by Leo M. Pruden | 33,119 words

Abhidharmakośa, the famous fundamental treatise of 5th century by Vasubandhu, explaining the fundaments of system of knowledge according to Vaibhasika tradition of Buddhism is here. The main points of study here are the theory of dharma or elements of existence, perception of reality through indriyas (faculties), the notion of karma in the light of...

Chapter III - The World

narakapretatiryañco manuṣyāḥ ṣaḍ divaukasaḥ|
kāmadhātuḥ sa narakadvīpabhedena viṃśatiḥ||1||

Kāmadhātu consists of hell, the Pretas, animals, humans, and six gods. Twenty, through the division of the hells and the differences in the continents. 

R: Hell beings, craving spirits, animals, | men, six different types of pleasure beings: | these are the realm of desire. They are twenty | by dividing up hell and the continents.

ūrdhvaṃ saptadaśasthāno rūpadhātuḥ pṛthak pṛthak|
dhyānaṃ tribhūmikaṃ tatra caturthaṃ tvaṣṭabhūmikam||2||

Above is Rūpadhātu, of seventeen places. made up of dhyānas which are each of three stages. But the fourth is of eight stages.

R: The seventeen locations above it | are the realm of form. The levels of | the various concentrations for it, three. | eight different levels correspond to the fourth.

ārūpyadhāturasthānaḥ upapattyā caturvidhaḥ|
nikāyaṃ jīvitaṃ cātra niśritā cittasantatiḥ||3||

Ārūpyadhātu is not a place. It is fourfold through its mode of existence. Here the mental series exists supported by the nikāya and the vital organ. 

R: There is no place for the formless realm; | four kinds, depending on that given rise. | in this one the mental continuum | is based on the discrete type and life as well.

narakādisvanāmoktā gatayaḥ pañca teṣu tāḥ|
akliṣṭāvyākṛtā eva sattvākhyā nāntarābhavaḥ||4||

In these Dhātus, there are five realms of rebirth that have been designated by their names. They are undefiled-neutral, they are the world of beings, and they do not include intermediate existence. 

R: Five types of birth, hells and the rest, in them. | indicated by their names. They're not | the affliction, but rather neutral ethically. | known as ―sentient beings‖—the inbetween not.

nānātvakāyasaṃjñāśca nānākāyaikasaṃjñinaḥ|

Seven abodes or types of consciousness (vijñānasthitis), namely: 1. beings different in bodies and ideas; 2. beings of different bodies but similar ideas; 3. beings similar in body but different in ideas; 4. beings similar in body and ideas; and 5. – 7. three classes of non-material beings.  

vijñānasthitayaḥ sapta śeṣaṃ tatparibhedavat|
bhavāgrāsaṃjñisattvāśca sattvāvāsā nava smṛtāḥ||6||

The rest reduce the vijñāna. With Bhavāgra and unconscious beings, are the nine “dwellings of beings”.

anicchāvasanānnānye catasraḥ sthitayaḥ punaḥ|
catvāraḥ sāsravāḥ skandhāḥ svabhūmāveva kevalam||7|

There are no other dwellings of beings, for elsewhere one lives without desiring it. There are four other sthitis. They consist of the four impure skandhas, which are of the same sphere as the vijñāna. Taken separately, the consciousness is not defined as an abode of the consciousness.

vijñānaṃ na sthitiḥ proktaṃ catuṣkoṭi tu saṃgrahe|
catasro yonayastatra sattvānāmaṇḍajādayaḥ||8||

The correspondence admits of four cases. There are here four “wombs” of beings, beings born from eggs, etc. 

R: Here the states of birth for living beings | are counted as four: birth from an egg and the rest.

caturdhā nara tiryañcaḥ nārakā upapādukāḥ|
antarābhavadevāśca pretā api jarāyujāḥ||9||

Humans and animals are of the four types. Beings in hell, intermediate beings, and thegods are apparitional too. Pretas are also born from a womb. 

R: Four exist with humans, and animals. | hell beings and the beings of pleasure as well | as beings between their lives are born complete. | craving spirits are also born from the womb.

mṛtyupapattibhavayorantarā bhavatīha yaḥ|

Intermediate existence, which inserts itself between existence at death and existence at birth, not having arrived at the location where it should go, cannot be said to be born. 

R: These are the beings who occur between | the being at death here, and the one at birth. | because they have not reached their destination, | the beings between are not yet arrived.


Being similar to the series of rice, existence does not reproduce itself after having been interrupted. The existence of the reflection is not proved; should it be proved, the reflection is not similar; hence it does not serve as an example 

R: Because it's a thing like grain continuing, | it doesn't occur from that being's end. | because this image does not exist, and since | they are dissimilar, it's no example.

sahaikatra dvayābhāvāt asantānād dvayodayāt|
kaṇṭhokteścāsti gandharvāt pañcokteḥ gatisūtrataḥ||12||

For two things do not exist in the same spot. For it does not form a series. For it arises from two causes. The intermediate being is called by its name. It is the Gandharva. An intermediate being is proved by the text relative to the Five. And by the Sūtra of the gatis. 

R: First, there are no two together in one. | second, not the continuation, by two. | they are, from his lips, who live on smells. | five taught. Proof too from the sutra on births.

sa punarmaraṇātpūrva upapattikṣaṇātparaḥ||13||

Being projected by the same action that projects the pūrvakālabhava, an intermediate being has the form of this being, that is, the being of the realm of rebirth to come after his conception. This is before death, after conception. 

R: Because the force projecting them's the same, | he has the image of the being ―before.‖ | this is the one that's after the moment of birth, | before the point that one has already  died.

sajātiśuddhadivyākṣidṛśyaḥ karmarddhivegavān|
sakalākṣaḥ apratighavān anivartyaḥ sa gandhabhuk||14||

He is seen by the creatures of his class, and by the divine eye. He is filled with the impetus of the supernormal power of action. His organs are complete. He cannot be turned away. It eats odors. 

R: Seen by the same type, with a clear god's eye. | miraculous feats from deeds, a special strength. | all their powers complete, cannot be stopped. | never diverted, those ones live on smells.

viparyastamatiryāti gatideśaṃ riraṃsayā|
gandhasthānābhikāmo'nyaḥ ūrdhvapādastu nārakaḥ||15||

The mind (mati) troubled by defilements, goes, through its desire for sex, to the place of its realm of rebirth. Others go in their desire for odor or in their desire for residence. 1Beings in hell hang from their feet. 

R: Because of a mistaken impression he passes | to his destination to play, to enjoy; | others from attraction to smells or the place. | those for the hells are upside-down.

saṃprajānan viśatyekaḥ tiṣṭhatyapyaparaḥ aparaḥ|
niṣkrāmatyapi sarvāṇi mūḍho'nyaḥ nityamaṇḍajaḥ||16||

The first enter in full consciousness; the second, further, dwell in full consciousness; the third, further, leave in full consciousness; the fourth accomplishes all these steps with a troubled mind. Beings born from eggs are always of this last class. 

R: One is cognizant while entering, | another so while staying too; others | as they issue. One more ignorant all. | this is always the case with those from eggs.

karmajñānobhayeṣāṃ vā viśadatvād yathākramam||17||

Three garbhāvakrāntis, - the Cakravartin and the two Svayaṃbhūs, - by reason of their great purity of action, of knowledge, and of action and knowledge.  

R: Three are the types who enter the womb or such: | wheel emperors and the two selfborn, | respectively, due to the vastness of their | deeds, their wisdom, or the both of them.

nātmāsti skandhamātraṃ tu kleśakarmābhisaṃskṛtam|
antarābhavasaṃtatyā kukṣimeti pradīpavat||18||

The ātman does not exist. Only the skandhas, conditioned by defilement and action, go reincarnating themselves by means of the series of intermediate existences. As an example: the lamp.

yathākṣepaṃ kramādvṛddhaḥ santānaḥ kleśakarmabhiḥ|
paralokaṃ punaryāti ityanādibhavacakrakam||19||

In conformity with its projecting cause the series grows gradually, and, by virtue of the defilements and actions it goes again to another world. In this way the circle of existence is without beginning.

sa pratītyasamutpādo dvādaśāṅgastrikāṇḍakaḥ|
pūrvāparāntayordve dve madhye'ṣṭau paripūriṇaḥ||20||

Pratītyasamutpāda or dependent origination has twelve parts in three sections or time periods. Two for the first, two for the third, and eight for the middle. At least to consider the series that has all of its parts. 

S: It is the dependent origination which has twelve limbs and three divisions. There are two each in the past and future (lives) and eight in the present (life). Of onewho is complete.

pūrvakleśā daśā'vidyā saṃskārāḥ pūrvakarmaṇaḥ|
saṃdhiskandhāstu vijñānaṃ nāmarūpamataḥ param||21||

Ignorance is, in a previous life, the state of defilement. The saṃskāras are, in a previous life, the state of action. The consciousness is the skandhas at conception.| Nāmarūpa (is the series) from this moment on, until the production of the six āyatanas. 

S: Ignorance is the state of defilement in the past. The karmically-caused tendencies are actions in the past. Consciousness is the aggregates at conception. After this is name and form, until the arising of the six sense spheres.

prāk ṣaḍāyatanotpādāt tatpūrvaṃ trikasaṃgamāt|
sparśaḥ prāksukhaduḥkhādikāraṇajñānaśaktitaḥ||22||

Six āyatanas before coming together of the three or contact. There is sparśa, or contact, until the moment when the capacity to distinguish the cause of pleasure, of suffering, etc., is acquired. 

S: That is prior to the coming together of the three. Contact (lasts) until (one acquires) the ability to discriminate the causes of pleasure, displeasure, etc.

vittiḥ prāk maithunāt tṛṣṇā bhogamaithunarāgiṇaḥ|
upādānaṃ tu bhogānāṃ prāptaye paridhāvataḥ||23||

There is contact before sexual union. Desire (“thirst”) is the state of one who desires pleasure and sexual union. Upādāna or attachment is the state of one who runs around in search of the pleasures. 

S: There is feeling, until (there is) sexual desire. There is desire of one hankering after sensual delights and sexual pleasure. However, there is grasping of one running around in order to obtain sensual delights.

sa bhaviṣyat bhavaphalaṃ kurute karma tat bhavaḥ|
pratisaṃdhiḥ punarjātiḥ jarāmaraṇamā vidaḥ||24||

He does actions which will have for their result future existence (bhava): this is bhava. Jāti is the new reincarnation. Old age-and-death lasts until sensation. 

S: He makes karma which has as its result future birth (bhava); this is becoming (bhava). Rebirth, is conception. Old age and death, as far as feeling.

āvasthikaḥ kileṣṭo'yaṃ prādhānyā ttvaṅgakīrtanam|
pūrvāparāntamadhyeṣu saṃmohavinivṛttaye||25||

According to the School, it is static pratītyasamutpāda. In order to have aberration cease with regard to the past, the future, and the interval in between. 

S: Static is meant, so they say. The limbs are named according to the predominant(dharma). In order to end confusion about the past, the future, and the present.

kleśāstrīṇi dvayaṃ karma sapta vastu phalaṃ tathā|
phalahetvabhisaṃkṣepo dvayormadhyānumānataḥ||26||

Three parts are defilement, two are action; seven are foundation and also result. In two sections, cause and result are abbreviated, for one can infer them from the teaching of the middle. 

S: Three are defilements. Two are act. Seven are bases. So (seven limbs) are result. The causes and effects of the past and future are abridged because they can be inferred from the present.

kleśāt kleśaḥ kriyā caiva tato vastu tataḥ punaḥ|
vastu kleśāśca jāyante bhavāṅgānāmayaṃ nayaḥ||27||

From defilement there arises defilement and action; from whence foundation; from whence a new foundation and defilement: such is the manner of existence of the parts of existence or bhavāṇgas. 

S: Defilement and also act (arise) from defilement, fpom that, (arises) base, and, from that, again, arise base and defilements. This is the system of the limbs of existence.

heturatra samutpādaḥ samutpannaḥ phalaṃ matam|
vidyāvipakṣo dharmo'nyo'vidyā'mitrānṛtādivat||28||

Samutpāda is the cause, whereas samutpanna is the result. Avidyā is a separate entity (dharma), the opposite of vidyā or knowledge, like a non-friend, the untrue, etc. 

S: Here, the production is the cause, the produced is considered the result. Ignorance is a separate dharma, the opposite knowledge, like enemy or falsehood.

saṃyojanādivacanāt kuprajñā cenna darśanāt|
dṛṣṭestatsaṃprayuktatvāt prajñopakleśadeśanāt||29||

Because it is declared to be bound (saṃyojana), etc. Avidyā is not bad prajñā, because this is seeing (darśana). Because views are associated with ignorance. and because ignorance is defined as a defilement of prajñā.

S: Because of the statement about the fetters, etc. (if you say that ignorance is) bad wisdom, (then we say it is) not, because (bad wisdom) is a view. Because of the association of wrong view with it. Because of the teaching that it is an impurity of wisdom.

nāma tvarūpiṇaḥ skandhāḥ sparśāḥ ṣaṭ saṃnipātajāḥ|
pañcapratighasaṃsparśaḥ ṣaṣṭho'dhivacanāvhaya||30||

Nāman are the skandhas that are not rūpa. There are six contacts. They arise from encounter. Five are contact through (actual) contact; the sixth is so-called through denomination. 

S: Name, though, is the non-material aggregates. There are six contacts. They arise from the coming together. Five are contacts of resistance, the sixth is called designation.

vidyāvidyetarasparśāḥ amalakliṣṭaśeṣitāḥ|
vyāpādānunayasparśau sukhavedyādayastrayaḥ||31||

Contact of knowledge, non-knowledge, other: which are respectively pure, defiled, other. Contacts of antipathy and sympathy. Three contacts, leading to pleasure (sukhavedya), etc. 

S: Contact with knowledge, ignorance or neither. Pure, defiled, and the remainder. The two contacts are: with malice and with conciliation. There are three: to be experienced as pleasant, etc.

tajjāḥ ṣaḍvedanāḥ pañca kāyikī caitasī parā|
punaścāṣṭādaśavidhā sā manopavicārataḥ||32||

Six sensations arise from contact. Five are bodily sensations and one is mental. This same sensation is of eighteen types by reason of the objects of the mind (manopavicāras). 

S: There are six feelings which are born from them. Five are bodily, the other is mental. Further, it is of eighteen types because of the mental spheres.

kāme svālambanāḥ sarve rūpī dvādaśagocaraḥ|
trayāṇāmuttaraḥ dhyānadvaye dvādaśa kāmagāḥ||33||

In Kāmadhātu all of the manopavicāras have their own Dhātu for their object. Rūpadhātu is the object of twelve. The highest Dhātu (=Ārūpydhātu) is the object for three. In two Dhyānas, twelve. 

S: In the realm of sensual desires, there are all, having their own realm as object. The form realm is the object of twelve. The higher realm of three. There are twelve in two of the stages of meditation. Are connected with the realm of sensual desires.

svo'ṣṭālambanam ārūpyo dvayoḥ dhyānadvaye tu ṣaṭ|
kāmāḥ ṣaṇṇāṃ caturṇā svaḥ ekasyālambanaṃ paraḥ||34||

All have Kāmadhātu for their object. Eight have their own Dhātu for their object. Two have Ārūpyadhātu for their object. But, in the other two Dhyānas, six. Kāmadhātu is the object of six. Of their own Dhātu, four. The highest Dhātu (=Ārūpyadhātu) is the object of one. 

S: The object of eight is their own (realm.) the formless realm is the object of two. However, in the (other) two stages of meditation, there are six. Of six is the realm of sensual desires. Their own (realm is the object) of four. The highest is the object of one.

catvāro'rūpisāmante rūpagāḥ eka ūrdhvagaḥ|
eko maule svaviṣayaḥ sarve'ṣṭādaśa sāsravāḥ||35||

In the preliminary stage of Ārūpyadhātu ; four have Rūpadhātu for their object. One has the highest sphere for its object. In Ārūpyadhātu itself, one, which has its own Dhātu for its object. All of these eighteen are impure. 

S: In the stage prefatory to the formless realm, there are four. Have the form realm as object. One has the higher sphere as object. There is one in the fundamental realm. Has its own (realm) as its object. Are all eighteen impure.

uktaṃ ca vakṣyate cānyat atra tu kleśā iṣyate|

The others have been explained or will be explained here. It is explained that defilement is like a seed, a Nāga, a root, a tree, a husk of grain. 

S: They were explained (earlier) or will be explained later. With reference to this, defilement is to be regarded as like a seed, like a snake, like a root, like a tree, or like the chaff of grain.

tuṣitaṇḍulavat karma tathaivauṣadhi puṣpavat|
siddhānnapānavadvastu tasmin bhavacatuṣṭaye||37||

Action is like grain with its husk, grass, flower. The substantial entity (vastu) is like food and drink. 

S: Action is like grain possessing chaff, like herbs, and like flowers. Bases are like prepared food and drink.

upapattibhavaḥ kliṣṭaḥ sarvakleśaiḥ svabhūmikaiḥ|
tridhā'nye traya ārūpye āhārasthitikaṃ jagat||38|

Among the four existences, existence as arising is always defiled, and by all the
defilements of the sphere to which it belongs. The other existences are of three types. Three in the Ārūpyas. Everyone lasts through food. 

S: Among the four existences, the birth existence is defiled. By allthe defilements of its own realm. The others are of three types. Three inthe formless.R: beings are kept alive by sustenance.

kavaḍīkāra āhāraḥ kāme tryāyatanātmakaḥ|
na rūpāyatanaṃ tena svākṣamuktānanugrahāt||39||

Food by the mouthfuls exists in Kāmadhātu; it consists of three āyatanas. Rūpāyatana is not food, for it comforts neither its organ nor those delivered. 

R: Solid food exists in the desire; | combination of three of the doors of sense. | the door of sense that's form is not, because | it neither aids its power nor the free.

sparśaṃcetanāvijñā āhārāḥ sāsravāstriṣu|
manomayaḥ saṃbhavaiṣī gandharvaścāntarābhavaḥ||40||

In the three Dhātus, contact, volition, and consciousness, when they are impure, are food. Mind created (manomaya), desiring re-existence (saṃbhavaṣin), Gandharva (an eater of odors), intermediate existence (antarābhava), and arising (nirvṛtti). 

R: Contact, mental movement, and consciousness | with stain are sustenance. These in three.

nirvṛttiśca iha puṣṭyarthamāśrayāśritayordvayam|
dvayamanyabhavākṣepanivṛttyartha yathākramam||41||

Among the foods, two have for their result the growth of the āśraya (the body) and the āśrita (the mind), and two have for their result the projection and the production of a new existence.

chedasaṃdhāna vairāgyahānicyutyupapattayaḥ|
manovijñāna eveṣṭāḥ upekṣāyāṃ cyutodbhavau||42||

Breaking, taking up again, detachment, loss of detachment, death and birth are regarded as proper to the mind consciousness. Death and birth, with the sensation of indifference.

naikāgrācittayoretau nirvātyavyākṛtadvaye|
kramacyutau pādanābhihṛdayeṣu manaścyutiḥ||43||

Neither the one nor the other is “absorption”, nor for “one without thought”. He obtains Nirvāṇa in two neutral minds. When death is gradual, the manas dies in the feet, at the navel, in the heart, accordingly as the being goes below, among humans, among the Suras, or is not reborn.

adhonṛsuragājānāṃ marmacchedastvabādibhiḥ|
samyaṅ mithyātvaniyatā āryānantaryakāriṇaḥ||44||

The vital parts are split by water, etc. An Ārya and one guilty of ānantarya transgressions are predestined, the first to health, the second to loss.

tatra bhājanalokasya saṃniveśamuśantyadhaḥ|
lakṣaṣoḍaśakodvedhamasaṃkhyaṃ vāyumaṇḍalam||45||

Here is how it is thought that the receptacle world is arranged: at the bottom there is a circle of wind, immeasurable, with a height of sixteen hundred thousand leagues. 

R: Here the beliefs on how it stays, this great | vessel of the world: below, a great | disc of wind, a million six hundred thousand | thick, by another without count.

apāmekādaśodvedhaṃ sahasrāṇi ca viṃśatiḥ|
aṣṭalakṣaucchrayaṃ paścāccheṣaṃ bhavati kāñcanam||46||

The circle of water, eleven hundred twenty thousand high. Then, the circle of waters is no more than eight hundred thousand leagues in height; the rest becomes gold. 

R: The measure of the water in its thickness | is equal to one million, twenty thousand. | eight hundred thousand, the thickness externally; | all of the remainder turned to gold.

tiryak trīṇi sahasrāṇi sārdhaṃ śatacatuṣṭayam|
lakṣadvādaśakaṃ caiva jalakāñcanamaṇḍalam||47||

The circle of water and gold have a diameter of twelve hundred three thousand four hundred and fifty leagues; triple for its perimeter. 

R: The measurement of the radius | of this massive disc of water and gold | is just about a million two hundred | and three thousand, four hundred and fifty. | three times this for the circumference.

samantatastu triguṇaṃ tatra merūryugandharaḥ|
īśādhāraḥ khadirakaḥ sudarśanagiristathā||48||

There are Meru, Yugandhara, Īṣādhara, Khadiraka, Mount Sudarśana, Aśvakarṇa, Vinataka, and Mount Nimindhara; beyond are the continents; on the edge is Cakravāḍa. 

R: Here then mount supreme and also yoke, | plowshare next and after it khadira, | just so that referred to as mount lovely, | ear of the horse, and then the perfect bow.

aśvakarṇo vinitako nimindharagiriḥ tataḥ|
dvīpāḥ bahiścakravāḍaḥ sapta haimāḥ sa āyasaḥ||49||

Seven mountains are made of gold; the last is made of iron; and Meru is made of four jewels. 

R: Next is rim of the wheel, and after that | the various continents, and on the outer | side of them the range encircling. | the seven are of gold; this one iron.

catūratnamayo meruḥ jale'śītisahasrake|
magnāḥ ūrdhva jalāt merurbhūyo'śītisahasrakaḥ||50||

Meru is immersed in the water to a depth of twenty-four thousand leagues and rises above the water some eighty thousand leagues. 

R: Mount supreme of four different precious things, | standing in the water at a depth of | eighty thousand, eighty thousand too | above the water line, in yojana.

ardhārdhahāniraṣṭāsu samocchrāyaghanāśca te|
śītāḥ saptāntarāṇyeṣāṃ ādyāśītisahasrikā||51||

The immersion of the eight other mountains diminishes each by a half. The mountains have equal width and height. The seven Sītās, of which the first is of eighty thousand leagues, form the interval between the mountains.

R: The height of eight decreases by a half, | in length across the same as altitude. | the seven between them are the seas of sport. | the first of them consists of eighty thousand;

ābhyantaraḥ samudro'sau triguṇaḥ sa tu pārśvataḥ|
ardhārdhenāparāḥ śītāḥ śeṣaṃ bāhyo mahodadheḥ||52||

This is the inner ocean, triple in circumference. The other Sītās diminish by a half. The rest is the great outer sea, of three hundred twenty-two thousand leagues. 

R: It is the one we call the inner sea, | three times longer in circumference. | the other seas of sport then half by half. | that remaining, the great outer sea; | in its measure some three hundred twenty | and two thousand. Among each of these,

lakṣatrayaṃ sahasrāṇi viṃśatirdve ca tatra tu|
jambūdvīpo dvisāhasrastripārśvaḥ śakaṭākṛtiḥ||53||

There is Jambudvīpa, three sides of two thousand, in the form of a carriage, and one side of three and a half; 

R: The continent of dzambu runs two thousand | on three sides. It has a wagon's shape, | on the one, three and a half yojana.

sārdhatriyojanaṃ tvekaṃ prāgvideho'rdhacandravat|
pārśvatrayaṃ tathā'sya ekaṃ sārdhaṃ triśatayojanam||54||

eastern Videha, like a half-moon, three sides like Jambu, and one side of three hundred fifty;

R: The eastern, greatbody, like half a moon, | three sides similar to those and one | with three hundred and fifty yojana.

godānīyaḥ sahasrāṇi sapta sārdhāni maṇḍalaḥ|
sārdhe dve madhyamasya aṣṭau caturasraḥ kuruḥ samaḥ||55||

Godānīya, of seven thousand five hundred, round, with a diameter of two thousand five hundred; and Kuru, of eight thousand, square, parallel. 

R: The continent of cattle users round, | seven and a half thousand around: | through its center, just two and a half. | terrible sound, eight, even square.

dehā videhāḥ kuravaḥ kauravāścāmarāvarāḥ|
aṣṭau tadantaradvīpā gāṭhā uttaramantriṇaḥ||56||

There are eight intermediate continents: Dehas, Videhas, Kurus, Kauravas, Cāmaras, and
Avaracāmaras, Śāṭhas and Uttaramantrins. 

R: Eight the continents that lie between: | body and greatbody, terrible sound, | the matching continent of terrible sound, | oxtail fan, the other oxtail fan, | moving and the one called path supreme.

ihottareṇa kīṭādri navakāddhimavān tataḥ|
pañcāśadvistṛtāyāmaṃ saro'rvāggandhamādanāt||57||

Here, to the north of the nine ant-Mountains, lie the Himavat; beyond it, but on this side of the Mountain of Perfume, is a lake deep and wide by fifty leagues. 

R: North from here, the nine mountains of black; | past them stand the mountains of snow. Next | the scent of incense; to its near side lies | the lake with banks the length of fifty.

adhaḥ sahasrairviśatyā tanmātro'vīcirasya hi|
tadūrdhvaṃ sapta narakāḥ sarve'ṣṭau ṣoḍaśotsadāḥ||58||

At the bottom, at twenty thousand leagues, is Avīci, of this same dimension; above, the seven hells; all eight have sixteen utsadas. 

R: Twenty thousand deep beneath of us, | that of no respite, just the same. | seven are the hells atop of it. | sixteen extra with the entire eight,

kukūlaṃ kuṇapaṃ cātha kṣuramārgādikaṃ nadī|
teṣāṃ caturdiśaṃ śītā anye'ṣṭāvarvudādayaḥ||59||

Kukūla, Kuṇapa, Kṣuramārga, etc., and the River are located at the four cardinal points of these hells. There are eight other hells, the cold hells, Arbuda, etc. 

R: Standing at their four individual quarters: | hells by the name of embers and corpse rot, | razor road and the rest, the river as well. | the other eight, cold, starting with blisters.

ardhena meroścandrārkau pañcāśatsaikayojanau|
ardharātro 'staṃgamanaṃ madhyānha udayaḥ sakṛta||60||

At mid-Meru lie the moon and the sun. Fifty and fifty and one leagues.

prāvṛṇmāse dvitīye'ntyanavamyāṃ vardhate niśā|
hemantānāṃ caturthe tu hīyate aharviparyayāt||61||

Midnight it sets, midday it rises at the same moment. The nights grow longer after the ninth day of the second quarter of the second month of the rains, and they grow shorter after the ninth day of the second quarter of the fourth month of winter. Reverse for the days.  

lavaśo rātryaharvṛddhī dakṣiṇottarage ravau|

The days and the nights grow longer little by little accordingly as the sun goes towards the south or towards the north. The moon is covered by its shadow by reason of its proximity to the sun, and one sees it incompletely.

pariṣaṇḍāścatasro'sya daśasāhasrikāntarāḥ|
ṣoḍaśāṣṭau sahasrāṇi catvāri dve ca nirgatāḥ||63||

There are four terraces, the distance between them being ten thousand leagues, extending out sixteen, eight, four and two thousand leagues.

karoṭapāṇayastāsu mālādhārāssadāmadāḥ|
mahārājikadevāśca parvateṣvapi saptasu||64||

They are the Karoṭapāṇis, the Mālādharas, the Sadāmattas and the two Mahārājikas; and also on the seven mountains.

merumūrdhni trayastriṃśāḥ sa cāśītisahasradik|
vidikṣu kūṭāścatvāra uṣitā vajrapāṇibhiḥ||65||

The Thirty-three Gods are at the summit of Meru, the sides of which are eighty thousand (leagues). At the corners, four peaks which the Vajrapāṇis inhabit.

madhye sārdhadvisāhasrapārśvamadhyardhayojanam|
puraṃ sudarśanaṃ nāma haimaṃ citratalaṃ mṛdu||66||

In the middle, with sides of two thousand five hundred, with a height of one and a half, is a village called Sudarśana, of gold, with a variegated and smooth sun.

sārdhadviśatapārśvo'tra vaijayantaḥ bahiḥ punaḥ|

There is Vaijayanta, with sides of two hundred fifty. On the outside, this village is adorned with Caitraratha, Pāruṣya, Miśra and Nandana (Parks);

viṃśatyantaritānyeṣāṃ subhūmīni caturdiśam|
pūrvottare pārijātaḥ sudharmā dakṣiṇāvare||68||

at a distance of twenty thousand leagues from these Parks, at the four sides, there are excellent fields. At the northeast Pārijāta, in the southwest Sudharmā.

tata ūrdhva vimāneṣu devāḥ kāmabhujastu ṣaṭ|

Above, the gods reside in “houses”. There are six gods who taste pleasure; they unite through coupling, an embrace, the touch of hands, a smile, and a look.

pañcavarṣopamo yāvat daśavarṣopamaḥ śiśuḥ|
saṃbhavatyeṣu saṃpūrṇāḥ savastrāścaiva rūpiṇaḥ||70|

Among these gods, their newborn are similar to infants of five to ten years. The gods of Rūpadhātu are complete and clothed.

kāmopapattayastistraḥ kāmadevāḥ samānuṣāḥ|
sukhopapattayastistro navatridhyānabhūmayaḥ||71||

There are three “arisings” of the objects of desire: the gods of Kāmadhātu together with humans. There are three “arisings of pleasure”: the nine spheres of three Dhyānas.

sthānāt sthānadadho yāvattāvadūrdhvaṃ tatastataḥ|
nordhva darśanamastyeṣāmanyatrarddhiparāśrayāt||72||

To the extent that there is descent from one residence, to this extent there is ascent towards a higher residence. The gods do not see their superiors without magic or the assistance of another.

brahmalokasahasraṃ ca sāhasraścūḍiko mataḥ||73||

One thousand four-continents, moons, suns, Merus, dwellings of the Kāma gods, and world of Brahmā, make up a small chiliocosm; one thousand small chiliocosms make a dichiliocosm,

tatsahasraṃ dvisāhasro lokadhātustu madhyamaḥ|
tatsahasraṃ trisāhasraḥ samasaṃvartasaṃbhavaḥ||74||

the middle universe; and one thousand dichiliocosms make a trichiliocosm. The destruction and the creation of the universe lasts the same time.

jāmbūdvīpāḥ pramāṇena catuḥsārdhatrihastakāḥ|
dviguṇottaravṛddhayā tu purvagodottarāvhayāḥ||75||

The inhabitants of Jambudvīpa have a height of four, or of three elbows and a half; those called Pūrva, Goda and Uttara, by doubling each time.

pādabṛddhayā tanuryāva tsārdhakrośo divaukasām|
kāmināṃ rūpiṇāṃ tvādau yojanārdhaṃ tataḥ param||76||

The bodies of the gods of Kāmadhātu increase, by quarters of krośa, until a krośa and a half.

ardhārdhavṛddhi ūrdhva tu parīttābhebhya āśrayaḥ|
dviguṇadviguṇā hitvā'nabhrakebhya striyojanam||77||

The bodies of the gods of Rūpadhātu are at first a half yojana; then increase by a half; beyond the Parīttābhas, the bodies double, and reduce three yojanas from the Anabhrakas on.

sahasrāmāyuḥ kuruṣu dvayorardhārdhavarjitam|
ihāniyatam ante tu daśābdāḥ ādito'mitam||78||

Life, among Kurus, is one thousand years in length; in the two continents, it diminishes twice by half; here, it is indeterminate: nevertheless it is ten years at the end and incalculable at the beginning.

nṛṇāṃ varṣāṇi pañcāśadahorātro divaukasām|
kāme'dharāṇāṃ tenāyuḥ pañcavarṣaśatāni tu||79||

Fifty human years make a day-and-night for the lowest gods of Kāmadhātu, and these gods live a life of five hundred years. For the higher gods, double the day and the life.

dviguṇottaramurdhvānāmubhayaṃ rūpiṇāṃ punaḥ|
nāstyahorātramāyustu kalpaiḥ svāśrayasaṃmitaiḥ||80|

There is no day and night for the gods of Rūpadhātu; their lifespans are calculated in kalpas whose number is fixed by the dimensions of their bodies.

ārūpye viṃśatiḥ kalpasahasrāṇya dhikādhikam|
mahākalpaḥ parīttābhāt prabhṛtyadharmadhastataḥ||81||

In Ārūpyadhātu, a lifespan of a [CP: should be: twenty-] thousand kalpas which increases as much. These kalpas are, from the Parīttābhas on, mahākalpas; below, halves.

kāmedevāyuṣā tulyā ahorātrā yathākramam|
saṃjīvādiṣu ṣaṭsu āyustaisteṣāṃ kāmadevavat||82||

In six hells, Saṃjīva, etc., a day and night has the length of the life of the gods of Kāmadhātu; with such days, life as for the gods of Kāmadhātu.

ardhaṃ pratāpane avīcāvantaḥkalpaṃ paraṃ punaḥ|
kalpaṃ tiraścāṃ pretānāṃ māsānhā śatapañcakam||83||

In Pratāpana, a lifespan of a half antaḥkalpa; in Avīci, a lifespan of one antaḥkalpa. The life of animals is one kalpa in length at most; the life of the Pretas is five hundred years with its days the duration of a month.

arvudā dviṃśatiguṇaprativṛddhayāyuṣaḥ pare||84||

Life in the Arbudas is the time of the exhaustion of a vāha, by taking a grain of sesame every one hundred years; the others by multiplying each time by twenty.

kurubāhyo'ntarāmṛtyuḥ paramāṇvakṣarakṣaṇāḥ|
rūpanāmādhvaparyantāḥ paramāṇuraṇustathā||85||

With the exception of Kuru, there is death before their time. An atom (paramaṇu), a syllable (akṣara), and an instant (kṣaṇa) is the limit of matter, of words, and of time.

lohāpśaśā vigocchidrarajolikṣāstadudbhavāḥ|
yavastathāṅgulīparva jñeyaṃ saptaguṇottaram||86||

Paramāṇu, aṇu, loharajas, abrajas, śaśarajas, avirajas, gorajas, chidrarajas, likṣā, that which comes out of the likṣā, yava, and aṇguliparvan, by multiplying each time by seven;

caturviśatiraṅgulyo hasto hastacatuṣṭayam|
dhanuḥ pañcaśatānyeṣāṃ krośo raṇyaṃ ca tanmatam||87||

twenty-four aṇgulis make one hasta; four hastas make one dhanus; five hundred dhanus make one krośa, the distance a hermitage should be located; and eight krośas make what is called one yojana.

te'ṣṭau yojanamityāhuḥ viṃśaṃ kṣaṇaśataṃ punaḥ|
tatkṣaṇaḥ te punaḥ ṣaṣṭirlavaḥ triṃśad guṇottarāḥ||88||

One hundred and twenty kṣanas make one tatkṣaṇa; sixteen [should be 60] tatkṣaṇas make one lava; we obtain a muhūrta or hour, and ahorāta or one day and night, and a māsa or month,

trayo muhūrttāhorātramāsāḥ dvādaśamāsakaḥ|
saṃvatsaraḥ sonarātraḥ kalpo bahuvidhaḥ smṛtaḥ||89||

by multiplying the preceding term by thirty; a saṃvatsara or year, is of twelve months by adding the ūnarātras. There are different types of kalpa.

saṃvarttakalpo narakasaṃbhavāt bhājanakṣayaḥ|
vivartakalpaḥ prāgvāyoryāvannaraka saṃbhavaḥ||90||

A kalpa of disappearance lasts from the non-production of the damned to destruction of the receptacle world. The kalpa of creation lasts from the primordial wind until the production of hellish beings.

antaḥ kalpo'mitāt yavaddaśavarṣāyuṣaḥ tataḥ|
utkarṣā apakarṣāśca kalpā aṣṭā daśāpare||91||

A small kalpa, in the course of which a lifespan, from infinite, becomes a lifespan ten years in length. The eighteen kalpas which are of augmentation and of diminution.

utkarṣa ekaḥ te'śītisahasrādyāvadāyuṣaḥ|
iti loko vivṛtto'yaṃ kalpā stiṣṭhati viṃśatim||92||

One, of augmentation. They go to a lifespan of eighty thousand. In this way then the world stays created for twenty kalpas. 

R: Last of all is one which is an increase, | up until they're eighty thousand long. | thus the process of the world's formation | goes on twenty intermediate eons.

vivartate'tha saṃvṛtta āste saṃvartate samam|
te hyaśītirmahākalpaḥ tadasaṃkhyatrayodbhavam||93||

During the same length of time, the world is in the process of creation, in the process of disappearance, and in a state of disappearance. These eighty make a great kalpa. 

R: This formation, then destruction and | the state that follows it are equal all. | one great eon made of eighty of these.

buddhatvam apakarṣe hi śatādyāvattadudbhavaḥ|
dvayoḥ pratyekabuddhānāṃ khaḍgaḥ kalpaśatānvayaḥ||94||

The quality of Buddhahood results from three of these [kalpas]. They appear during the decrease to one hundred. The Pratyekabuddhas appear in the course of two periods. The Rhinoceros by reason of one hundred kalpas. 

R: The occurrence of a Buddha, for three countless | of these. They make their appearance during | the drop that goes down 'til a hundred is reached.

suvarṇarūpyatāmrāyaścakriṇaḥ te'dharakramāt||95||

The Cakravartin Kings do not appear when lifespan is under eighty thousand years in length; they have a wheel of gold, a wheel of silver, a wheel of copper, and a wheel of iron;

ekadvitricaturdvīpāḥ na ca dvau saha buddhavat|
pratyudyānasvayaṃyāna kalahāstrajitaḥ avadhāḥ||96||

in inverse order, he reigns over one, two, three, or four continents; but never two at once, like the Buddhas; they triumph through spontaneous default, personal influence, fighting, or the sword, but always without doing evil.

deśasthottaptapūrṇatvairlakṣaṇātiśayo muneḥ|
prāgāsan rūpivat sattvāḥ rasarāgāttataḥ śanaiḥ||97||

But the marks of the Muni are better placed, more brilliant, and complete.

ālasyātsaṃnidhiṃ kṛtvā sāgrahaiḥ kṣetrapo bhṛtaḥ|
tataḥ karmapathādhikyādapahrāse daśāyuṣaḥ||98||

In the beginning, beings were similar to the gods of Rūpadhātu; then, little by little, through attachment to taste, and through laziness, they made provisions and attributed parts to themselves; a protector of the fields was, by them, retributed. Then, through the development of the courses of action, life shortened to a length of ten years.

kalpasya śastrarogābhyāṃ durbhikṣeṇa ca nirgamaḥ|
divasān sapta māsāṃśca varṣāṇi ca yathākramam||99||

The kalpa terminates through iron, sickness, hunger, which last respectively seven days, seven months, and seven years.

saṃvartanyaḥ punastistro bhavantyagnyambuvāyubhiḥ|
dhyānatrayaṃ dvitīyādi śīrṣa tāsāṃ yathākramam||100||

There are three destructions: through fire, water, and wind. Three Dhyānas, beginning with the second, are, in order, the top of the destructions; by reason of the community of the nature of destructions and the vices of the first three Dhyānas.

tadapakṣālasādharmyāt na caturthe'styaniñjanāt|
na nityaṃ saha sattvena tadvimānodayavyayāt||101|

As for the Fourth Dhyāna, no destruction, by reason of its non-agitation: this is not that it is eternal, for its mansions are produced and perish along with the beings who live therein.

saptāgninā adbhirekā evaṃ gate'bhdiḥ saptake punaḥ|
tejasā saptakaḥ paścādvāyusaṃvartanī tataḥ||102||

Seven by fire, one by water; and when seven destructions by water have thus taken place, seven by fire, followed by the destruction by wind.

abhidharmakośabhāṣye lokanirdeśo nāma tṛtīyaṃ kośasthānam samāptamiti|
śrīlāmāvākasya yadatra puṇyam|

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