by Leo M. Pruden | 33,119 words
Abhidharmakośa, the famous fundamental treatise of 5th century by Vasubandhu, explaining the fundaments of system of knowledge according to Vaibhasika tradition of Buddhism is here. The main points of study here are the theory of dharma or elements of existence, perception of reality through indriyas (faculties), the notion of karma in the light of...
caturṣvartheṣu pañcānāmādhipatyaṃ dvayoḥ kila|
caturṇṇāṃ pañcakāṣṭānāṃ saṃkleśavyavadānayoḥ||1|
According to the School, five are predominate with regard to things; Four predominate with regard to two things; Five and eight with regard to defilement and to purification.
J: Five exercise sovereignty in respect of four objects: four are said to have (sovereignty) in respect of two (objects) : five and eight have (sovereignty) in respect of dirt and purification.
svārthopalabdhyādhipatyāt sarvasya ca ṣaḍindriyam|
strītvapuṃstvādhipatyāttu kāyāt strīpuruṣendriye||2||
By reason of their predominance (1) with regard to the perception of their special object, (2) with regard to all objects, six organs. It is by reason of their predominance in masculinity and femininity that one must distinguish two sexual organs within the body.
J: On account of sovereignty with regard to perception of all (objects), the six organs and in repsect of sovereignty concerning femality and masculinity, the female and male organs (are distinct) from the body.
jīvitaṃ vedanāḥ pañca śraddhādyāścendriyaṃ matāḥ||3||
It is by reason of their predominance with regard to the duration of existence, to defilement, to purification, that one considers the vital organ, the sensations, and the five the first of which is faith, as indriyas.
J: On account of their sovereignty over the duration of the existence, over dirt, over purification, the vital organ, the five sensation, of which faith is the first, are admitted to be the indriyas.
By reason of their predominance with regard to ascending acquisitions, with regard to Nirvāṇa, etc., the anājñātamājñāsyāmīndriya, the ajñendriya, and the ājñātāvīndriya, are likewise.
J: And the ajnasyami, the ajna, and the ajnatavindriya are considered (sovereigns) on account of exercising supreme power over their succeeding ones and acquisition in respect of nirvana, etc.
cittāśrayastadvikalpaḥ sthitiḥ saṃkleśa eva ca|
saṃbhāro vyavadānaṃ ca yāvatā tāvadindriyam||5||
The support of the mind; that which subdivides, prolongs, and defiles this support; that which prepares the purification and which does purify it: these are all the indriyas.
J: The point of support of the mind-stuff, its division, existence and also samklesa (dirt), preparation and purification only constitute the indriyas.
caturdaśa tathā'nyāni nivṛtterindriyāṇi vā||6|
Or rather there are fourteen indriyas, support of transmigration, origin, duration, enjoyment of this support; the other indriyas have the same function with regard to Nirvāṇa.
J: Support, origin, existence and enjoyment of pravrtti (transmigration) are the fourteen indriyas and the others are indriyas of nivrtti cessation (nirvana).
duḥkhendriyamaśātā yā kāyikī vedanā sukham|
śātā dhyāne tṛtīye tu caitasī sā sukhendriyam||7||
Disagreeable bodily sensation is the indriya of pain. Agreeable is the indriya of pleasure. In the Third Dhyāna, agreeable mental sensation is also an indriya of pleasure.
J: The corporal sensation that is disagreeable is the organ (indriya) of affliction : the one that is agreeable is (the indriya) of pleasure : in the third dhyana, the agreeable mental (sensation) is also the (indriya) of pleasure.
anyatra sā saumanasyaṃ aśātā caitasī punaḥ|
daurmanasyamupekṣā tu madhyā ubhayī avikalpanāt||8||
Moreover, it is satisfaction. Disagreeable mental sensation is dissatisfaction. 8c. Intermediate bodily or mental sensation is equanimity. It is both. For it has no vikalpana.
J: Elsewhere that is satisfaction : again the mental disagreeable (sensation) is dissatisfaction (daurmanasyam) : the (sensation of) indifference (upeksa) is called neutral, because there is no difference (avikalpanat).
dṛgbhāvanā'śaikṣapathe nava trīṇi amalaṃ trayam|
rūpīṇi jīvitaṃ duḥkhe sāsravāṇi dvidhā nava||9||
Nine indriyas, in the Paths of Seeing, of Meditation and of the Aśaikṣa, constitute three indriyas. Three are clean. The material organs, the vital organ and the two painful sensations are impure. Nine are of two types.
J: The nine (indriyas) in the path of the view, in that of the meditation and of the asaiksa form three : three are immaculate; the material (organs), the vital (organ) and the two painful (sensations) are impure : the nine are of two kinds.
vipāko jīvitaṃ dvedhā dvādaśa antyāṣṭakādṛte|
daurmanasyācca tattvekaṃ savipākaṃ daśa dvidhā||10||
The vital organ is always retribution. Twelve are of two types. With the exception of the last eight and dissatisfaction. Only one (i.e., dissatisfaction) has retribution; Ten are twofold (i.e., admit of retribution, as well as being without retribution).
J: The vital organ is always retribution : the twelve are of two kinds, with the exception of the last eight and dissatisfaction : that alone is with retribution : the ten are of both the types.
mano'nyavittiśraddhādīni aṣṭakaṃ kuśalaṃ dvidhā|
daurmanasyaṃ mano'nyā ca vittistredhā anyadekadhā||11||
The mental organ (the four sensations, with the exception of dissatisfaction), and faith and its following; Eight are good; Dissatisfaction is of two types; The mental organ, and the sensations, – with the exception of dissatisfaction, – are of three types. The others, of one type.
J: The mental organ, the other perceptions faith etc : and the eight good ones; dissatisfaction are of two kinds : the mental organ and the other sensations are of three kinds : the other one is of a single kind.
kāmāptamamalaṃ hitvā rūpāptaṃ strīpumindriye|
duḥkhe ca hitvā ārūpyāptaṃ sukhe cāpohya rūpi ca||12||
The pure indriyas are absent from Kāmadhātu; The sexual organs and the two disagreeable sensations are absent from Rūpadhātu. And all the material organs and the two agreeable sensations are absent from Ārūpyadhātu.
J: In kamadhatu there are (indriyas), all except the pure ones; in rupadhatu are found indriyas, all excepting the feminine and masculine indriyas and the two disagreeable (duhkha) (sensations) : in arupyadhatu, the organs other than the two agreeable sensation and the material organs.
manovittitrayaṃ tredhā dviheyā durmanaskatā|
nava bhavanayā pañca tvaheyānyapi na trayam||13||
The mental organ and three sensations belong to three categories; Dissatisfaction is abandoned (through Seeing and Meditation); Nine are abandoned through Meditation alone; Five are either abandoned through Meditation or are not abandoned; Three are not abandoned.
J: The mental (organ) and three perceptions are of all the three kinds : the (sensation) of dissatisfaction is to be abandoned by two : nine (are to be abandoned by meditation), five are also not to be abandoned : three are not to be abandoned.
kāmeṣvādau vipāko dve labhyate nopapādukaiḥ|
teḥ ṣaḍ vā sapta vā aṣṭau vā ṣaḍ rūpeṣu ekamuttare||14||
In the Kāmas, beings possess from their origins two indriyas that are from retribution, 14b. With the exception of apparitional beings. Some possess six; Or seven. Or eight. In Rūpadhātu, six; Above, one.
J: In the kamas, two (indriyas) are required as retribution in the beginning, but not be the apparitional beings : by them are acquired six or seven or eight (indriyas) : in the rupas six and one above.
nirodhayatyuparamānnārūpye jīvitaṃ manaḥ|
upekṣāṃ caiva rūpe'ṣṭau kāme daśa navāṣṭau vā||15||
In Ārūpyadhātu, dying destroys the vital organ, the mental organ, and the sensation of indifference; in Rūpadhātu, it destroys eight indriyas. In Kāmadhātu, ten, nine, eight;
J: By death in the arupyadhatu, a dying being destroys the vital and mental organs : he (destroys) the (sensation of) indifference : in the rupadhatu, eight and in the kamadhatu, ten or nine or eight.
kramamṛtyau tu catvāri śubhe sarvatra pañca ca|
Or four when death is gradual. In the case of a good death, add all five indriyas. One obtains the two highest results through nine indriyas. The two intermediary results through seven, eight or nine.
J: In the case of gradual death, the (number of indriyas that a dying being) destroys is four : when death is good, add five in all cases; the two ulitimate fruits are obstained with nine organs; the two intermediate (fruits) by seven, eight or nine (organs).
ekādaśabhirarhattvamuktaṃ tvekasya saṃbhavāt|
It is said that the quality of Arhat is obtained through eleven indriyas, because a determined person can so obtain them. He who possesses the mental organ or the vital organ or the organ of equanimity necessarily possesses three indriyas.
J: The quality of an arhat is said to be obtainable with eleven (indriyas), because one individual can possibly obtain it : the individual who has either the organ of indifference or the vital organ or the mental organ has certainly all the three.
caturbhiḥ sukhakāyābhyāṃ pañcabhiścakṣurādimān|
saumanasyī ca duḥkhī tu saptabhiḥ strīndriyādimān||18||
He who possesses the organ of pleasure or the organ of touch certainly possesses four organs. He who possesses one of the organs of sense consciousness necessarily possesses five organs. The same for him who possesses the organ of satisfaction. He who possesses the organ of displeasure certainly possesses seven organs.
J: One, who is in possession of the organs of pleasure and (the organ of) touch, has four (organs) : he who has eye, etc. Has five (organs) : and also the one who has the (organ of) satisfaction : and the one who has (the organ of) displeasure is possessed of seven (organs)
aṣṭābhiḥ ekādaśabhistvājñājñāte ndriyānvitaḥ|
Whoever possesses the female organ, etc., necessarily possesses eight organs. He who possesses ājñendriya or ājñatavīndriya necessarily possesses eleven organs. He who possesses ājñāsyāmīndriya necessarily possesses thirteen organs.
J: The one who possesses the feminine organ, etc has eight organs; he who has either the ajnendriya or ajnatavindriya has eleven (organs); he who has the ajnasyamindriya is endowed with thirteen (organs).
yuktaḥ bālastathārūpye upekṣāyurmanaḥśubhaiḥ||20|
A being who is lacking any good at all possesses a minimum of eight organs, the organ of touch, sensations, the vital organ, and the mental organ. It is the same with an ignorant person who is born in Ārūpyadhātu; He possesses eight organs, namely, equanimity, life, the mental organ, and the good organs.
J: One, with the good (nihsubha), is endowed with a minimum of eight organs; the five organs of sensation (vid), the mental organ, the organ of touch, and the vital organ. And an ignorant person in arupyadhatu is endowed with the good organs, the organ of indifference, the vital organ and the mental organ.
dviliṅgaḥ āryo rāgī ekaliṅgadvayamalavarjitaiḥ||21||
At the maximum, nineteen: [a bisexual being], with the exception of the immaculate organs. The Āryan, not detached, can possess all the organs, With the exception of a sexual organ and two pure organs.
J: The being with a maximum number of organs has nineteen, that is all excluding the pure ones : a bisexual being and a not-detached arya (have all these organs) without the one sexorgan and two immaculate organs.
kāyendriyī navadravyaḥ daśadravyo'parendriyaḥ||22||
In Kāmadhātu, an atom into which there is no entry of sound, and into which there is no entry of any organ, is made up of eight substances; When the organ of touch enters into it, it is made up of nine substances; When any other organ enters into it, it is made up of ten substances.
J: In kamadhatu, the paramanu (molecule), without the sound (asabdakah) and the organ (anindriya) is constituted of eight substances (astadravyaka); it is constituted of nine substances, when it has the organ of touch : when there comes in yet another organ, it is constituted of ten substances.
cittaṃ caittāḥ sahāvaśyaṃ sarva saṃskṛtalakṣaṇaiḥ|
prāptyā vā pañcadhā caittā mahābhūmyādibhedataḥ||23||
The mind and its mental states are necessarily generated together. All things are necessarily generated with their characteristics. Sometimes with possession. The mental states are of five types, mahābhūmikas, etc.
J: The mind-stuff and the mentals are necessarily born together; everything (is born) with its conditioned characteristics : or with its acquisition : the mentals are of five kinds, on account of differentiation as mahabhumi, etc.
vedanā cetanā saṃjñā cchandaḥ sparśo matiḥ smṛtiḥ|
manaskāro'dhimokṣaśca samādhiḥ sarvacetasi||24|
Sensation, volition, motion, desire for action, contact, discernment, memory, the act of attention, approval, and absorption or concentration coexist in every mind.
J: Sensation, volition, notion, desire, contact, discernment, memory, attention, approbation and concentration are (present) in every mind.
śraddhā'pramādaḥ praśrabdhirupekṣā hrīrapatrapā|
mūladvayamahiṃsā ca vīryaṃ ca kuśale sadā||25||
Faith, diligence, aptitude, indifference, respect, fear, two roots, non-violence, and energy are found only in a good mind, and are found in all good minds.
J: Faith, absence of carelessness, aptitude, indifference, bashfulness, fear, the two roots, absence of injury, and energy are always found in good (mind-stuff).
mohaḥ pramādaḥ kauśīdyamāśraddhayaṃ styānamuddhavaḥ|
kliṣṭe sadaiva akuśale tvāhrīkyamanapatrapā||26||
Error, non-diligence, idleness, disbelief, torpor, and dissipation are always and exclusively in soiled minds. Disrespect and the absence of fear are always and exclusively found in bad minds.
J: Error, carelessness, idleness, absence of faith, absence of energy, audacity (exist) always in a sullied mind-stuff also; in a mind-stuff, that is not good, also disrespect and absence of fear.
Anger, enmity, dissimilation, jealousy, stubbornness, hypocrisy, greed, the spirit of deception, pride-intoxication, the spirit of violence, etc., are the parīttakleśabhūmikas.
J: Anger, enmity, dissimulation, jealousy, obstinacy, hypocrisy, avarice, spirit of deception, intoxication of pride and violence are parittaklesabhumikas
savitarkavicāratvāt kuśale kāmacetasi|
dvāṃviṃśatiścaitasikāḥ kaukṛtyamadhikaṃ kvacit||28||
The mind in Kāmadhātu, when it is good, always consists of twenty-two mental states, as it is always associated with vitarka and vicāra.
J: In a good mind-stuff of kama(dhatu), as it is accompanied with vitarka and vicara, there are twenty two mentals : sometime superfluous kaukrtya too.
āveṇike tvakuśale dṛṣṭiyukte ca viṃśatiḥ|
kleśaiścaturbhiḥ krodhādyaiḥ kaukṛtyenaikaviṃśatiḥ||29||
A bad mind consists of twenty mental states when it is independent of, or associated with views (dṛṣṭi); Twenty-one, when it is associated with one of the four defilements, with anger, etc., with regret.
J: In isolated not-good (mind-stuff) or in a (mind-stuff) associated with drsti, there are twenty (mentals) : there are twenty one (mentals) when it is associated with (one of the) four passions, of which anger is the first, or when (it is) associated with hatred.
nivṛte'ṣṭādaśa anyatra dvādaśāvyākṛte matāḥ|
middhaṃ sarvāvirodhitvādyatra syādadhikaṃ hi tat||30||
A neutral mind consists of eighteen mental states when it is defiled; In the contrary case, twelve. Apathy is not in contradiction to any category; wherever it is found, it is added.
J: In a sullied (mind-stuff there are) eighteen mentals : (twelve in a not-defined) : middha on account of being not opposed to all, wherever it may be, that is additional.
kaukṛtyamiddhākuśalānyādye dhyāne na santyataḥ|
dhyānāntare vitarkaśca vicāraścāpyataḥ param||31||
The bad mental states, regret and apathy, are absent from the First Dhyāna. Further on, vitarka is also missing absent from the intermediate dhyāna. Further on, again, vicāra, etc.
J: Regreat, languor, not-good (mind-stuff) do not, there fore, exist in the first dhyana; in the next dhyana, vitarka too does not exist; thereafter there does not exist vicara as well.
ahrīragurutā avadye bhayādarśitva matrapā|
prema śraddhā gurutvaṃ hrīḥ te punaḥ kāmarūpayoḥ||32||
Disrespect is lack of veneration. Anapatrāpya or atrapā is the dharma that causes a person not to see the unpleasant consequences of his transgressions. Affection is faith. Respect is hrī. Both exist in Kāmadhātu and Rūpadhātu.
J: Ahri is want of gravity, lack of veneration, lack of fear in the decried is atrapa (fearlessness): faith is affection; gravity is hri (modesty) : they too are in kama and rupa.
vitarkacārā vaudāryasūkṣmate māna unnatiḥ|
madaḥ svadharme raktasya paryādānaṃ tu cetasaḥ||33||
Vitarka and vicāra are grossness and subtlety of the mind. Māna, the error of pride, is arrogance. But mada, pride-intoxication, is the abolition of the mind of one who is enamored with his own qualities.
J: The vitarka and the vicara are grossness and minuteness : boast (mana) is overrating (unnati) one’s own self : arrogance (mada) is abolition of the mind0stuff of the one who is fully devoted to his dharma.
cittaṃ mano'tha vijñānamekārthaṃ cittacaitasāḥ|
sāśrayā lambanākārāḥ saṃprayuktāśca pañcadhā||34||
The names mind (citta), spirit (manas), and consciousness (vijñāna) designate the same thing. The mind and its mental states “have a support”, “have an object”, “have an aspect”, and are “associated”. In five ways.
J: Citta (mind-stuff), manah (the faculty of thinking), vijnana (knowledge) – these (words) have the same meaning : the mind-stuff and the mentals have a support, they have an object, and a form that are associated : they are of five categories.
viprayuktāstu saṃskārāḥ prāptyaprāptī sabhāgatā|
āsaṃjñikaṃ samāpattī jīvitaṃ lakṣaṇāni ca||35||
The dharmas “not associated with the mind” are prāpti, aprāpti, sabhāgāta, āsaṃjñika, and two absorptions, life, characteristics, nāmakāya, etc.,
J: Not associated, are : the samskaras, the acquisition (prapti), not-acquisition (aprapti), the sabhagata, the asamjnika, the two concentrations (samapatti) and the life (organ) and the characteristics.
nāmakāyādayaśceti prāptirlābhaḥ samanvayaḥ|
prāptyaprāptī svasaṃtāna patitānāṃ nirodhayoḥ||36||
and that which is of this type. Prāpti is acquisition and possession. There is prāpti and aprāpti of dharmas that belong to the person himself, And of the two extinctions.
J: And also the nama and kaya, etc. : prapti is acquisition and appropriation (samanvaya) : then there is acquisition (prapti) and non-acquisition (aprapti) of the (dhamras), that have fallen into their own series, and of the two obstructions (nirodhayoh).
traiyadhvikānāṃ trividhā śubhādīnāṃ śubhādikā|
svadhātukā tadāptānāṃ anāptānāṃ caturvidhā||37|
There is threefold prāpti of the dharmas of the three periods. There is good prāpti, etc., of good dharmas, etc. The prāptis of the dharmas belonging to the spheres of existence are of their spheres. There is fourfold prāpti of the dharmas that do not belong to the spheres of existence.
J: Of the (dharmas) of the three epochs, the prapti is of three kinds : the (prapti) good, etc. Of (the dharmas) that is good, etc. : of (the dharmas) that are pervaded by it, (the prapti) is of its own dhatu : the (prapti) of the (dharmas) that are not pervaded, if of four kinds.
tridhā naśaikṣā'śaikṣāṇāṃ aheyānāṃ dvidhā matā|
avyākṛtāptiḥ sahajā abhijñānairmāṇikādṛte||38||
Threefold prāpti of the dharmas which are neither Śaikṣa nor Aśaikṣa. There is twofold prāpti of the dharmas that should not be abandoned. The prāpti of a neutral dharma is simultaneous to it. With the exception of the two supernormal faculties and apparition.
J: Triple is (the prapti) of (the dharmas) that are not-of-saiksa-not-of-asaiksa : double is (the prapti) of the dharmas that are not to be abandoned; the prapti of the avyakrta (not-defined) (dharma) is simultaneous, excepting what is created by the faculty (abhijna) and what is of creation.
nivṛtasya ca rūpasya kāme rūpasya nāgrajā|
The same for the prāpti of defiled rūpa. The prāpti of the rūpa of Kāmadhātu is not previous to this rūpa. Aprāpti is undefiled-neutral. Aprāpti of the dharmas of the past or the future is threefold.
J: So of nivrta (sullied) rupa : of rupa in kamadhatu, the prapti is not anterior; the aprapti is not-sullied-not-defined : of the past and of the future, it is triple.
kāmādyāptāmalānāṃ ca mārgasyāprāptiriṣyate|
pṛthagjanatvam tatprāptibhūsaṃcārād vihīyate||40||
Aprāpti of the dharmas forming part of the spheres of existence, and of the immaculate dharmas, is threefold. According to the School, a Pṛthagjana is a person who has not acquired the Path. It is abandoned through acquisition (prāpti), and through passing to another stage.
J: And of the (dharmas) forming part of the sphere of kamadhatu, etc. And of immaculate (dharmas) : the quality of prthagjana (is desired) to consist of non-possession of the path; by its possession (tatprapti) and by going over to the other stage (bhumisamcarat is abandoned).
sabhāgatā sattvasāmyaṃ āsaṃjñikamasaṃjñiṣu|
nirodhaścittacaittānāṃ vipākaḥ te bṛhatphalāḥ||41||
Sabhāgatā is that which causes resemblances between living beings. Nonconsciousness is that which, among the Non-conscious Ones, arrest the mind and its mental states. Retribution. They live in Bṛhatphala.
J: Sabhagata is resemblance of the living-beings; the asamjnika (unconsciousness) is what in the case of unconscious beings: arrests the mind-stuff and the mentals : they are retribution and they are brhatphalas.
tathā'saṃjñisamāpattiḥ dhyāne'ntye niḥsṛtīcchayā|
śubhā upapadyavedyaiva nāryasya ekādhvikāpyate||42||
The same for the non-conscious absorption. In the Fourth Dhyāna. Through desire for deliverance. Good. Solely retribution in the next existence. Not by Āryas. It is obtained in one time period.
J: And so is the asanjnisamapatti in the last dhyana by the desire of release (nihsrticchaya) : it is good, retributable in the future (upapadya) exclusively; not of an arya : it is obtained in one epoch.
nirodhākhyā tathaiveyaṃ vihārārthaṃ bhavāgrajā|
śubhā dvivedyā'niyatā ca āryasya āpyā prayogataḥ||43||
In the same way, the absorption that bears the name of nirodha or “extinction”. It is viewed as tranquility; Arisen from Bhavāgra; Good. Of two retributions and neutral; Āryans It is obtained through effort.
J: (the samapatti), nirodha by name, is very like it: for the purpose of sporting (viharartham), it has its birth from bhavagra : it is good : it is of two retributions and is not limited (aniyata) : it is obtainable by an arya by practice.
bodhilabhyā muneḥ na prāk catustriṃśatkṣaṇāptitaḥ|
kāmarūpāśraye bhūte nirodhākhyādito nṛṣu||44||
In that which concerns the Muni, it is obtained through Bodhi itself. But not previously. For the Muni conquers Bodhi in thirty-four moments. But these two absorptions take place in persons in Kāmadhātu and Rūpadhātu. The absorption of extinction is, for the first time, among humans.
J: It is obtained by bhagavat (muni) by enlightenment (bodhi), and not before, on account of its being obtained from acquisition of thirty-four moments. But these two (concentrations are obtained) in kamadhatu and in rupadhatu, in bhuta and (the concentration), called nirodha, is obtained among men from the beginning.
āyurjīvitam ādhāra ūṣmavijñāyorhi yaḥ|
lakṣaṇāni punarjātirjarā sthitiranityatā||45||
Jīvita is life (āyus). The support of warmth and consciousness. Their characteristics are arising, old age, duration, and impermanence.
J: Longivity is the vital (organ) : that is the basis of heat and perception : its characteristics are birth, senility, duration and impermanence.
janyasya janikā jātirna hetupratyayairvinā||46||
They have in their turn characteristics termed arising-of-arising, duration-of-duration, etc.; The primary characteristic refers to eight dharmas, the secondary characteristic to one dharma. Arising engenders the dharma that it should engender, but not without the cooperation of causes and conditions.
J: Their birth-of-bith etc. : they have their functions (vrttis) in eight dharmas and they are of one dharma : birth is genetrix of (dharmas) to be born; but not without causes (hetu) and conditions (pratyayaih).
kāmarūpāptasattvākhyā niḥṣyandāvyākṛtāḥ tathā||47||
Nāmakāya, etc., are collections of saṃjñās, vākyas, and akṣaras. They exist in Kāmadhātu and Rūpadhātu; they belong to living beings; they are out-flowing; and they are neutral.
J: The namakaya, etc. Are collection of samjnas (nouns), vakyas (expressions) and syllables: they are called of the spheres of the kamadhatu, of the rupadhatu, of the living beings, of the flux, and of the undefined.
sabhāgatā sā tu punarvipāko'pi āptayo dvidhā|
lakṣaṇāni ca niḥṣyandāḥ samāpattya samanvayāḥ||48||
The same for “genre”, (sabhāgatā) which is also from retribution, and which belongs to the three spheres of existence. Possession (prāpti) is of two types. Its characteristics also. The absorptions and non-possession (aprāpti) are of out-flowing.
J: Likewise the genus (sabhagata) : that is retribution : acquisitions are of two categories : the characters as well : the concentration and non-acquisitions (asamanvaya) are flux.
kāraṇaṃ sahabhūścaiva sabhāgaḥ saṃprayuktakaḥ|
sarvatrago vipākākhyaḥ ṣaḍvidho heturiṣyate||49||
The hetus are sixfold: kāraṇahetu, sahabhū, sabhāga, saṃprayutaka, sarvatraga, and vipāka.
J: Cause, born simultaneously, similar, what is associated, going everywhere, of retribution: the cause is desired to be of six kinds.
svato'nye kāraṇaṃ hetuḥ sahabhūrye mithaḥphalāḥ|
All dharmas are kāraṇahetu with regard to all, with the exception of themselves. Sahabhūhetu, coexistent causes, namely the elements (bhūta), the mind and the companions of the mind, characteristics and the thing characterized, are the dharmas that are causes one of the other.
J: The immediate cause (karanahetu) is in regard to others, but of the self : the sahabhuhetu, the coexistent cause, is the reciprocal consequence, like the elements following the mindstuff, like the characters and the characterized.
caittā dvau saṃvarau teṣāṃ cetaso lakṣaṇāni ca|
The companions of the mind are: the mental states; the two disciplines (saṃvara); and the characteristics (lakṣaṇas) of the mental states, the two disciplines and the mind. From the point of view of time, of result, etc., and of goodness, etc.
J: Two mentals, two disciplines, the characteristics of these and those of the mind-stuff, follower of the mind-stuff from the point of view of time, effect, etc. And by being beneficial etc.
sabhāgahetuḥ sadṛśāḥ svanikāyabhuvaḥ agrajāḥ|
anyo'nyaṃ navabhūmistu mārgaḥ samaviśiṣṭayoḥ||52||
Similar dharmas are sabhāgahetu or similar causes. Belong to the same category (nikāya) and the same stage (bhū). Arisen previously. But the Path is sabhāgahetu to the Path, without distinguishing the nine stages. The Path is sabhāgahetu to an equal or superior Path.
J: The sabhagahetu consists of the (dharmas) that resemble, that are of their own category (nikaya), stage (bhu) and anterior (agrajah); but they are the path of the nine stages, reciprocally of what is equal or higher.
saṃprayuktakahetustu cittacaittāḥ samāśrayāḥ||53||
The dharmas acquired through cultivation are sabhāgahetu of the same two classes, the equal and the higher. Those which arise through hearing, through reflection, etc. The mind and its mental states are only saṃprayuktakahetu, causes through association. Which has the same support.
J: The (dharmas), that originate from the efforts, are the (similar cause, sabhagatahetu) of these two (of equal and superiod) only : they are those that (originate) from audition, reflection etc. : but the mind-stuff and the mentals are the associate cause (samprayuktakahetu), having the same point of support samasrayah.
sarvatragākhyaḥ kliṣṭānāṃ svabhūmau pūrvasarvagāḥ|
vipākaheturaśubhāḥ kuśalāścaiva sāsravāḥ||54||
Former universals are sarvatragahetu or universal causes of the defiled dharmas of their own stage. Bad dharmas and impure good dharmas are retributive causes.
J: Of the sullied (dharmas), in their own sphere, the (dharmas), that are anterior and universal, are called the universal (cause) (sarvatragakhyahetu) : and also the impure (dharmas) that are good and not-good (asubha) and those that are cause of retribution (vipakehetu)
sarvatragaḥ sabhāgaśca dvayadhvagau tryadhvagāstrayaḥ|
saṃskṛtaṃ savisaṃyoga phalaṃ nāsaṃskṛtasya te||55||
Sarvatragahetu and sabhāgahetu are of two time periods; three causes are of three time periods. Conditioned things and disconnection are results. The unconditioned has neither cause nor result.
J: The universal and the similar (causes) go along the two paths : three (causes) fo along the three paths : the conditioned and disjunction is the fruit : they (the cause and the fruit) are not of the unconditioned.
vipākaphalamantyasya pūrvasyādhipataṃ phalam|
sabhāga sarvatragayorniṣyandaḥ pauruṣaṃ dvayoḥ||56||
Retribution is the result of the last cause. The predominating result is the result of the first. Outflowing is the result of the similar cause and the universal cause. The pauruṣa or virile result, is the result of two causes.
J: Of the ultimate (cause), the retribution is the fruit: of the first one, the fruit is of the sovereign : of the similar and universal (causes), the fruit is the flux : virility (paursa) is (the fruit) of the two.
vipāko'vyākṛto dharmaḥ sattvākhyaḥ vyākṛtodbhavaḥ|
niḥṣyando hetusadṛśaḥ visaṃyogaḥ kṣayo dhiyā||57||
Retribution is a neutral dharma. Belonging to living beings. They arise later than a non-neutral dharma. A result that resembles its cause is called outflowing. Extinction through intelligence is disconnection.
J: The retribution is a not-defined dharma of a living being, born from the defined; the nisyanda (fruit) is similar to (its) cause; a disconnection (visamyoga)-fruit is destruction (ksayah) caused by the intelligence.
yadvalājjāyate yattatphalaṃ puruṣakārajam|
apūrvaḥ saṃskṛtasyaiva saṃskṛto'dhipateḥ phalam||58||
A dharma is the result of the virile activity of the dharma through the force by which it arises. Any conditioned dharma is the predominating result (adhipatiphala) of conditioned dharmas, with the exception of the dharmas that are later than it.
J: Whatever is produced by the force of whatever dharma, that is the fruit born of effort. Of the unconditioned only (the fruit of virility) is not-anterior (apurva) and the conditioned one is the fruit of virility of the sovereign.
varttamānāḥ phalaṃ pañca gṛṇhanti dvau prayacchataḥ|
varttamānābhyatītau dvau eko'tītaḥ prayacchati||59||
Five causes grasp their result in the present. Two produce their result in the present. Two produce their result in both the past and the present. One cause produces its result in the past.
J: The five present (causes) take five (of the fruit) : the two give (five fruits) : the present and the past [take] two (or) one, and the past gives one.
kliṣṭā vipākajāḥ śeṣāḥ prathamāryā yathākramam|
vipākaṃ sarvagaṃ hitvā tau sabhāgaṃ ca śeṣajāḥ||60||
The mind and its mental states are: 1) defiled; 2) arisen from a retributive cause; 3) others; and 4) pure for the first time, arising from causes that remain when one excludes, in this order, 1) the retributive cause, 2) the universal cause, 3) these two causes, 4) these two causes plus the similar cause.
J: They are sullied, born of the retribution; the rest, the first pure (ones) in order leaving aside the retribution (and) universal, these two, the similar and born of the rest.
cittacaitāḥ tathā'nye'pi saṃprayuktakavarjitāḥ|
catvāraḥ pratyayā uktāḥ hetvākhyaḥ pañca hetavaḥ||61||
The associated cause is further excluded with respect to the dharmas that are not mind or mental states. The pratyayas are said to be four. The pratyaya that bears the name of hetu is five hetus.
J: The minds-stuff and the mentals and also others, excluding the associate : these are mentioned the four pratyayas : the one is called hetu : these constitute the five causes.
cittacaittā acaramā utpannāḥ samanantaraḥ|
ālambanaṃ sarvadharmāḥ kāraṇākhyo'dhipaḥ smṛtaḥ||62||
The mind and its mental states that have arisen, with the exception of the last ones, are an equal and immediately antecedent condition. All dharmas are the objects of consciousness. The cause termed kāraṇa is called adhipati, predominant.
J: The mind-stuff and the mentals, that are not ultimate, that are born, constitute the samanantarapratyaya : all dharmas constitute the alambanapratyaya and the one that is named karana is called adhipa (sovereign).
nirudhyamāne kāritraṃ dvau hetū kurutaḥ trayaḥ|
jāyamāne tato'nyau tu pratyayau tadviparyayāt||63||
Two causes exercise their activity with regard to a perishing dharma. Three, with regard to an arising dharma. Two other conditions, in reverse order.
J: Two causes exercise (their) activity in the perishing (dharma) : three (in the dharma) that is being born : two conditions, other than these, function reversely to those.
caturbhiścattacaittā hi samāpattidvayaṃ tribhiḥ|
dvābhyāmanye tu jāyante neśvarādeḥ kramādibhiḥ||64||
The mind and its mental states arise by reason of four conditions. The two absorptions, by reason of three. The other dharmas, by reason of two. Not from God or from any other cause, since there is a succession, etc.
J: The mind-stuff-and-mentals are born on account of the four; the two concentrations (samapatti), on account of the three, the others, on account of the two : not from the god, etc. On account of succession, etc.
dvidhā bhūtāni taddhetuḥ bhautikasya tu pañcadhā|
tridhā bhautikamanyonyaṃ bhūtānāmekadhaiva tat||65||
The primary elements are the cause of the primary [correction by CP] elements in two ways. And of the derived elements, in five ways. Derived elements are the cause of the derived elements in three ways. And the cause of the primary elements, in one way.
J: The elements are the cause of theirs in two ways : of the one, that is of the element, it is of five kinds : those of the elements, it is of three kinds; reciprocally; that is of only one kind of the elements.
kuśalākuśalaṃ kāme nivṛtānivṛtaṃ manaḥ|
rūpārūpyeṣvakuśalādanyatra anāsravaṃ dvidhā||66||
Good, bad, defiled-neutral, undefiled-neutral minds in Kāmadhātu. Good, defiled-neutral, undefiled-neutral minds in Rūpadhātu and in Ārūpadhātu. And two pure minds.
J: Good and not-good mind-stuff, sullied-not-defined mind stuff-manas, in kama(dhatu) : in rupa(dhatu) and the arupya(dhatu) with the exception of the not-good : in two ways the pure (minds-stuff).
kāme nava śubhāccittāccittāni aṣṭābhya eva tat|
daśabhyo'kuśalaṃ tasmāccatvāri nivṛtaṃ tathā||67||
Nine types of minds can arise after a good mind in Kāmadhātu. Such a [good] mind can arise after eight types of minds. A bad mind can arise after ten types of minds. Four types of minds can arise after such a (=bad) mind. The same for a defiled-neutral mind.
J: In the kamadhatu nine mind-stuffs after good mind-stuff : that after eight only : after ten, the minds-stuff the not-good : after that four and also the sullied.
pañcabhyo'nivṛtaṃ tasmātsapta cittānyanantaram|
rūpe daśaikaṃ ca śubhāt navabhyastadanantaram||68||
An undefiled-neutral mind can arise after five types of mind. Seven types of mind can arise after an undefiled-neutral mind. In Rūpadhātu eleven types of minds can arise after a good mind. A good mind can arise after nine types of minds.
J: After five not-sullied; after that seven mind-stuff immediately : in the rupadhatu ten and one after the good one : after nine immediately.
aṣṭābhyo nivṛtaṃ tasmāt ṣaṭ tribhyo'nivṛtaṃ punaḥ|
tasmāt ṣaṭ evāmārūpye tasya nītiḥ śubhātpunaḥ||69||
A defiled-neutral mind can arise after eight types of mind. Six types of minds can arise after a defiled-neutral mind. An undefiled-neutral mind can arise after three types of mind. Six types of mind can arise after such a (undefiled-neutral [CP correction]) mind. As above, so too in Ārūpyadhātua, for these (undefiled-neutral minds).
J: After eight the nivrta : there-after six : again after thre the anivrta : there-after six : similarly in its treatment (niti) in the arupyadhatu.
nava cittāni tat ṣaṇṇāṃ nivṛtātsapta tattathā|
caturbhyaḥ śaikṣam asmāttu pañca aśaikṣaṃ tu pañcakāt||70||
Nine types of minds can arise after a good mind. Such a (good mind) can arise after six types of mind. Seven types of minds can arise after a defiled-neutral mind. And the same for it. A Śaikṣa mind can arise after four types of minds. But five types of minds can arise after such (a Śaikṣa mind). An Āśaikṣa mind can arise after five types of minds.
J: Further after the good one, nine minds-stuff : that one (kusala) after six : after nivrta, seven, so that the (nivrta) similarily : saiksa after four : after (saiksa) five; after the pentade, however, asaiksa.
tasmāccatvāri cittāni dvādaśaitāni viṃśatiḥ|
prāyogikopapattyāptaṃ śubhaṃ bhittvā triṣu dvidhā||71||
Four types of minds can arise after such (an Āśaikṣa mind). The twelve types of mind make twenty. By dividing the good mind of the three Dhātus into two, the acquired and the innate minds.
J: After that the (asaiksa) four minds-stuff; these twelve constitute a score dividing the good (subha) as prayogika and upapattyapta; (each one of) the three into two and
caturdhā'vyākṛtaṃ kāme rūpe śilpavivarjitam||72||
By dividing an undefiled-neutral mind in Kāmadhātu into four: the retributive mind, the mind of attitude, the mind of application, and a mind that can create fictive beings. By excluding the undefiled-neutral mind of application in Rūpadhātu.
J: The vyakrta of the kama(dhatu) into four as born of retribution (vipakaja), of the attitude (airyapathika), of the craft (sailpasthanika) and of the creation (nairmitta), and (avyakrta) of the rupadhatu, in these, except as that of the craft.
kliṣṭe traidhātuke lābhaḥ ṣaṇṇāṃ ṣaṇṇāṃ dvayoḥ śubhe|
trayāṇāṃ rūpaje śaikṣe caturṇāṃ tasya śeṣite||73||
With the defiled mind of each of the three spheres, there is obtaining of six, of six, and of two minds respectively. There is the obtaining of three with a good mind of Rūpadhātu. There is an obtaining of four with a Śaikṣa mind. One obtains these same minds with the other minds.
J: In the sullied mind-stuff of the three spheres of existence one has acquisition of six, of six and of two: of three with the good (mind-stuff) of rupadhatu, four in the saiksa (mindstuff) : in the rest the same.
abhidharmakośe indriyanirddeśo nāma dvitīyaṃ kośasthānaṃ samāptamiti| śrīlāmāvākasya