by Sujin Boriharnwanaket | 129,875 words
A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas is a guide to the development of the Buddha's path of wisdom, covering all aspects of human life and human behaviour, good and bad. This study explains that right understanding is indispensable for mental development, the development of calm as well as the development of insight The author describes in detail all ment...
52 Types of Cetasikas
- Aññāsamāna (common to each other) cetasikas 13 types
- Akusala cetasikas 14 types
- Sobhana cetasikas 25 types
The aññāsamāna cetasikas are of the same nature (jāti) as the cetasikas they accompany  . When aññāsamāna cetasika accompanies akusala cetasikas, it is also akusala, and when it accompanies sobhana cetasikas it is also sobhana. The aññāsamāna cetasikas can accompany akusala cetasikas as well as sobhana cetasikas.
The seven universals are cetasikas accompaning each type of citta. Every citta which arises has to be accompanied by at least seven cetasikas, the seven universals. The five pairs of sense-cognitions (seeing, hearing, etc. which can be kusala vipāka or akusala vipāka), are only accompanied by the seven universals, not by other cetasikas. Thus, they are accompanied by the smallest number of cetasikas. The other types of citta are accompanied by more than these seven cetasikas, depending on the type of citta concerned.
1. Contact, phassa cetasika, contacts the object. When phassa cetasika arises and contacts an object, it is a condition for the citta and the other cetasikas arising together with it to perform each their own function with regard to that object. Citta, phassa and the other cetasikas arise, perform each their own function and then fall away very rapidly. When phassa contacts the object it conditions that object to appear so that also the other cetasikas can perform their specific functions as they, each in their own way, partake of the object, such as like (lobha) or dislike (dosa) towards the object. Phassa, contact, is food, āhāra, which sustains, which brings its fruit; it is food for the citta and cetasikas which arise together and manifest their specific characteristics while they perform their functions. Therefore, phassa cetasika is nutrition-condition, āhāra-paccaya, for the citta and the other cetasikas arising together with it  .
2. Feeling, vedanā cetasika, is the cetasika which feels. When citta arises and cognizes an object, the feeling which arises together with the citta feels with regard to that object. It can be pleasant feeling, unpleasant feeling, bodily pleasant feeling, painful feeling, or indifferent feeling. Feeling cetasika accompanies each citta and it is different depending on the type of citta it accompanies. For example, unpleasant feeling accompanies dosa-mūla-citta, and indifferent feeling can accompany moha-mūla-citta or lobha-mūla-citta.
3. Remembrance or perception, saññā cetasika, "marks" the object so that it can be recognized. Saññā cetasika remembers each object which appears; it remembers the different objects appearing one after the other as a "whole", as a story, a concept of beings and people. Saññā remembers pleasant feeling, unpleasant feeling, bodily pleasant and painful feeling and indifferent feeling with regard to each object which appears. Saññā cetasika is an important condition inciting to attachment and clinging in life. It is the same in the case of feeling cetasika: when one, for example, feels happy or glad, one attaches great importance to such feeling, one clings to it and wishes it to continue all the time. Therefore, vedanā cetasika and saññā cetasika are each a separate khandha among the five khandhas. The other fifty cetasikas are saṅkhārakkhandha, the khandha of "formations" or "activities". They condition citta each in their own way, in conformity with their different characteristics.
4. Volition, cetanā cetasika, wills or intends; it is active in fulfilling its own task and in coordinating the tasks of the nama Dhammas arising together with it at that moment. Cetanā cetasika is kamma-condition, kamma-paccaya. Cetanā cetasika accompanying vipākacitta is conascent kamma-condition, sahajāta-kamma-paccaya  , it performs its function as cetanā which is vipāka, arising together with vipākacitta and the other cetasikas which are also vipāka  and then it falls away. Cetanā cetasika which is kiriya is also conascent kamma-condition. It performs its function as it arises together with kiriyacitta and the other cetasikas which are kiriya cetasikas, and then it falls away. However, akusala cetanā which accompanies akusala citta and accomplishes akusala kamma patha (course of action which is completed) and kusala cetanā which accompanies kusala citta and accomplishes kusala kamma patha, are, after they have fallen away, "kamma-condition operating from a different moment", nānā-khaṇika kamma-paccaya  . This type of kamma produces vipāka citta and cetasikas arising later on. Thus, when akusala cetanā and kusala cetanā which are cause, have fallen away, they can produce results in the form of vipākacitta and cetasikas later on, at a time different from the actual committing of evil and good deeds. That is why they are kamma-condition operating from a different time, nānā-khaṇika kamma-paccaya.
5. One-pointed ness or concentration, ekaggatā cetasika, focuses on the object which is experienced. Whatever object citta cognizes, one-pointed ness focuses on that object. However, one-pointed ness accompanying akusala citta is not of the same strength of concentration as that accompanying kusala citta. When, in the development of samatha, citta knows the same object again and again, for a long time, the characteristic of one-pointed ness which concentrates on the object as it accompanies each citta at those moments, appears as samādhi, concentration, and it can be of different degrees. When ekaggatā which is kusala concentrates on the object, it is right concentration, sammā-samādhi, and it can develop so that it successively reaches higher levels.
6.Life faculty or vitality, jīvitindriya, is the cetasika which sustains the life of the accompanying citta and cetasikas, until they fall away. The nama-Dhammas which arise and subsist just for an extremely short moment still need as condition jīvitindriya cetasika which arises together with them and maintains their life at that moment. Jīvitindriya cetasika is faculty-condition, indriya-paccaya, for the citta and cetasikas it accompanies; it is a "leader"  in watching over the accompanying Dhammas so that they subsist just for a moment before they fall away.
7. Attention or manasikāra, is the cetasika which is attentive to the object, which takes an interest in it. Attention to the object is a condition for the accompanying cetasikas to "think" of or to occupy themselves with the object. They think each in their own way of different subjects and condition a variety of effects in the field of science and worldly knowledge which is endless. This kind of knowledge is different from knowledge in the field of Dhamma.
The seven universals, the sabbacitta sādhāraṇā cetasikas, are of the same nature or jāti as the citta they accompany. When they accompany kusala citta, they are kusala; when they accompany akusala citta, they are akusala; when they accompany vipākacitta, they are vipāka; when they accompany kiriyacitta, they are kiriya. They are also of the same level of citta they accompany: when they accompany kāmāvacara citta they are kāmāvacara; when they accompany rūpāvacara citta, they are rūpāvacara; when they accompany arūpāvacara citta, they are arūpāvacara; when they accompany lokuttara citta, they are lokuttara.
The six particulars are cetasikas which can arise with akusala cetasikas or with sobhana cetasikas, but they do not arise with each citta. The six particulars are the following:
1. Applied thinking, vitakka cetasika, touches the object which phassa cetasika contacts. Applied thinking accompanies fiftyfive kāmāvacara cittas and eleven jhānacittas of the first stage . It does not arise with the five pairs of sense-cognitions nor does it arise with the jhānacittas of the second stage up to the fifth stage. Applied thinking touches the object, it "thinks" of it in accordance with the citta and cetasikas it accompanies  . Applied thinking which thinks of the object is like the feet of the world; it causes the world to progress, as it accompanies the citta which cognizes the object.
2. Sustained thinking, vicāra cetasika, is the cetasika which supports vitakka cetasika. Whatever vitakka thinks of, vicāra cetasika supports vitakka with regard to its thinking. Sustained thinking accompanies sixty-six cittas, namely, forty-four kāmāvacara cittas, eleven jhānacittas of the first stage and eleven jhānacittas of the second stage. Sustained thinking does not accompany the five pairs of sense-cognitions nor does it accompany the jhānacittas of the third stage up to the fifth stage. Whatever citta is accompanied by applied thinking is also accompanied by sustained thinking, except in the case of the eleven jhānacittas of the second stage, which are accompanied by sustained thinking but not by applied thinking.
3. Determination, adhimokkha cetasika, is fixed on the object, it is convinced about it and it does not doubt about it. Determination accompanies eightyseven types of citta. It does not arise with the five pairs of sense-cognitions, nor does it arise with the type of moha-mūla-citta which is accompanied by doubt, vicikicchā. It cannot arise with moha-mūla-citta accompanied by doubt, since it is convinced about the object and does not doubt about it.
4. Energy, viriya cetasika, is the cetasika which makes an effort, strives, and which consolidates the accompanying Dhammas so that they do not regress. Energy accompanies seventythree types of citta. It does not accompany sixteen ahetuka cittas, namely, the sense-door adverting-consciousness, the five pairs of sense-cognitions, the two types of receiving-consciousness and the three types of santīraṇa cittas. These sixteen ahetuka cittas each perform their own function and they do not need energy as a condition.
5. Enthusiasm or rapture, pīti cetasika, is delighted, satisfied and thrilled, and therefore, it can only arise together with pleasant feeling, not with other kinds of feeling. Enthusiasm or rapture arises together with fiftyone types of citta which are accompanied by pleasant feeling, namely, eighteen types of kāmāvacara cittas, eleven types of jhānacitta of the first stage, eleven types of jhānacitta of the second stage and eleven tpes of jhānacitta of the third stage. The eleven jhānacittas of the fourth stage (of the five-fold system) are accompanied by pleasant feeling, but not by rapture. This stage of jhānacitta is more refined than the third stage of jhānacitta which is still accompanied by rapture. At the fourth stage one can forgo rapture.
6. Zeal or desire-to-act, chanda cetasika, is the cetasika which desires to act. This cetasika accompanies sixtynine types of citta. It does not accompany twenty types of citta, namely, the eighteen ahetuka cittas, and the two types of moha-mūla-citta. When rootless cittas arise there is no desire to act. Moha-mūla-citta is accompanied by the root of moha, but since there are no lobha or dosa arising together with it, it is not accompanied by chanda cetasika which desires to act. Chanda cetasika is the reality which desires to act in conformity with lobha-mūla-citta, dosa-mūla-citta or the other cittas it accompanies.
14 Types of Akusala Cetasikas
Akusala cetasikas are not wholesome or beautiful. When the citta is accompanied by akusala cetasikas it is akusala citta. Therefore, the akusala cetasikas can only accompany the twelve akusala cittas, they cannot accompany kusala citta, vipākacitta or kiriyacitta. It depends on the type of akusala citta by which akusala cetasikas it is accompanied, but each akusala citta must be accompanied by the four akusala cetasikas of ignorance, moha, shame-less-ness, ahirika, reck-less-ness, anottappa and rest-less-ness, uddhacca. These four akusala cetasikas are common to all akusala cittas, they are called in Pali: akusala sādhāraṇā cetasikas. Apart from these four akusala cetasikas, other akusala cetasikas accompany akusala cittas as the case demands.
- Ignorance, moha cetasika, does not know the characteristics of realities as they really are. Moha cetasika accompanies all twelve akusala cittas.
- Shame-less-ness, ahirika cetasika, is not ashamed of akusala Dhammas. It accompanies all twelve akusala cittas.
- Reck-less-ness, anottappa cetasika, is not afraid of the danger of akusala Dhammas. It accompanies all twelve akusala cittas.
- Rest-less-ness, uddhacca cetasika, is the cetasika which is not calm, which is distracted with regard to the object that is experienced. It accompanies all twelve akusala cittas.
- Attachment, lobha cetasika, is the cetasika which clings, which desires the object. It accompanies the eight types of lobha-mūla-citta.
- Wrong view, diṭṭhi cetasika, is wrong view of realities. It conditions clinging to the ways of wrong practice that is not the right cause leading to the right result. It conditions someone to cling to superstitious beliefs or to be excited about auspicious signs. Whenever someone has wrong view and strives after the wrong practice of the Dhamma through body, speech or mind, there is diṭṭhi cetasika which can arise with four types of lobha-mūla-cittta, those which are diṭṭhigata sampayutta (accompanied by diṭṭhi). When the magga-citta of the sotāpanna, streamwinner, arises which realizes the four noble Truths, diṭṭhi cetasika is completely eradicated so that it does not arise again. Thus, the sotāpanna does not have anymore the four types of lobha-mūla-citta accompanied by diṭṭhi.
- Conceit, māna cetasika, arises when one finds oneself important, when one is proud. It can arise only with the four types of lobha-mūla-citta which are without wrong view, diṭṭhi, but it does not always accompany these types. Sometimes lobha-mūla-cittas without wrong view are accompanied by conceit and sometimes they are not. Only when the four noble Truths have been realized at the stage of Arahatship, conceit is completely eradicated so that it does not arise again.
- Aversion, dosa cetasika, is the cetasika which is coarse; it is the reality which injures or harms, which is anxious or irritated. It accompanies the two types of dosa-mūla-citta. When the four noble Truths have been realized at the third stage of enlightenment, the stage of the non-returner, Anagami, dosa is completely eradicated. Thus, the sotāpanna can be sad and sorrowful, because he still has the two types of dosa-mūla-citta.
- Envy, issā cetasika, is the cetasika which is jealous of someone else’s prosperity, his material possessions, his wealth or his good qualities. Envy can arise with the two types of dosa-mūla-citta, but it does not invariably accompany them. Sometimes dosa-mūla-citta is accompanied by envy, sometimes it is not. When the magga-citta of the sotāpanna realizes the four noble Truths, envy is completely eradicated. Thus, the Aryans do not have envy anymore.
- Stinginess or avarice, macchariya cetasika, arises when someone is stingy with regard to his own property, when he does not want to share it with someone else, and does not want someone else to receive benefit from it. Avarice arises together with the two types of dosa-mūla-citta, it does not accompany lobha-mūla-citta. When avarice arises, there is anxiety and unhappiness with the citta, and therefore, it could not arise with lobha-mūla-citta which is accompanied by indifferent feeling or by pleasant feeling. Avarice is always accompanied by unpleasant feeling. Dosa-mūla-citta is sometimes accompanied by avarice, sometimes not. Avarice is completely eradicated when the magga-citta of the sotāpanna arises and realizes the four noble Truths. Thus, the Aryans do not have avarice anymore. As regards the lay follower who is Aryan but not yet arahat  , he has not given up all his possessions, because he still has lobha cetasika. However, he has no avarice, since it was eradicated at the stage of enlightenment of the sotāpanna. He follows the right Path and when there is a proper occasion he can generously give away things to others.
- Worry or regret, kukkucca cetasika, is the cetasika which is anxiety and regret about the akusala which has been committed and the kusala which has been omitted. It can arise with the two types of dosa-mūla-citta. Dosa-mūla-citta is sometimes accompanied by regret and sometimes not. Regret has been completely eradicated by the magga-citta of the non-returner, Anagami.
- Sloth, thīna cetasika, is the cetasika which causes the citta to be listless, to lack energy for kusala. It can arise with the five types of akusala cittas which are prompted, sasaṅkhārika, thus with the four lobha-mūla-cittas which are sasaṅkhārika and with one type of dosa-mūla-citta, the type which is sasaṅkhārika. The akusala cittas which are sasaṅkhārika are sometimes accompanied by sloth, sometimes not.
- Torpor, middha cetasika, is the cetasika which causes the accompanying cetasikas to be inert and drowsy. It can arise with the five types of akusala cittas which are sasaṅkhārika, just as in the case of sloth. Sloth and torpor always arise together, they cannot be separated. Sloth and torpor are eradicated by the magga-citta of the arahat.
- Doubt, vicikicchā cetasika, is doubt about the characteristics of nama and rupa, about the four noble Truths, about the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha. It arises with one type of moha-mūla-citta, the type which is vicikicchā sampayutta, accompanied by doubt. Doubt is completely eradicated by the magga-citta of the sotāpanna.
For the convenience of memorizing, the akusala cetasikas can be classified in the following categories:
Mocātuka, the quartet  of moha and three other cetasikas which are the akusala cetasikas common to all akusala cittas, the akusala sādhāraṇā cetasikas. These are: moha, ahirika, anottappa and uddhacca.
Lotika, the triad  of lobha and two other cetasikas which can arise together with lobha. This triad is: lobha, diṭṭhi, wrong view, and māna, conceit. Diṭṭhi and māna arise with lobha cetasika, but diṭṭhi and māna cannot arise at the same time. When there is lobha-mūla-citta with diṭṭhi (diṭṭthigata sampayutta), it is not accompanied by māna. Māna can accompany the four types of lobha-mūla-citta without diṭṭhi (diṭṭhigata vippayutta), but it does not always accompany these cittas. Sometimes māna accompanies lobha-mūla-citta without diṭṭhi and sometimes not.
Docātuka, the quartet of dosa cetasika and three other cetasikas which can arise together with dosa. This quartet is: dosa, issā (jealousy), macchariya (avarice), and kukkucca (regret). Issā, macchariya and kukkucca can accompany the two types of dosa-mūla-citta, but these three cetasikas do not arise at the same time and they do not always accompany dosa-mūla-citta. Sometimes they accompany dosa-mūla-citta, sometimes they don’t.
Thīduka, the dyad  of thīna, sloth, and middha, torpor. These two cetasikas always arise together, they cannot be separated. They can accompany the five types of akusala cittas which are sasaṇkhārika, but they do not always accompany these cittas.
Vicikicchā, doubt, has not been classified in a specific category. Thirteen akusala cetasikas are classified in four categories, and thus, together with vicikicchā there are fourteen akusala cetasikas in all.
25 Types of Sobhana Cetasikas
Sobhana cetasikas are cetasikas which are beautiful, wholesome. When the citta is accompanied by sobhana cetasikas the citta is sobhana, beautiful. Akusala cetasikas are quite different from sobhana cetasikas and they can arise only with the twelve types of akusala cittas. Sobhana cetasikas accompany kusala citta, sahetuka vipākacitta or sobhana kiriyacitta. Sobhana cetasikas accompany kāmāvacara kusala citta (of the sense sphere, maha-kusala citta), rūpāvacara kusala citta, arūpāvacara citta, lokuttara kusala citta; they accompany kāmāvacara sahetuka vipāka (accompanied by sobhana hetus, maha-vipāka), rūpāvacara vipākacitta, arūpāvacara vipākacitta, lokuttara vipākacitta; they accompany kāmāvacara sahetuka kiriyacitta (maha-kiriyacitta), rūpāvacara kiriyacitta and arūpāvacara kiriyacitta.
There are different types of sobhana cetasikas accompanying sobhana cittas: nineteen types accompany each type of sobhana citta and six types do not.
Nineteen sobhana cetasikas are common to all sobhana cittas, the sobhana sādhāraṇā cetasikas. With regard to the cetasikas which do not accompany each sobhana citta, they are the following six types:
Abstinences, virati cetasikas, of which there are three types, accompanying sixteen types of citta: eight maha-kusala cittas and eight lokuttara cittas (or forty types)  .
Illimitables, appamaññā cetasikas, among which two types (compassion and sympathetic joy) can accompany eight types of maha-kusala citta, eight types of maha-kiriyacitta, four types of rūpāvacara kusala citta (not those of the fifth stage of jhāna), four types of rūpāvacara vipākacitta and four types of rūpāvacara kiriyacitta  .
Wisdom, paññā cetasika, which accompanies fortyseven cittas: twelve types of kāmāvacara cittas called ñāṇa sampayutta, accompanied by paññā; twentyseven types of mahaggata cittas (jhānacittas), which are fifteen types of rūpāvacara cittas and twelve types of arūpāvacara cittas; and the eight types of lokuttara cittas.
19 Types of Sobhana Sādhāraṇā Cetasikas
- Confidence or faith, saddhā cetasika, is the cetasika which is pure. It is compared with a purifying gem which makes turbid water clean and pure. When confidence arises akusala Dhammas which are compared with mud subside, they cannot arise. Thus, confidence, saddhā, is the reality which is confidence in kusala Dhammas.
- Mindfulness, sati cetasika, is the cetasika which is mindful, non-forgetful of kusala Dhammas. When akusala arises in our daily life, there is no sati which is mindful of dāna, sīla or bhāvanā (mental development). Kusala citta can arise and apply itself to dāna, sīla or bhāvanā when there is sati cetasika which is mindful, non-forgetful of these ways of kusala.
- Moral shame, hiri cetasika, is the cetasika which is ashamed of and shrinks back from akusala Dhammas. When kusala citta arises, there is shame of akusala Dhammas. The characteristic of shame is compared to the shrinking back from dirt.
- Fear of blame, ottappa cetasika, is the cetasika which fears the danger of akusala Dhammas. Whenever akusala Dhamma, even of a slight degree, arises, there is no fear of the danger of that Dhamma. The characteristic of fear of blame is compared to fear of touching a lump of hot iron.
- Non-attachment, alobha cetasika, is the cetasika which does not cling to the object, which is detached from it. When there is delight in and clinging to an object, the ways of kusala of dāna, sīla or bhāvanā cannot arise. Each kind of kusala citta which arises must have alobha cetasika as root, hetu. The characteristic of non-attachment is compared to a water drop which does not cling to the petal of a lotus.
- Non-aversion, adosa cetasika, is the cetasika which is not angry, coarse or harsh. It has the characteristic of friendliness, and it is also called mettā (mitto meaning friend), because it extends benevolence to all beings.
- Equanimity, tatramajjhattatā cetasika, is mental balance, evenmindedness, impartiality. It is neutrality (upekkhā) towards the object which is experienced.
Ten kinds of Equanimity, Upekkhā  :
Sixfold Upekkhā, chaḷaṅga upekkhā, which is tatramajjhattatā cetasika. This is the evenmindedness or neutrality of the arahat towards the objects appearing through the six doors.
The equanimity of one of the brahma-vihāras  , brahma-vihārupekkhā. This is tatramajjhattatā cetasika which is evenmindedness towards beings.
The equanimity which is one of the enlightenment factors, bhojjhangupekkhā. This is tatramajjhattatā cetasika which is among the enlightenment factors leading to the realization of the four noble Truths.
The equanimity of effort, viriyupekkhā. This is viriya cetasika which is right effort, neither over-strenuous nor lax in mental development.
The equanimity as to conditioned realities, saṅkhārupekkhā. This is paññā cetasika is neutral as it penetrates the three characteristics of impermanence, dukkha and anattā of conditioned realities, saṅkhāra Dhammas.
The equanimity of feeling, vedanupekkhā. This is vedanā cetasika which is indifferent feeling, feeling that is neither unhappy nor happy.
Equanimity in vipassanā, vipassanupekkhā. This is paññā cetasika which is neutral as it investigates the object which arises because of its appropriate conditions.
The equanimity of tatramajjhattatā cetasika, tatramajjhattupekkhā. This is tatramajjhattatā cetasika which effects mental balance, which is devoid of deficiency or excess.
The equanimity of jhāna, jhānupekkhā. This is tatramajjhattatā cetasika in the development of jhāna which abandons interest in the Dhammas distracting from calm and mental steadiness. This kind of upekkhā arises with the jhānacitta of the third stage (of the fourfold system) and it abandons the jhāna-factor rapture, pīti.
Purifying equanimity, parisuddhupekkhā. This is tatramajjhattatā cetasika arising with the jhānacitta of the fourth stage (of the fourfold system). It is the condition for calm and purification of all that opposes calm. At this stage there are no more jhāna-factors to be abandoned.
- Tranquility of body, kāya-passaddhi  . This is the cetasika which is calm, not restless, and it conditions the accompanying cetasikas to be calm and not restless.
- Tranquility of citta, citta-passaddhi. This is the cetasika which conditions the citta it accompanies to be calm. There is no calm when one clings to being alone, to silence, to being in the forest, to freedom from agitation. Then there is lobha-mūla-citta. There is no true calm, freedom from akusala, when one does not apply oneself to dāna, sīla or bhāvanā. Bhāvanā includes samatha, the development of calm by paññā and vipassanā, the development of insight wisdom which knows the true nature of the characteristics of the realities which appear.
Tranquility of body and tranquility of citta are cetasikas which are opposed to rest-less-ness, uddhacca cetasika.
- Lightness of body, kāya-lahutā. This is the cetasika which is light, buoyant, and it conditions the accompanying cetasikas to be light, to be without the sluggishness of akusala.
- Lightness of citta, citta-lahutā. This is the cetasika which conditions the citta it accompanies to be light, without heaviness.
Lightness of body and lightness of citta are opposed to sloth and torpor, thīna cetasika and middha cetasika.
- Pliancy of body, kāya-mudutā. This is the cetasika which is smooth and pliant. It conditions the accompanying cetasikas to be without rigidity and coarseness.
- Pliancy of citta, citta-mudutā. This cetasika conditions the citta it accompanies to be smooth, without rigidity.
Pliancy of body and pliancy of citta are opposed to wrong view, diṭṭhi cetasika, and conceit, māna cetasika.
- Wieldiness of body, kāya-kammaññatā. This is the cetasika which is necessary for the workableness of the sobhana Dhammas. It conditions the accompanying cetasikas to be suitable for their functioning as sobhana Dhammas.
- Wieldiness of citta, citta-kammaññatā. This is the cetasika which conditions the citta it accompanies to be suitable in its functioning as sobhana Dhamma.
Wieldiness of body and wieldiness of citta are opposed to the akusala Dhammas which cause citta to be unwieldy with regard to sobhana Dhammas  .
- Proficiency of body, kāya-pāguññatā. This is the cetasika which is skillful and it conditions the accompaying cetasikas to be skillful and efficient with regard to the Dhammas which are wholesome and beautiful.
- Proficiency of citta, citta-pāguññatā. This is the cetasika which conditions the citta it accompanies to be skillful with regard to the Dhammas which are wholesome and beautiful.
Proficiency of body and proficiency of citta are the cetasikas which are opposed to diffidence, lack of confidence in wholesomeness.
- Uprightness of body, kāya-ujukatā. This is the cetasika which is upright, and it conditions the accompanying cetasikas to be resolute, without crookedness and sincere in the application of wholesomeness.
- Uprightness of citta, citta-ujukatā. This is the cetasika which conditions the citta it accompanies to be resolute and sincere in the application of wholesomeness.
Uprightness of body and uprightness of citta are opposed to deception and craftiness which cause the citta to be crooked, insincere.
The afore-mentioned nineteen types of sobhana cetasikas accompany each type of sobhana citta. They do not accompany the twelve types of akusala cittas and the eighteen types of ahetuka cittas, thus, thirty types of citta. Sobhana cittas are either dvihetuka, accompanied by two hetus (alobha and adosa) or tihetuka, accompanied by three hetus (alobha, adosa and amoha or paññā); there are no sobhana cittas with only one hetu. Whereas akusala cittas are not tihetuka, they can only be ekahetuka, accompanied by one hetu (moha) or dvihetuka, and in that case they are accompanied by moha and lobha or by moha and dosa.
Apart from the nineteen sobhana sadhāraṇā cetasikas, the cetasikas common to all sobhana cittas, there are six sobhana cetasikas which do not accompany each sobhana citta. Among them are the three abstinences, which have as function abstaining from akusala. There is the following classification of the six sobhana cetasikas which do not accompany each sobhana citta:
- Right speech, sammā-vāca, this is the cetasika which has the function of abstaining from the four kinds of unwholesome speech, from lying, musāvādo, rough speech, pharusavācā, slandering, pisuṇavācā, and idle talk, samphappalāpo. When one abstains from wrong speech, the cetasika which is right speech abstains from wrong speech.
- Right action, sammā-kammanta, is the cetasika which abstains from the three kinds of wrong action, from killing, pāṇātipāto, stealing, adinnādānaÿ, and sexual misconduct, kāmesu micchācāro. When one abstains from these three kinds of unwholesome bodily action, the cetasika which is right action performs the function of abstaining from unwholesome bodily action.
- Right livelihood, sammā-ājīva, is the cetasika which abstains from wrong livelihood, micchā-ājīva, namely: the three kinds of unwholesome bodily action and the four kinds of unwholesome speech pertaining to one’s livelihood. When one abstains from wrong livelihood, the cetasika which is right livelihood performs the function of abstaining from wrong livelihood.
Furthermore, there are two "illimitables", appamaññā cetasikas, classified among the six sobhana cetasikas which do not accompany each sobhana citta. They have beings and people as object and they do not arise with maha-vipākacitta, the rūpāvacara cittas of the fifth stage of jhāna, arūpāvacara cittas and lokuttara cittas. They are classified as follows:
- Compassion, karuṇā cetasika, the cetasika which has compassion for beings who are suffering. It has non-harming as manifestation.
- Sympathetic joy, muditā cetasika, the cetasika which rejoices in the happiness of another being, and it is opposed to jealousy, issā.
There is one more cetasika among the six which do not accompany each sobhana citta:
- Paññā cetasika, the cetasika which is right view, right understanding of the characteristics of Dhammas and right understanding of cause and result with regard to realities.
The nineteen sobhana sādhāraṇā cetasikas accompany all sobhana cittas, including kusala citta, vipākacitta and kiriyacitta. They accompany kāmāvacara cittas, rūpāvacara cittas, arūpāvacara cittas and lokuttara cittas.
Six sobhana cetasikas do not accompany each sobhana citta, and there are the following distinctions to be made:
The three abstinences, virati cetasikas, may sometimes accompany eight maha-kusala cittas and they always accompany the eight lokuttara cittas (or the forty lokuttara cittas with jhānafactors). The abstinences do not accompany each maha-kusala citta. Only when maha-kusala citta is abstaining of a particular kind of akusala kamma it is accompanied by the relevant virati cetasika. The three abstinences cannot accompany maha-kusala citta all at the same time. However, when lokuttara citta arises all three abstinences accompany the citta at the same time. When the magga-citta arises, the three abstinences perform their function as path-factor while the conditions for wrong conduct are cut off, in accordance with the stage of enlightenment which is attained. They also accompany the phala-cittas. Thus, the eight (or forty) lokuttara cittas must be accompanied by all three abstinences.
The abstinences do not accompany maha-kiriyacitta, because the arahat has completely eradicated all defilements and there is no need any more for abstention from akusala.
The abstinences do not accompany maha-vipākacitta. They arise one at a time with maha-kusala citta at the actual moment of abstaining from akusala. Maha-vipākacitta which is the result of maha-kusala is not accompanied by the abstinences, it does not perform the function of abstaining from akusala.
Maha-vipāka (kusala vipāka of the sense-sphere) is different from rūpāvacara vipāka, arūpāvacara vipāka and lokuttara vipāka, vipākacittas with the same types of cetasikas as the kamma which produced them. Rūpāvacara kusala citta is kamma-condition, kamma-paccaya, for rūpāvacara vipākacitta, its result, and this has the same types of cetasikas and it also experiences the same object as the rūpāvacara kusala citta which produced it. They are compared to a body and its reflection, since they are similar. It is the same in the case of arūpāvacara kusala citta and vipākacitta, and lokuttara kusala citta and vipākacitta. The maha-kusala citta and its result, the maha-vipākacitta, are not accompanied by the same cetasikas. Thus, the maha-vipākacitta which is the result of the maha-kusala citta abstaining from akusala, is not accompanied by one of the abstinences.
The abstinences do not accompany rūpāvacara citta and arūpāvacara citta, because at the moment of mahaggata citta (jhānacitta), there is no kamma through body or speech and thus there would be no need to abstain.
As regards the two illimitables of compassion and sympathetic joy, classified among the six sobhana cetasikas which do not accompany each sobhana citta, these do not arise together. They arise one at a time when citta has as object beings or persons, who experience suffering (in which case that being is the object of compassion) or happiness (in which case that being is the object of sympathetic joy). The illimitables do not accompany maha-vipākacitta, for the same reason as in the case of the abstinences. They can accompany, one at a time, maha-kusala citta and maha-kiriyacitta which have beings or persons as object.
Compassion and sympathetic joy are among the four "divine abidings", brahma-vihāras, subjects of calm developed in samatha: the development of loving kindness, mettā, which is adosa cetasika; the development of compassion, karuṇā, which is karuṇā cetasika; the development of sympathetic joy, muditā, which is muditā cetasika; the development of equanimity, upekkhā, which is tatramajjhattatā cetasika. When samatha is developed with one of the brahma-vihāras as subject, maha-kusala citta accompanied by loving kindness, compassion or sympathetic joy can develop calm which becomes strong and steady, to the degree of access concentration (upacāra samādhi, which is close to absorption in the object), and absorption concentration which accompanies the jhānacitta of the first stage. If calm is developed further the jhānacitta of the second stage, the third stage and the fourth stage can successively be attained. With the development of loving kindness, compassion and sympathetic joy four stages of rupa-jhāna (of the fivefold system) can be attained, not the fifth stage. The jhānacittas of the four lower stages are accompanied by pleasant feeling, but the jhānacitta of the fifth stage cannot be accompanied by pleasant feeling, only by indifferent feeling. Therefore, only the brahma-vihāra of equanimity can be the object of the jhānacitta which has been developed to the fifth stage of jhāna. Loving kindness, compassion and sympathetic joy can be the meditation subjects of the jhānacitta of the four lower stages whereas equanimity is the meditation subject of the jhānacitta of the fifth stage.
The two illimitables of compassion and sympathetic joy do not accompany arūpāvacara citta, because this type of citta does not have beings and persons as object. Neither do they accompany lokuttara citta because this has nibbāna as object.
Paññā cetasika arises with all kāmāvacara cittas which are ñāṇa-sampayutta, accompanied by paññā. It arises also with rūpāvacara cittas, arūpāvacara cittas and lokuttara cittas, which cannot arise without paññā.
Thus we see that kāmāvacara kusala citta is always accompanied by the sobhana sādhāraṇā cetasikas. Sometimes it is accompanied by one of the abstinences when it abstains from akusala, sometimes it is accompanied by one of the two illimitables of compassion and sympathetic joy, and sometimes it is accompanied by paññā cetasika. When one develops samatha or vipassanā there is maha-kusala citta ñāṇa-sampayutta, accompanied by paññā cetasika.
Footnotes and references:
Añña means other and samāna means common. When kusala citta is taken into account, akusala citta is taken as other, and vice versa.
Sabbacitta means all cittas, and sādhāraṇa means common, general.
Pakiṇṇaka means miscellaneous.
There are four kinds of āhāra-paccaya: edible food, contact, volition and viññāṇa, in this case the rebirth-consciousness. Volition is kamma which produces rebirth, it is "food" for rebirth. Viññāṇa, rebirth-consciousness, sustains the cetasikas and the rupa arising at rebirth.
Saha means together, and sahajāta means born at the same time.
Thus it is different from akusala kamma and kusala kamma which bring their results later on. One usually thinks of kamma as a good or bad deed, but the reality of kamma is actually cetanā cetasika. Cetanā is not only akusala or kusala, but it is also vipāka and kiriya. Cetanā which is vipāka or kiriya merely coordinates the tasks of the citta and cetasikas it accompanies, and thus it is conascent kamma-condition. Cetanā which is akusala or kusala has a double task: it coordinates the tasks of the accompanying nama Dhammas and it "wills" or intends akusala or kusala.
Nānā is different and khaṇa means time. It produces result later on.
Some namas and rupas are indriya, which means controlling faculty or leader. Indriyas are "leaders", each in their own field. The rupas which are sense organs are indriyas, they control the relevant sense-cognitions. Citta is an indriya, manindriya, it is the leader in cognizing an object. Namas such as feeling or paññā are indriyas, leaders, each in their own field.
These jhānacittas are: kusala jhānacitta, vipāka jhānacitta, kiriya jhānacitta of the first stage, and eight lokuttara jhānacittas which are accompanied by the factors of the first stage of jhāna.
The function of vitakka is not the same as what is meant by thinking in conventional sense. Vitakka touches or strikes the object, it leads citta to the object.
He is called "learner", sekha, because he still must train himself and practise, so that all defilements can be eradicated . The arahat is a non-learner, asekha.
Cātu means four.
Ti means three.
Duka means pair, dyad.
This will be explained further on.
The two illimitables which do not arise with every sobhana citta are compassion, karuṇā, and sympathetic joy, muditā. There are four illimatbles or sublime states in all. The other two are loving kindness, mettā, which is adosa cetasika, and equanimity, upekkhā, which is tatramajjhattatā cetasika, and these two cetasikas are classified among the sobhana cetasikas common to all sobhana cittas. As will be explained later on, the four illimitables can be developed in samatha as the subjects of calm which are the brahma-vihāras, divine abidings. They are called illimitables or boundless states, because when jhāna has been attained they can be extended to an illimitable number of beings.
Upekkhā can stand not only for tatramajjhattatā cetasika but also for indifferent feeling, upekkhā vedanā, for paññā cetasika or for viriya cetasika, and this depends on the context. See Visuddhimagga IV, 156-166, where the different aspects of equanimity have been explained.
The other three are mettā, loving kindness, karuṇā , compassion, and muditā, sympathetic joy.
Body stands here for the "mental body", the cetasikas.
They are opposed to the hindrances such as sensuous desire and hate.