Apadana commentary (Atthakatha)

by U Lu Pe Win | 216,848 words

This is the English translation of the commentary on the Apadana (Atthakatha), also known as the Visuddhajana-Vilasini. The Buddhist stories known as apadanas refer to biographies of Buddhas, Buddhist monks and nuns. They are found in the Pali Canon (Khuddaka Nikaya), which is the primary canon of Theravada Buddhism. Alternative titles: Visuddhaja...

Discourse on Sumedha, the Future Gotama Buddha

1.1 One hundred thousand aeons more than four innumerable aeons, (Kappa), ago, there was a city, which received the name of Amaravatī or Amara, with a non-stop ringing of ten kinds of sounds.

Regarding this, it is stated in the Buddhavaṃsa as follows:-

One hundred thousand aeons and four innumerable aeons, (kappa), ago, there existed a city called Amara, which had a delightful scenery, where ten kinds of sounds were never silent and where were abundant food and drink.

1.2 There, the Pāḷi expression: dasahi saddehi avivittaṃ connotes never silent but ever filled with ten kinds of sounds with the sound of elephants, with the sound of horses, with the sound of chariots, with the sound of big drums, with the sound of kettle drums (mudiṅga), with the sound of lutes, with the sound of songs, with the sound of conch shells, with the striking of cymbals, with the sounds of such invitations and receptions as:- "Do take your seat, do have your meal; do have a drink; as the tenth sound. With these ten kinds of sounds, the city was never in a state of silent seclusion.

In the Buddhavaṃsa, however, those sounds were taken up individually and mention was made as follows:

"Sound of elephants, sound of horses, that of big drums, conch shells and chariots. With food and drink, announcements were made: Do eat and drink as well.

Having said so the following statement was also made:-

“It was a city, complete in all aspects, towards which people came for all kinds of work. Endowed with seven types of gems, the city was crowded with various grades of people. Prosperous (samiddhaṃ) like a celestial city, it was the residence of makers of merit. In that city of Amaravatī, a brahmin named Sumedha, had an accumulated wealth of crores and crores in numerous quantity and owned abundant money and paddy. A reciter and memoriser of the mantras he was, since he had attained proficiency in the three Vedas. In palmistry and traditional lore, as well as in his own doctrine he had arrived at perfection.”

1.3 Then, one day, that wise man, Sumedha, being all alone by himself, at the upper storey of his excellent mansion, seated himself cross-legged and reflected in this way: "O wise man! Such a phenomenon, as taking conception in the next existence, is indeed, a misery (Dukkha). So also, there is the breaking up of the body, wheresoever any and everybody is reborn. I, also, am subject to birth, liable to old age, prone to disease and destined to death. Such being the case, it behaves me to seek and find the great deathless Nibbāna, which is happy and cool, where birth, old age, ailment and death are absent. Inevitably, having escaped from existence, I should become bound for Nibbāna, the immortal state, by a single journey of the right path.

It has been, therefore, stated thus:-

"Gone into seclusion and having been seated, I Then contemplated thus: ‘As now existence is, indeed, miserable;equally so, is the breaking up of the body. Since I am subject to birth, old age and ailment, I shall be in quest of perfect peace (nibbuti), which knows no old age and is secure (from all dangers). Would it not be well, should I discard this putrid physical body, filled with all sorts of sores, and go desirelessly and without any hankering after it? There does exist that right path, which, however, is not possible, without any cause. That right path, I shall seek, for my entire escape from existence.’

1.4 Beyond that also, he reflected thus:-

“Just as, indeed, in this world, there is such a phenomenon as happiness, in contrast with misery, so also if there is becoming, there should also be its contrast - the non-becoming. Again, just as when there could be heat, there is also its cessation - cold, in the same way, with the cessation of fires of lust (rāga), etc., there ought to be immortal peace (Nibbāna). Just as, indeed, in contrast with inferior and evil doctrine (Dhamma) there is but the good and sinless truth (Dhamma), exactly in the same way, should there be bad birth, there should also be birth-free state (nibbāna), where birth is unknown, due to discarding all births.”

Therefore it was stated:-

“Just as happiness certainly exists when sufferings abound, in the same way, absence of becoming ought to be expected, when becoming exists. Just as the cool immortality is present, when heat exists, so also, cessation of fires (nibbāna) is to be expected, when fires of three categories, (lobha, dosa and moha) are ablaze. Just as the good is there, when the bad exists, so also the birth-free state is to be expected, when birth exists.”

1.5 Further on, he continued thinking:- "Just as it is proper for a man, sunk in a heap of dung, to seek and find the proper path to go to a large lake, covered with lotus flowers of five colours, which he saw but from a great distance; should no seeking be done, the fault is not that of the lake, but of the man. In the selfsame way, when the great lake of the immortal state (nibbāna), does exist for washing away the depravity, (kilesa), when no quest is made, the fault is not that of the great immortal lake of nibbāna, but of the man. Just as a man were surrounded by robbers and should there also be a path by which he could flee from them, if, in spits thereof, he did not run away, the path is not to blame, but the man is. Exactly in the same way, when there exists a cool path leading to immortality (nibbāna), for a man surrounded and seized by sins of depravity (kilesa), he does not seek the path, it is not the path that is blame-worthy, but the man is. When a physician, who can give medical treatment to cure ailments, is available, a man afflicted with disease were not to get in touch with that doctor and would not have his illness medically treated, the physician is not at fault, but the patient is. Exactly in the same way, if a living teacher clever in directing the path leading to the cessation of (corrupting) depravity, (kilesa), is not sought by any one, who is oppressed by the disease of depravity (kilesa), it is the fault of the non-seeker but not that of the teacher, the destroyer of depravity, (kilesa).

Therefore, it has been stated as follows:

“Just as it is not the fault of a lake for not being found by a man, who had gone down into dirty dung, although he saw it (from afar), full (of water), so also it is not the fault of the lake of immortality, when no quest is made of it (by any man), although such a lake of freedom from death that washes away the (impurities of) depravity (kilesa), exists. Just as the straight path of escape is not to blame, because the man, severely surrounded by his enemies did not flee, though the way to go was there, exactly in the same way, the cool straight path is not to blame, because nobody makes a quest of it, when, being surrounded severely by sins of depravity (kilesa), although the cool path (of escape) is there. Just as a medical man is not blameworthy, because (the patient) did not have his ailment medically treated, although that ailing man knows the existence of a physician, exactly in the same way, the leader-teacher is not blameworthy, if no discovery of him, the teacher, is made by a man, suffering from and entirely oppressed by diseases of depravity (kilesa).”

1.6 Further on, he be thought himself:- "Just as a man, congenitally fond of finery, were to cast off a corpse, clinging to his neck and go about happily, similarly, should I cast off this putrid physical body of mine, regardlessly and enter the immortal city of (nibbāna). Just as also on a dung hill, men and women, having done their ablutions by discharging excrement and urine, go away without taking the discharge along, either in their laps of after turning up the ends of their garments: hungry though they may be, they have no regard for their discharge but would discard them and go away: similarly it suits me also to put aside, regardlessly, this putrid physical body and enter the immortal city (nibbāna). Just as the sea-going sailors go about after discarding their worn-out vessel, regardlessly, I also, similarly, should regardlessly reject this physical body of mine, which is leaking from the nine sore-holes and enter the safe city (nibbāna). Like unto a man, who happened to have brought many a variety of gems, going on a journey along with robbers, takes a (separate) path that is safe and secure, abandoning all his several gems, when his own jewel-self is in danger of destruction, equally so, this impure body resembles a robber, who lives by pilferage and plunder of gems and jewels. Should to this, I become attached, the jewel good-deed and gem-like noble path for me will get destroyed. It, therefore, behoves me to give up this robber-resembling body and get into the great immortal city of nibbāna.

It has been stated, therefore, thus:

“Just as a man would go safely, independently, according to his own desire after he has set himself free from his neck, where was fastened despicably a corpse, exactly in the same way, would I go desirelessly and regardlessly after discarding this putrid physical body, wherein is a accumulated different dead-bodies. Just as men and women go away after discharging their excrement in a lavatory, regardlessly and desirelessly, in the selfsame manner would I go after making my ablution, as and where exists a privy, discarding this my physical body, filled with different dead-bodies.

“Like unto ship-owners, who go away after abandoning on old beat which was leaking and crumbling, regardlessly and desirelessly, equally so, I would go off after abandoning this body, ever leaking from its nine holes, similar to what the owners do to their worn out-boat.

“Just as a man who brought treasure with him and happened to be travelling together with thieves, goes away forsaking everybody and everything, seeing the danger of his own body-treasure being cut to pieces, exactly so, would I go, forsaking this body, which is like unto a big thief, due to the danger of my good deed being cut to pieces.”

1.7 In this way, the wise man, Sumedha pondered with different variety of illustrations over this matter directly beneficial to renunciation, gave a great charity, distributing gifts to all needy wayfarers, etc., in the way already aforesaid abandoned both kinds of sensual pleasures, material (vatthu,( and sinful depravity (kilesa), went out of the city of Amara, all alone, built a hermitage in the neighbourhood of a hill, known by the name of Dhammika (Righteous), in the Himalayas. There, he has a leaf-hut and a cloister-walk built. Thereafter, he made his renunciation an accomplished act by becoming a hermit, after putting on a bark garment, which is endowed with twelve virtues and forsaking the clothes contaminated with nine defects, in order that he may bring into that hermitage for him, spiritual strength, known as higher knowledge, abhiññā, complete with eight circumstantial virtues, usually described in such a manner as: "when, in this way, the mind is self-composed and well-meditated" etc., that superknowledge (abhiññā) which had abandoned the five hindrances (nīvaraṇa). Having thus become a hermit, he abandoned his leaf-hut, since it was (considered to be) mixed up with eight defects and approached the foot of a tree, considered to comprise ten virtues. He then rejected all food made of rice and other grains and became an eater of fallen fruits, fresh from trees. Making strenuous effort by sticking to three postures only: sitting, standing and walking to and fro, he became a gainer of five sorts of super-knowledge, (abhiññā) and eight meditative attainments (samāpatti) within a period of seven days only. Thus, it was, he arrived at the stage of the strength of super-knowledge according as he aspired.

Therefore, it has been stated:-

"Having thus thought over, I went towards the Himalayas after providing protection to the helpless by giving away as charity crores over crores and hundreds of my money. For me, there came to be a leaf-hut well-built, a hermitage, well-made, at the Dhammika hill, not far from the Himalayas. Also made there, was a cloister- walk free from five faults, complete with eight virtues and congenial for bringing about the strength of super-knowledge. There, I took off my (costly) clothes contaminated with nine drawbacks and dressed myself in bark garment, complete with twelve good qualities. Even the leaf-hut, (I considered as) mixed up with eight defects, (and so) rejected an approached the foot of a tree, teaming with ten good qualities. Totally, did I reject the cultivated and planted crop and accepted the fresh fruits fallen from trees, (such ripe) fruits as were full of numerous virtues. There, under the tree, I made strenuous effort, sticking to three postures: sitting, standing and walking only and I gained the spiritual strength of super-knowledge (abhiññā) within seven days only.

1. Traditionally in Pāḷi phraseology there are two ways of referring to previous statements: (a) rukkhārūḷha naya, (b) maggagama naya. Here, the former method, rukkhārūḷha naya, is employed. Hence hetthā, signifying the lower portion of the tree which had previously been climbed. Thus the English equivalent is "aforesaid" for the Pāḷi expression hetthāvutta, literally, "said below".

1.8 There, in the above poem, in this context, namely: "assamo sukato mayhaṃ, seems, however, to signify that: it has been stated as if the hermitage comprising of a leaf-hut and a cloister-walk was built by the wise Sumedha, with his own hands. But this is what is actually meant here: Sakka, seeing indeed that the Great Being having penetrated into the Himalayas and entered the valley of the Dhammika hill, addressed the young divinity Vissakamma thus: "My dear! This wise Sumedha has renounced the world and come out of his city you should create a dwelling place for him". That divine being, Vissakamma, responsively receiving the words of Sakka, created a delightful hermitage, comprising a well-guarded leaf-hut and a pleasant cloisterwalk (or promenade). The glorious Buddha, however, referred to that hermitage as being completed then, because of the potent power of his good deeds and so said: Sāriputta!

In that valley of the Dhammika hill:-

"For me was well-made a hermitage, free from five faults, comprising a well-built leaf-hut and a cloister-walk (or promenade).

There, (in that stanza of two lines), the expression sukato mayhaṃ is to be paraphrased as 'sutthu kato mayā, 'well done by me; the expression paṇṇasālā sumāpitā is to be construed as: paṇṇacchadanasālāpi me sumāpitāhosi (a dwelling covered with a roof of leaves was also properly put up by me).

1.9 In the expression pañcadosavivajjitā: These are known as the five faults of a (poor) cloister-walk (or promenade): (1) hardness and uneven level (2) trees being inside (3) being covered with dung or jungle (4) being too narrow (5) being too spacious. The feel of one, who walks about on a promenade, indeed, of uneven hard pieces of land, become painful;swelling blisters arise. The mind does not get one-pointedness. Meditation exercise makes no progress. On the other hand, comfortable walking on soft and even surface is conducive towards good progress in meditation exercise. Therefore, hardness and uneven condition of the cloister should be understood as one defect. Should there be a tree either inside or in the mid-centre or at the extremity of the cloister, either the forehead or the head of the walking man, who might come there unawares, would be knocked against. Hence the condition, of having a tree in it, is the second defect of the promenade.

Whoever walks about on a promenade covered over with such jungle as grass, creepers etc., in the dark hours, might either kill, by treading upon, such living creatures as snakes etc., or suffer pain being bitten by them. Hence it is that the condition of being enveloped by bushes is the third defect. nails, toes and fingers of one, who walks about on a very narrow promenade, get broken by stumbling at the boundary, where the breadth is only a cubit or half a cubit. Thus extreme narrowness is the fourth fault of a promenade. The mind of one, who walks about on an over-spacious promenade, runs riot. The mind does not get one-pointedness. Thus, the state of being over-spacious is the fifth fault of a promenade. From the point of view of being broad, however, it should be one and a half cubits (at the centre) and about a cubit (each) on the two sides as smaller cloisters; the length should be sixty cubits, covering such an area spread over evenly with sand, the promenade ought to be like that of the Thera Mahā Mahinda, the brilliant light-giver to the island (of Laṅka) on the pagoda hill (Cetiyagiri).

1.10 The expression:- atthaguṇasamupetaṃ is to be understood thus:- 'atthahi samaṇasukhehi upetaṃ, 'endowed with eight kinds of monk's happiness'. These are eight kinds of monk's happiness: the condition of having acquired money and paddy, the opportunity of seeking sinless lumps of food in his begging-bowl. the condition of enjoying his meal peacefully, the absence of depravity (kilesa) consisting which harasses kingdoms by royal relatives among themselves, pilfering and plundering their kingdom and seizing the wealth, coins, etc., in addition to beheading (one another) freedom from attachment to and desire for his monk's equipment (or means of achieving a monk's purpose); sense of fearlessness when pillaged and plundered by robbers;having nothing to do with the king and his chief ministers; the condition of not being smitten (appatihata) in the four cardinal directions. This is what has been stated: (Sakka) had such a hermitage created as one, where hermits would be able to obtain these eight kinds of happiness by dwelling in it. In this way does that hermitage promote eight varieties of happiness.

1.11 The expression: abhiññā-balamāhariṃ should be comprehended thus: I brought in the strength of super-knowledge that had gained vigour by beginning to make effort over even clearly seeing (myself) from the angle of impermanence and misery (dukkha), to produce and get result in achieving super-knowledge and meditative attainments (Samāpatti) doing the eye-fixing (kasiṇa, device) metal exercise, as I reside in that hermitage. Just as I am able to bring in that (spiritual) strength, while dwelling in that (hermitage) exactly in the same way, (Sakka) had such a hermitage, as would be suitable for the benefit of gaining super-knowledge, (abhiññā) and strength of spiritual insight (vipassanā), created; thus the expression is to be explained.

1.12 The expression: sātakaṃ pajahiṃ tattha navadosamupāgataṃ is to be construed thus:- Here, this is the discourse in its gradual order. It is said that at that time the divine being Vissatkamma created a delightful hermitage furnished with a privy, safe shelter, cloister etc., shaded over with flowering and fruit-bearing trees, flowing fresh water, standing on a site, where brutal beasts and fearsome jungle-birds had been removed, and where solitude would be facilitated. At each extremity of the decorated cloister, a wooden balustrade each, was built up; for sitting down in the middle of the cloister, a stone seat with an even level surface of colour was created. inside the hermitage, were deposited such hermit's necessities as: plaited-hair-circle, bark garments, three sticks, (which constitute a tripod, a water-pot and so on;in the front hall (maṇḍapa) are arranged a water-jar, a water-conch-shell and water-cup complete with its saucer; in the heating hall (aggisālā) are placed earthen ware pan for ashes, firewood, etc. In this way, whatever would be of beneficial use for recluses, all those were created. Thereafter, having engraved an inscription: "Whosoever are desirous of becoming recluses they may do so, taking these hermit-necessities (tāpasaparikkhāra)"; (later), the divine-being Vissakamma went back to his heavenly world only. At that juncture, the wise Sumedha was looking out for a suitable site, worthy of residence for himself, since he had followed up the course the hills and glens at the base of the Himalayas. At a river-bend the wise man saw the pleasant hermitage, the gift of Sakka, created by Vissakamma, went to an extremity of cloister, and not seeing any footprint (on the floor), bethought to himself: "It must be that regular recluses, having gone to nearest village, in search of food to be begged for, come back tired, entered the leaf-hut and become seated." He, therefore, awaited a little and later, saying to himself: "this seems to be taking too long, 'I shall fine out what really is', he opened the door of the leaf-roofed hermitage, entered inside, looked about here and there, read the writing on the large wall and said: "These are useful and appropriate articles for me; taking these, I shall become a real recluse." Having said so, he forsook his pair of garments both lower and upper.

Therefore, has it been stated:

Sātakaṃ pajahiṃ tatthā, 'there I forsook my (pair of) garments.' Oh Sāriputta! Having thus entered that leaf-roofed hermitage, I forsook my clothing.

1.13 The expression: navadosamupāgataṃ, is to be elucidate thus: 'In discarding (my) clothing, I did so, because I saw nine faults'. Indeed, for those who renounced the world and became hermits, there become apparent, nine faults in a good garment: (1) One of the faults is its high value; (2) the second fault lies in its coming into existence through depending on others; (3) the third fault is in getting dirty quickly by the use of it; when dirty, it is, indeed, to be washed and dyed also; (4) the fourth fault lies in getting old and worn out by the use of it; the torn (garment) has either to be tailored or to be given a gusset; (5) the fifth fault lies in the difficulty of successfully seeking a new set (of clothes); (6) the sixth fault is its impropriety for a recluse, renouncing the world; (7) the seventh fault is it's being the common property of the enemies; so as, indeed, enemies do not seize it, accordingly, it should be looked after; (8) the eighth fault lies in its becoming the seat of ornamentation of the one, who uses it. (9) the ninth fault lies in the great greed for loading up his body, in carrying it and going about here and there

1.14 The expression: vākacīraṃ nivāsesiṃ is to be comprehended thus: At that time, I, O Sāriputta! having seen these nine faults, forsook (my_) garments and put on the bark garment. Chopping the Muñja reed to pieces, joining and binding them, a reed raiment for lower and upper robes, could be accomplished and I accepted it.

1.15 The expression: Dvādasaguṇamunāgataṃ is to be interpreted as being endowed with twelve kinds of benefit. There are indeed, twelve advantages in the reed raiment; (1) the first being new in its cheap value, excellence and propriety, (2) the second, its possibility of being made by one's own hand; (3) the third, it becomes only slowly dirty by use; and there is absence of delaying hindrance (papañca) when it is washed (also) (4) the fourth is the non-existence of darning and stitching even when it is worn out by usage; (5) the fifth is easy procurement, when a new outfit is sought for; (6) the sixth is its congeniality to the renouncing recluse; (7) the seventh is nonexistence of being profitable to enemies (8) the eighth is the absence of any cause (thāna), for the wearer to ornament (himself); (9) the ninth consists in light weight in case of carrying it (10) the tenth consists in diminished desire (appicchā) in the robe-requisite; (11) the eleventh consists in being sinless and righteous for the procurement of reed (the raw material for recluses raiment); (12) the twelfth is regardlessness even when the reed-raiment is ruined.

1.16 The expression: atthadosa samākiṇṇaṃ pajahiṃ paṇṇasālakaṃ is to be understood thus: How did I forsake? It is said he, (the wise Sumedha), took off the suit (yuga) of excellent garments, caught hold of the red reed raiment, resembling a garland of Anoja flowers, which conformed to the requirement of a robe, put on the lower dress, above which, he put on, all over his upper limbs, another reed raiment of gold colour, while on one of his shoulders he carried, along with its hoofs, an antelope's skin, resembling the spread-out heap of Punnāga flowers, suitably released the braided-hair circle, thrust in a strong needle (of hardwood) for the purpose of making it unshakable along with his hair-crest, with a string, resembling a loose thread from a net, he took down the coral coloured drinking water-pot, brought a carrying pole, which contained curves at three points, at one end of the carrying-pole, he hung the drinkingwater pot; at another, hook, basket, and three-sticks-triped etc.; raised the loaded pole on to his shoulder; with his right hand he caught hold of his ascetic staff (kattaradaṇḍak), went out of the leaf-roofed hermitage, walked (M?Pg.19) to and fro on the great cloister (mahācaṅkama) of sixty cubits, looked over his own appearance and said to himself 'my desired object has reached its highest height; my renunciation, indeed, is resplendent; this renunciation of mine is the one, eulogised (vaṇṇita) and praised (thomita) by omniscient Buddhas, by silent buddhas and by all wise personages; by me, my household bondage had been abandoned; I have come out renouncing the world; obtained by me, now, has been the noblest life of a recluse. I shall, now, perform the duties of a recluse so that I get the happiness of the right path (Magga) and its fruition (phala)." Energy emerged in Him; he put down his load-hanging pole, took his seat, himself similar to a seated gold-image, on the bean-coloured stone-slab, at the centre of the cloister, spent the portion of the day; and in the evening, entered the leaf-roofed hermitage; he lay himself down on a mat, made of twigs (katthattharika) on the side of a bed-stead, made of split bamboo (bidala), caused his body to take season (i.e. refreshed his body by means of cool sleep-washing, etc., sarīram utum gāhāpetvā) woke up very early in the morning, and pondered over his own coming (there) thus: "Seeing defects in household life, I abandoned my immeasurable wealth and endless prosperity, entered the forest and became a recluse as a seeker of renunciation (nekkhammagavesaka). From now onwards, it does not behove me to go about forgetfully. Insects of evil thoughts wear away a wandering man, who has abandoned seclusion. At the present moment, it is proper for me, to devote myself to solitude. I, indeed, have done the renunciation, seeing the household life, from the angle of impediment. This leaf-roofed hermitage is pleasing to my mind; the surrounding grounds bear the colour of ripe bael-fruit; its white walls are silver-coloured; the roof of leaves bears the colour of a pigeon's feet; its bedstead of split-bamboo has the colour of a varied - coloured carpet, it is a residential abode for comfortable dwelling. It seems to me that apart from this leaf-roofed hermitage, there appears not another extra happy habitation (gehasampadā)." Thus did he, the wise Sumedha, saw the eight faults as he investigated the defects of his leaf-roofed hermitage.

1.17 Eight, indeed, are the disadvantages in making use of the leaf-roofed hermitage: (1) the first disadvantage lies in; seeking and preparing, after putting together requisite material with great effort, (2) the second consists in constant watchfulness for the purpose of repeatedly replacing rightly as and when grass, leaves and clay fall of and drop down; (3) the third lies in getting up saying: there is no one-pointed tranquillity of mind to one, who is roused up at an untimely hour, when, for instance, an aged ascetic arrives at the hermitage; (4) the fourth lies in becoming instrumental in the body becoming delicate, owing to protection from cold, heat, etc; (5) the fifth consists in covering up criticism, since it is possible for one, who had entered a dwelling, to do any evil deed whatever; (6) the sixth lies in the action of acquisition saying: 'it is mine'; (7) the seventh lies in the fact that the existence of this, namely, the leaf-roofed hermitage, looks like one's own second residence; (8) the eighth consists in being common with many since the resident hermit will have to be living jointly together with sallow lice (ūkāmaṅgula), house lizards, etc. Thus, seeing the eight disadvantages, the Great Being abandoned the leaf-roofed hermitage. Therefore, it is stated: "I abandoned the leaf-roofed hermitage, beset with eight bad points'.

1.18 The expression:- Upagamim rukkhamūlam guṇe dasahupāgata, should be comprehended thus: Having rejected the roofed-residence (channam), I went towards the foot of a tree, endowed with ten excellent qualities. In that expression, the ten good qualities are these: (1) the first good quality is scanty effort, involved there indeed, it is just by going towards it; (2) the second lies in not having to be watchful; (3) indeed, whether cleaned up (sammattha) or kept unswept (asammattha) it is ever ready for use; the third is thus: there is no necessity to be up and doing; (4) the fourth is that it does not give cover to escape censure; indeed, in doing evil deed there, the sinner suffers shame;thus, there is no cover from censure; (5) the fifth is non-rigidity of the body, since the tree-root recluse does not stiffen his body similar to a dweller in open air; (6) the sixth lies in absence of acquisition; 9(7) the seventh is negation of attachment to any dwelling; (8) the eighth is non-existence of ejectment saying: "you all get out, I shall keep watch to maintain it" as if in a house common to many occupants; (9) the ninth lies in the residingrecluse becoming filled with zest; (10) the tenth lies in regardlessness; because everywhere a recluse goes, he finds it easy to get a tree-root-residence. Hence the text says: 'I go to the foot of a tree seeing those ten good qualities'.

1.19 Having, indeed, noted properly so many of these circumstances, the great being, entered the village for begging food on the next day. At the village, where he arrived well, people offered him food with great goodwill (ussāha). He finished eating his meal, came back to his recluse's retreat, sat down and thought thus:- "I did not renounce the world and become a recluse to obtain food; this fatty (siniddha) food, for instance, causes pride, conceit and sensual excitement of a male man to increase. There is also no end to misery, originating from food. Would it not be well for me would I forsake food produced from grain, sown and grown and become an eater of seasonal fruits! From that time onwards, the wise Sumedha did accordingly and striving and exerting, did bring about the eight spiritual attainments (samāpatti), as well as the five forms of super-knowledge, (abbiññā), within an interval of merely seven days.

Therefore, it has been stated:-

"Totally did I abstain the rice-grain, sown and grown; on seasonal fruits endowed with numerous good qualities did I live. There, I exerted strenuous effort, sitting, standing and walking; within seven days, I gained the spiritual strength of super-knowledge."

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