of Sakka showed sign of being hot. On investigating, Sakka came to know about that matter, and gave orders to two young divinities thus:- "One of you two had better create yourself in the shape of a mouse and cut off the binding of her disc of wood. The other is to raise a whirl wind and throw up her upper garment from her body." They went and did accordingly. The disc wood, as it dropped down, broke her instep. The whole mass of common people (puthujjana), who were assembled in the preaching hall (dhammasabhā), rose up saying: "Look here, wicked thief! You made such an accusation to such a Lord of the three worlds (loka)", gave a hit with their individual fists and dragged her out of the preaching parlour (sabhā). On the expiry of exposure the earth emitted an echo. At that moment, flames rose up from purgatory (avīci0, covered her up along with the family-gift red velvet itself, and threw her into the purgatory (avīci). There was surplus of gain and reverence for the Glorious One.

Therefore it has been stated thus:

"There was a disciple of Buddha, the all con- quering personage, named Nanda. Because I slandered him I had to undergo repeated rebirths in purgatory (niraya) for a long time. For such a long time as ten thousand years, I underwent repeated rebirths in purgatory (niraya), when finally I became a human being I received much slander. As remnants of the consequences of that act of my accusation, the young lady, Ciñcā, accused me falsely in front of a big body of people.

82.12. In the third question:- The expression: abbhakkhānam is to be interpreted as announcement against, insult. Long ago, it is said, Bodhisat was born in a family of nonentity. He was Munāḷi by name, who became a rogue, due to his association with bad people and reviled a silent Buddha Surabhi saying: "This bhikkhu is of wicked practice and evil dhamma. On account of that demerit of verbal action, he became cooked in purgatory (niraya), for many a thousand years, and in this final existence of His, due to the proper self-accomplishment in fulfilling the ten perfections, He became Buddha and had attained the highest gain and foremost fame. Again, the heretics sat themselves down distressed and down-hearted, saying to themselves, "How, now, indeed, shall we bring about the disrepute of the Monk Gotama?" Thereupon, a wandering lady-ascetic named Sundari approached them and as she stood adoring them, she saw them silent saying nothing. She, therefore, asked! "Why are you all angry with me? What is my fault? They replied: "While we were being harassed by monk Gotama you would live without worry for us; this constitutes your fault." She enquired: "Should it be so, what shall I do in that matter." They said: Will you be able to rouse up a scandal of the Monk Gotama?" She responded saying: "My Lords! I shall be able to do so," thenceforward, in the manner already stated, she abused and reviled Buddha informing everyone she saw, thus: "I have come out after sleeping with Monk Gotama in one and single fragrant chamber." The heretics also reproached and reviled saying: "Oh! See the deed of Monk Gotama".

Indeed, it has been stated:

"I was a rogue, named Muñāḷi, formerly in my other rebirths; I slandered the innocent silent Buddha Surabhi. Consequent upon that act, I suffered rebirth in hell (niraya). For many a thousand years, I experienced miserable sensation. Due to the residue of that act, here in my final existence, I suffered slander made by Sundarikā

82.13. in the fourth question The expression abhakkhānam is to be interpreted as: abuse and reproach with increasing distinction. Long ago, it is said, the Bodhisat, born in a brahmin family, was well learned, honoured personally (sakkato) by many men, renounced the world, became an ascetic and took up his abode, in Himalayas, nourishing himself with forest roots and fruits and teaching mantras to many young men. An ascetic who had gained five kinds of higher knowledge (abhiññā) and eight kinds of meditative achievements (samāpatti) went to his presence. As soon as he saw that ascetic, he became jealous and accused that innocent ascetic thus: "This ascetic is a fraud, who enjoys sensual pleasures." He told his own pupils also: "This ascetic is such that he is a maker of misconduct." They also abused and reproached in the same manner. On account of the consequence of that act, he experienced misery in purgatory (niraya), for a thousand years, and in this his final existence, became Buddha, who had attained highest gain and fame like unto the full moon in the sky, and became well-known. The heretics were not contented although they had done slander in that manner even, and again they had another scandal with the woman, Sundarī. They sent for drunkards, offered bribes and gave them orders thus: "You all murder Sundarī and cover her dead-body with garbage of garlands near the Jetavana gate." They did accordingly. Thereafter, the heretics informed the king that Sundarī was not to be seen and that she was missing. The king issued orders: "You all make a search? They took her dead-body out of the place where they themselves had it deposited, put it on a couch, showed it to the king, and wandered about all over the city shouting out scandalous words about the Glorious One and the congregation of bhikkhus saying: "Alas! See the deed done by the disciples of the monk Gotama." They placed the dead-body of Sundarī in the cemetery of rawflesh, on a platform. The king issued orders: "Mark a search of the assassins of Sundarī". Then, the rogues, as they drank alcoholic drinks raised a quarrel among themselves thus: "You killed Sundarī. You are the assassin." Royal official arrested those rogues and placed them before the king. The king questioned: "You fellows! How is it? Was Sundarī murdered by you?" They answered: "Yes, Your majesty". On being asked by whom they were ordered to kill, they replied that they were instructed by the heretics. The king had the heretics brought to his presence, caused them to be bound and passed orders thus: "Go, you fellows! and make a hue and cry to this effect: 'Sundarī was caused to be murdered by us, ourselves, in order to scandalise Buddha. The Glorious One as well as His disciples are not offenders'". They did accordingly. Residents of the whole city became free from doubts. The king had the heretics as well as the roguish drunkards put to death and their dead bodies thrown away. Thereafter, the gain and reverence of the Glorious One increased all the more.

Therefore, it has been stated:-

"I became a learned brahmin, honoured personally by everybody. I taught mantras to five hundred youths in the great forest. An awful ascetic, of high magical power who had five kinds of super-knowledge (abhiññā), came there. Seeing him come also, I slandered the innocent ascetic. Thereafter, I spoke to my pupils: 'This ascetic indulges in sensual pleasures. When I said that also, the youths supported me gladly in my making slander. Thereafter, all my youthful pupils, as they went on their begging rounds among many a family, told the great mass of people: 'This ascetic is on who indulges in sensual pleasures! Consequent upon that act, all these five hundred heretic bhikkhus heaped upon me the scandal in connection with Sundarikā

82.14 In the fifth question The expression Silāvedho (pierced by stone) is to be interpreted as: The injured mind hurled down stone. Long ago, it is said, the Bodhisat as well as his younger brother were sons of one and the same father. After the death of their father, they quarrelled one another on account of slaves and were mutually antagonistic. The Bodhisat, being strong himself, overwhelmed his younger brother and hurled a piece of stone on him. Consequent on that act, he had to suffer misery in many a purgatory and so on for many a thousand years and became Buddha in this His final existence. Devadatta, the uncle of the young prince Rāhula, formerly, when he was a trader in glass-balls (seri) was also a trader together with the Bodhisat. They arrived at a port-village and the two traders together also entered the village saying: "You take one street, I also take another street." Of the two; in the street entered by Devadatta, there were in a house two occupants only, an aged wife of a banker and her grandchild. There was placed amongst pots and pans their large gold bowl stained with impurities. The old lady, not knowing it to be a gold bowl, said: "Take this bowl and give us trinkets (pilandhana) He, Devadatta in caught hold of that bowl, drew a line of writing with a needle, came to know it to be a gold bowl, and went away having thought thus: "I shall take the bowl after giving a little."Later, seeing the Bodhisat coming near the door, the granddaughter said: "Grand mother! Please give me a reed-basket of trinkets (pilandhana). The old lady sent for him, made him sit down, offered that bowl and told him: "Take this and give my granddaughter a reed-basketful of ornaments."The Bodhisat caught hold of it, knew it to be a gold bowl, realised that they had been deceived by the other trader, gave the grand mother the eight gold coins (kahāpaṇa), as well as the remaining merchandise, had the hands of the young girl adorned with a reed-basketful of trinkets and went away. That trader came back again and made enquiry. The grand mother said: "My son! You did not accept my bowl; my son-like trader offered this and that, accepted that bowl and had gone away." Immediately on hearing what she said, he ran and pursed the Bodhisat as if with a split-open heart. The Bodhisat boarded a boat and rowed away. That trader shouted at Bodhisatta to stop and not to run away, repeatedly and later made a prayer: "In any and every existence he is reborn, may I be able to ruin him".

82.15. Over that prayer, they harassed one another in many a hundred thousand rebirths and in this his existence, he was reborn in the Sākiyan family and eventually attained omniscience as the Glorious One. While He was dwelling at Rājagaha, Devadatta, together with Aniruddha and so on, went to the presence of the Glorious One, became a monk, gained Jhāna, became well-know and asked the Glorious One for a favour thus: "Venerable Sir! let the whole congregation of bhikkhus take upon themselves the observance of thirteen austere (dhutaṅga), practices in such matters as collecting alms-food and so on; let the entire clergy be my responsibility." The Glorious One did not agree to it. Devadatta harboured enmity, became thoroughly shorn of Jhāna and being desirous of killing the Glorious One, stood above the Glorious One, who was standing at the foot of the Vebhāra hill and had a spur of the boulder hurled at Him. Because of the power of the Glorious One another boulder impeded that falling boulder. With their collision however, a sprung splinter, came and hit the instep of the Glorious One.

Therefore it has been stated:-

"I killed my younger brother of different mother, formerly, because of money, I threw him into the glen of mountains and pounded him also with a stone. Due to the consequence of that deed, Devadatta threw stone at me. Splinters of stone pounded my big toe at my feet."

82.16. In the sixth question: The expression: 'Saklikāvedho' pierced by splinter, is to be interpreted as hurt by splinter. Long ago, it is said that the Bodhisat was reborn in a certain family. In his younger days, while he was playing about on a high way, he saw a silent Buddha going about for alms-food and saying to himself: "This shaven monk, where does he go?", caught hold of a stone splinter and threw it to hit the instep. blood came out cutting the skin of the back of his feet. On account of that evil deed, he suffered great misery in hell (niraya), for many a thousand years and although he had become Buddha, He suffered shedding of blood, being hit by a stone splinter on the back of His feet in the form of a remnant of His bad deed.

Therefore, it has been stated:-

"Formerly I was a young boy, who, playing on a high way, saw a silent Buddha on the road and threw a splinter at him. As an outcome of that evil deed, Devadatta made an attempt at positively killing me for the purpose of putting me to death in this my final existence.

82.17. In the seventh question The expression: Nālāgiri, is to be interpreted as: The elephant, Dhanapālaka, the guardian of wealth, sent out for the purpose of killing Buddha. Long ago, it is said that the Bodhisat was born as an elephant-keeper. As he wandered about riding an elephant, he saw a silent Buddha on a high road and touched him with his elephant, being of aggressive mind and becoming mentally obstructed, saying: "From where has this bald head come?". On account of that evil deed, he suffered misery in purgatories for many a thousand years and became Buddha in His final existence. Devadatta made friends with king Ajātasattu, instructed the latter thus: "O great king! you kill your father and become king; I shall kill Buddha to become Buddha." One day, with the approval of the king, Devadatta went to the elephant shed, and gave orders to elephant keepers thus: "Tomorrow you should let the elephant Nālāgiri drink sixteen jars of liquor and send it out at the time of Buddha's going about for alms-food". All over the city there was a great uproar thus: "We shall see the fight of animal elephant with Buddha-elephant". They all assembled very early in the morning on both sides of the royal road after fastening couch upon couch. The Glorious One also, having done his bodily ablutions, entered Rājagaha for alms-food, surrounded by the organisation of bhikkhus. At that moment, they released Nālāgiri in the manner already stated. The elephant came destroying roads, crossroads and so on. On that occasion a woman went from street to street taking with her a child. The elephant on seeing that lady chased her. The Glorious One said: "O Nālādgiri! You are not sent out in order to kill; come here". On hearing that voice, it ran in the direction of the Glorious One. Buddha pervaded over Nālāgiri alone such loving kindness as was worthy of permeating all over endless living beings in immeasurable universe (cakkvāḷa). Pervaded by the loving kindness of the Glorious One, it became harmless and drooped down at the base of the feet of the Glorious One. Buddha put His hand on the top of its head. At that time, divinites and brahmās became astonished and extraordinary at heart and honoured the Glorious One with multi-coloured flowers and so on. All over the city there came to be heaps of wealth knee-deep. The king proclaimed by beat of gong all over the city, saying: "Let all the wealth at the West gate be for the citizens; let all the wealth at the East gate be sent into the royal treasury". All the citizens did accordingly. Then Nālāgiri became known as Dhanapāla, Guardian of Wealth. The Glorious One went to the Veḷuvana monastery.

Therefore, it has been stated:-

"I was an elephant-rider, formerly. I touched with my elephant that most ex- cellent silent Buddha who was on his begging round for alms-food. Consequent on that evil deed, the roaming cruel elephant Nālā- giri rushed towards me in the excellent city of Giribbaja.

82.18 in the eight question: The expression Satthaccheda is to be interpreted as the splitting open of a sore with a surgical knife;cutting with a lancet the sores of leprosy (kuthārāya). Long ago, it is said, the Bodhisat was king in a bordering region. He became roughish and brutal because of his living in border area and association with wicked people Armed with a sword one day, he wandered about his city on foot even and went his way splitting inoffensive people open with his sword. Consequent upon that evil deed he became cooked in purgatory for many a thousand years, suffered misery in his existences as animals and so on, but with his residue towards maturity, although He became Buddha in his final existence, in the manner stated below, became afflicted with paining sore, being hit by a stone splinter thrown down on Him by Devadatta. Jīvaka operated surgically that paining sore, with his mind of loving kindness. To Devadatta, of hostile heart there occurred a heinously sinful act of shedding Buddha's blood, which does bring about immediate unintermitting consequence There was merit only for Jīvaka who split open Buddha's wound with a kindly heart.

Therefore, it has been stated:-

"I was a king, a pedestrian. I killed people with my knife. Consequent upon that evil deed i was cooked in purgatory abundantly. When the remnant of that evil deed, now came to me entirely, skin on my foot was fixed; indeed the (evil) deed does not get destroyed".

1. Kuthārāya is not in the P.T.S. dictionary. I take it to be and editorial error for Kuṭṭhāruyā made up of kuṭṭha and aruyā; the former indicates leper and the latter signifies 'of the sore'. Hence my rendering into English as the sore of leprosy.

82.19. in the ninth question: The expression Sīsadukkha is to be interpreted as ailment of head, head suffering. Long ago, it is said, the Bodhsat became a fisherman in an angler's village, having been born there. One day, he went together with fishermen to the place where fishes were killed and seeing there fishes being killed, aroused his mental pleasure. Like him also those who went along with him provoked their pleasure. Due to that evil deed, he suffered misery in the four forms of purgatory (apāya), was reborn in the Sākiyan family together with those men in this final existence and although eventually He attained Buddhahood, He had to suffer personally the head-ailment. Those Sākiyan kings also, all of them arrived at destruction in the battle with Vidadūbha, in the manner stated in the commentary of Dhammapada.

Therefore, it has been stated:

"I became a fisherman's child in the village of fisherman. Seeing fishes being killed, I provoked my pleasure. Due to the consequence of that evil deed, there became head distress to me. When Viṭatūbha made a massacre, all the Sākiyans were killed also."

82.20. din the tenth question The expression Yavakhādana is to be interpreted as eating of corn-rice in Verañjaya. long ago, it is said, the Bodhisat was reborn in a certain family. Because of his birth, as well as due to his blind foolishness, on seeing the disciples of the Glorious One Phussa, enjoying such sweet food and drinks as high-quality-rice-meal and so on, reviled thus:- "Look here! You bald-headed monks! You should eat corn; do not enjoy soft meal of highquality rice (sāli)." Due to consequences of that evil deed, he suffered misery in the four kinds of purgatory for many a thousand years, eventually attained Buddhahood in this His final existence, went about small and big villages as well as royal cities, doing uplift work for the world, at one time, arrived at the foot of Pucimanda tree flourished fully with boughs, branches, twigs and leaves, in the neighbourhood of the village of Verañja brahmin. the brahmin Verañja approached the Glorious One, tried to conquer the Glorious One is many a way, but not being able to do so became established in the first stage of sanctification (sotāpanna), and made his request thus: "Venerable Sir! it is proper that Buddha makes His rain-retreat here". The Glorious One consented by remaining silent. Then, beginning from the next day onwards, the evil one Māra made and enticement of Māra over the residents of the entire Verañja brahmin-village. There was no one who offered even to the extent of a spoonful of alms-food to the Glorious One who entered the village for collecting alms-food, due to Māra's enticement. The glorious One had to come back with His empty bowl only, surrounded by the organisation of bhikkhus. When he thus came back, horse merchants who were staying even there, gave charitable offering on that day and thence-forward invited the Glorious One and His retinue of five hundred, pounded the corn which they apportioned from the food of five hundred horses and dropped the corn into the same bowls, similar to what they did on the day milk-rice of Sujātā was cooked. The Glorious One ate His meal. In this way for three months corn had to be eaten by Him. With the lapse of three months, when Māra's enticement had passed over, on the day of invitation of self and other confession and criticism (pavāraṇā), the brahmin Verañja came to remember the incident, became severely remorseful, gave a great charity to the bhikkhu-clergy headed by Buddha, paid his homage to Him and tendered his apology.

Therefore, it has been stated thus:

"In the dispensation of Buddha Phussa, I reproached His disciples saying: Chew and eat corn; do not eat soft sali. Due to consequences of that evil deed, I had to chew and eat corn for three months; at that time I dwelt at Verañja, being invited by the brahmin".

82.21. in the eleventh question The expression piṭṭhidukkham (back-ache) ailment at back. long ago, it is said, the Bodhisat was reborn, in a wealthy householder's family, and was endowed with physical strength but somewhat short of stature by nature. At that time, a certain professional wrestler, holding wrestling contests in villages, districts and royal cities all over the Jambu island, attained victory after felling people down and eventually arrived at the city where the Bodhisat lived. There also the wrestler knocked down his rival men and was beginning to make his departure. Thereupon, the Bodhisat arrived at the city-circle of contest there, clamped his arms saying: "This one attained victory at my residential city and is about to go. Come, go away only after wrestling with me". That professional wrestler laughed saying:- "I had knocked down big men. This dwarf short-statured by nature is not worthy of a single hand of mine even,' clapped his arms and came over roaring Both of them touched one another's hand. The Bodhisat lifted him turned him round and round in the sky and made him fall breaking his torso-bone broken as he dropped down on the ground. All the residents of the city, made their acclamations, clapped their arms and hands and honoured the Bodhisat with such offerings as clothes, ornaments and so on. The bodhisat let that professional wrestler lie down straight, stretched his trunk bone to become straight and sent him off saying: "Go away; from now onwards, do not do such things." Due to consequences of that deed, in every existence he was reborn, he suffered such misery as pain in his body and his head etc., and though he became Buddha in this his final existence, had to suffer such misery as injury of back and so on. Therefore, sometimes when His back-pain arose, He would tell Sāriputta and Moggallāna: "From now on, you two preach dhamma," while He, Himself would spread the robe of Sugata and lay Himself down. Remnant of evil consequence, is such that, even Buddha could not escape from it.

Indeed, this has been stated:

"When wrestling was contested, I harassed the youthful wrestler. Due to consequences of that deed, there occurred back-ache to me."

82.22. In the tweleveth question The expression atisāra is to be interpreted as purging accompanied by springing up of blood. Long ago, it is said, the Bodhisat was reborn in the family of a wealthy householder, and earned his livelihood by practising as a physician. He, in giving medical treatment to a banker's son, afflicted with disease, made medicine and gave him medical treatment, but due to his patient's negligence in making payment of what should be paid as professional fees, the physician gave another kind of medicine and made him vomit and purge. The banker made much payment to him. Due to consequences of that deed, he became afflicted with disease of dysentery in every existence whenever he was reborn. Even in this, his final existence at the time of passing away completely into nibbāna, the very moment he had eaten the soft pork (or mushroom), cooked by Cunda, son of a smith together with the nourishment of divine essence thrown in by divinities from all over the universe (cakkavāḷa), He began to be afflicted with blood-purging dysentery. His strength of a hundred thousand crores of elephants went exhausted. The Glorious One, going to Kusināra on the full-moon day of Visākha for His complete passing away to nibbāna, had to sit Himself down in many a place, had to drink water due to His thirst, arrived at Kusināra with severe suffering and completely passed away into nibbāna at day-break. Remnant of evil-consequential act does not spare such a One as the Lord of the three worlds (loka) even.

Therefore, it has been stated:-

"I was a physician and made the banker's son purge. Due to the consequences of that deed, there occurred dysentery to me. In this way, the conqueror, who had attained the might of all kinds of higher knowledge, propounded to the chief of the clergy of Bhikkhus, at the Anotatta lake."

82.23. Thus it is stated that the doing of demerit in the form of putting down condensed contents of the questions, which had been promised, namely, is finished. The expression ittham sudam is to be interpreted as: Desirably by this means, in the manner stated below. Sudam is an adverb (nipāta), it came in for filling up a word. Bhagavā is to be explained as the Great Being, who is endowed with potent power, and who had fulfilled the perfections.

"Connected with possessor of good fortune, and of sublimity; full of details with good fortune also;possessing reverence, One who had gone renounced, in regard to existences; consequently he is the Glorious One, possessor of sublimity."

That Glorious One, who is associated with such qualities and so on thus, the deva of devas, sakka of sakkas, brāhmā of brahmās, Buddha of Buddhas the highly merciful One in order to make manifest properly developing (Sambhāvayamāns) His own (attano,) Buddhacariyam (Buddha behaviour) the doings of Buddha, Buddhāpadamyam nāma, known as biography of Buddha, abhāsittha, He narrated and preached dhamma pariyāyam, the sutta preaching of dhamma, namely, to make manifest the deeds of Buddha.

Thus ended the proper commentary on the Biography of Buddha, Buddha Apadāna, of the commentary (aṭṭhakathā) of biographies (apadāna), for the shining splendour of pure people.

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