by Sujin Boriharnwanaket | 129,875 words
A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas is a guide to the development of the Buddha's path of wisdom, covering all aspects of human life and human behaviour, good and bad. This study explains that right understanding is indispensable for mental development, the development of calm as well as the development of insight The author describes in detail all ment...
Defilements can be classified according to different degrees, they can be subtle, medium or coarse defilements.
The coarse defilements, vītikkama kilesas  are the defilements which are the condition for committing akusala kamma through the body or through speech. One can abstain from vītikkama kilesa by the observance of sīla.
The medium defilements, pariyuṭṭhāna kilesas  , arise with the akusala citta which is not of the degree of akusala kamma. They can be temporarily subdued by kusala jhānacitta, and that is elimination by suppression, (vikkhambhana pahāna  ).
The subtle defilements are the inherent tendencies, anusaya kilesas  . So long as defilements have not been completely eradicated the anusaya kilesas lie dormant in the cittas which arise and fall away in succession. They are like germs which condition the arising of the medium defilements. Defilements cannot arise again when they have been completely eradicated (samuccheda pahāna  ). When the lokuttara magga-citta realizes the noble Truths and experiences nibbāna, anusaya kilesas are eradicated in accordance with the stage of enlightenment which has been attained. They are successively eradicated at the different stages of enlightenment.
Before the Buddha’s enlightenment people abstained from akusala by the observance of sīla and they could, by the development of samatha, temporarily subdue defilements (vikkhambhana pahāna). They could cultivate samatha even to the highest stage of arupa-jhāna, the stage of "neither-perception-nor-non-perception". However, nobody could eradicate the inherent tendencies, the anusaya kilesas. The Buddha, after he had accumulated the perfections (pāramīs) for four incalculable periods of time and a hundred thousand aeons, attained Buddhahood and thereby became the Sammā-sambuddha, who is unsurpassed in wisdom. He taught the way which should be followed to realize the Aryan Truths. There were many disciples who could realize the noble Truths and eradicate defilements and thus, the Aryan Sangha  came into being. From that time on people could study and apply the Dhamma which the Buddha had realized when he attained enlightenment and which he taught in all details for forty-five years. The Dhamma the Buddha taught is subtle, intricate and deep in meaning. The Buddha taught the characteristics of all realities he had penetrated at the time of his enlightenment. One should study and investigate the Dhamma the Buddha taught in detail so as to have right understanding of it. Otherwise it will be impossible to develop the paññā which can penetrate the true nature of realities and eradicate defilements.
One should have right understanding of the Dhamma from the beginning so that paññā can be developed which knows the characteristics of realities as they are. From the beginning it should be known precisely which Dhammas paññā can penetrate: all that is reality and that appears right now through the eyes, the ears, the nose, the tongue, the body-sense and the mind-door.
Each moment when one sees, hears, smells, tastes, experiences tangible object or thinks, there is bound to be ignorance of the true nature of realities. The Buddha taught in all details about the Dhammas which arise and appear all day long, at each moment, through the sense-doors and the mind-door. He taught the Dhamma so that we could see the disadvantages of defilements and the danger of being in the cycle of birth and death. So long as one does not see the danger of being in the cycle of birth and death, there is no sense of urgency, no energy to develop insight, vipassanā. Paññā developed in vipassanā sees as they are the characteristics of realities as they are naturally appearing in daily life, and this kind of paññā can eradicate defilements.
The development of samatha and the development of vipassanā are different with different objectives and they are also different as to the degree of paññā which develops them. In samatha, maha-kusala citta accompanied by paññā meditates on specific subjects so that calm can be obtained and the citta is firmly concentrated on the meditation subject. In vipassanā ultimate realities, paramattha Dhammas, are the objects of paññā. These are the nama Dhammas and rupa Dhammas which arise and appear and then fall away. Maha-kusala citta accompanied by paññā can begin to notice and investigate one reality at a time, over and over again. In that way it can gradually be realized that Dhammas are not a being, person or self. The result of the development of samatha is rebirth in one of the Brahma-planes. The result of the development of vipassanā is paññā which knows realities as they are and eradicates defilements. The lokuttara magga-citta has nibbāna as object and eradicates defilements in accordance with the stage of enlightenment which has been attained. When the stage of the arahat is attained all defilements are eradicated completely by the magga-citta; that means the end to the cycle of birth and death, no more rebirth.
The person who develops vipassanā should be truthful with regard to himself. He should realize that he still has all kinds of defilements and he should not erroneously believe that lobha has to be eradicated first of all; this would be impossible. Someone who is still an ordinary person cannot pass over stages of development of understanding and become an arahat immediately. First of all, the clinging to "personality view" (sakkāya-diṭṭhi), by which one takes realities for a "whole", for self, being or person, should be completely eradicated. After that other defilements can be eradicated stage by stage. If someone does not know that while he is seeing there is no self, being or person, how could he eradicate defilements such as attachment or aversion? It is the same with regard to the other doorways. So long as there is personality view, defilements cannot be eradicated.
Each reality which arises falls away very rapidly, it vanishes completely. Realities arise and fall away all the time. The Buddha taught the way to develop the paññā which knows the characteristics of realities as they are. The development of the eightfold Path is the one and only way to realize the truth. The factors of the eightfold Path are the following cetasikas: right understanding (sammā-diṭṭhi, paññā cetasika), right thinking (sammā-sankappa, vitakka cetasika), right speech (sammā-vāca cetasika), right action (sammā-kammanta cetasika), right livelihood (sammā-ājīva cetasika), right effort (sammā-vāyāma, viriya cetasika), right mindfulness (sammā-sati, sati cetasika) and right concentration (sammā-samādhi, ekaggatā cetasika).
In the beginning, when lokuttara citta has not yet arisen, the Path is still "worldly", lokiya, not lokuttara. Then there are usually five Path-factors performing their functions together, which means that the citta is not accompanied by the three abstentions, virati cetasikas, of right speech, right action and right livelihood. When there is an opportunity to abstain from akusala, only one type of virati arises at a time. Only at the moment of lokuttara citta the three virati cetasikas arise together. The five Path-factors (apart from the virati cetasikas) perform their functions together when there is awareness of a characteristic of nama or rupa appearing through one of the six doors. Paññā cetasika which arises together with sammā-sati gradually begins to consider and to investigate the characteristics of nama and rupa. Paññā has to consider realities very often, over and over again, so that it can clearly discern whether it is a nama or a rupa which appears.
The realities which appear through the eyes, the ears, the nose, the tongue, the body-sense or the mind-door can be classified as the four "Applications of Mindfulness", Satipaṭṭhānas. They are the following:
- Application of mindfulness of the body, kāyānupassanā  satipaṭṭhāna. When sati arises and is aware of a characteristic of a rupa of the body there is at such a moment kāyānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna.
- Application of mindfulness of feeling, vedanānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna. When sati arises and is aware of a characteristic of feeling which appears there is at such a moment vedanānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna.
- Application of mindfulness of citta, cittānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna. When sati arises and is aware of a characteristic of one of the different types of citta there is at such a moment cittanupassanā satipaṭṭhāna.
- Application of mindfulness of Dhammas, dhammānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna. This application of mindfulness includes the realities classified under aspects other than those of the first three applications of mindfulness  . When sati arises and is aware of a Dhamma included in this application of mindfulness, there is at such a moment dhammānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna.
The word satipaṭṭhāna has three meanings:
- The objects sati is aware of, thus, a paramattha Dhamma, a nama Dhamma or a rupa Dhamma. These are classified as the four satipaṭṭhānas.
- Sati cetasika which arises together with kāmāvacara citta accompanied by paññā (ñāṇa-sampayutta), and which is aware of the objects of mindfulness, the four satipaṭṭhānas.
- The Path the Sammā-sambuddha and the Aryan disciples have developed.
The development of the Aryan eightfold Path is actually the development of the four satipaṭṭhānas. It is the development of awareness and right understanding of the characteristics of realities as they appear one at a time in our daily life, through the sense-doors and through the mind-door. Mindfulness is not easy and in the beginning it cannot often arise. The reason is that ignorance, clinging and all the other akusala Dhammas have been accumulated for an endlessly long time in the cycle of birth and death. And also in this life, from the time we were born, defilements have been accumulated each day. The person who correctly understands cause and result of realities knows that he needs great patience and perseverance so that he is able to listen to the Dhamma, to study it carefully and to consider it. Only thus can one have understanding of the realities which appear through the eyes, the ears, the nose, the tongue, the body-sense and the mind-door. By listening and considering the right conditions are being accumulated for the arising of satipaṭṭhāna, awareness and investigation of the characteristics of the realities which are appearing. In this way realities can be known as they are. Through awareness of realities one will directly understand the truth in conformity with what one has learnt and understood intellectually, namely, that all Dhammas, including satipaṭṭhāna and the factors of the eightfold Path, are anattā, non-self. Satipaṭṭhāna can arise when there are the right conditions, that is, when maha-kusala citta accompanied by paññā has arisen time and again, and paññā has thus been accumulated. Then people will not deviate anymore from the right Path. They will not follow a practice other than being aware of, noticing and considering the nama Dhammas and the rupa Dhammas appearing through the six doors.
The person who develops paññā is truthful, sincere with regard to his own development. When satipaṭṭhāna arises he knows that that moment is different from forgetfulness of realities. When satipaṭṭhāna arises there cannot yet immediately be clear understanding of the characteristics of nama and rupa. Paññā develops only very gradually.
When sati of satipaṭṭhāna notices and considers the characteristics of the namas and rupas which appear, there is also right effort arising together with sati. Right effort can be classified as fourfold, as four sammāppadhānas, right efforts: the effort to avoid, saōvara-padhāna, the effort to overcome, pahāna-padhāna, the effort to develop, bhāvanā-padhāna, and the effort to maintain, anurakkhaṇa-padhāna.
- Saōvara-padhāna is the effort to avoid the arising of akusala Dhammas which have not arisen yet.
- Pahāna-padhāna is the effort to overcome or eliminate the akusala Dhammas which have arisen.
- Bhāvanā-padhāna is the effort to develop the kusala Dhammas which have not yet arisen.
- Anurakkhaṇa-padhāna is the effort to maintain the kusala Dhammas which have arisen so that they will reach completion.
These four right efforts are the foundation for the accomplishment of result, but there are other sobhana Dhammas needed to reach the goal and among these are the four "Roads to Power" or "Bases of Success", iddhi-pādas  . These are the following:
- The Basis of Success of chanda. This is chanda cetasika or wish-to-do. Chanda wishes to consider and to be aware of the characteristics of the namas and rupas which are appearing, so that they can be known as they are. Chanda is compared to a royal attendant who is diligent in his service to the King. Evenso is chanda a basis of accomplishment so that the right result can be reached .
- The Basis of Success of viriya. This is viriya cetasika or energy, energy to notice and consider the characteristics of the namas and rupas which are appearing. By dependance on energy the right result can be accomplished. Viriya is compared to a royal attendant who assists the King by his courage in the performance of his task.
- The Basis of Success of citta. Through citta the right result can be achieved. Citta is compared to a royal attendant who gives assistance to the King by accomplishing his task well because of his natural good qualities.
- The Basis of Success of vimaōsā, investigation. This is paññā cetasika which carefully considers and investigates the characteristics of realities. By dependence on paññā the right result can be achieved. Vimaōsā is compared to a royal attendant who gives assistance to the King by his wisdom.
Each of these royal attandants can, because of his own natural capability be a dependable support in the accomplishment of the goal. Evenso the Bases of Success are a dependable support to reach the right result.
The four Bases of Success have to depend on the five "spiritual faculties", indriyas, so that they can perform their functions. These faculties have to be developed so that they can have a leading function with regard to the development of the right Path. They are the following:
- The faculty of confidence, which is saddhā cetasika. This is a leader when there is confidence in awareness of the characteristics of realities which are appearing.
- The faculty of energy, which is viriya cetasika. This is a leader when there is energy and courage which prevents one from being lazy and disheartened with regard to awareness right now. It is energy for awareness of the characteristics of realities which are appearing.
- The faculty of mindfulness, which is sati cetasika. It is a leader which prevents forgetfulness, it is mindful of the characteristics of realities which are appearing.
- The faculty of concentration, samādhi, which is ekaggatā cetasika. It is a leader in focusing on the object which is appearing.
- The faculty of wisdom, which is paññā cetasika. It is a leader in careful consideration, investigation and study of the characteristics of the realities which appear.
When the five faculties have been developed they become powerful and unshakable. They do not vacillate with regard to their task of considering whatever object appears. Then they can become "powers", balas. The powers are the following:
- The power of confidence, saddhā, which cannot be shaken by lack of confidence.
- The power of energy, viriya, which cannot be shaken by discouragement.
- The power of mindfulness, sati, which cannot be shaken by forgetfulness of the realities which appear.
- The power of concentration, samādhi, which cannot be shaken by distraction with regard to the object which appears.
- The power of wisdom, paññā, which cannot be shaken by ignorance.
Saddhā, viriya, sati and samādhi can become strong when paññā has become a power. When paññā thoroughly understands the characteristics of nama and rupa, it has become unshakable, it does not vacillate. When seeing appears paññā can realize its characteristic as nama, the reality, the element which experiences. It is the same with regard to hearing, smelling, tasting, the experience of tangible object and thinking; these can be realized as nama.
When paññā accompanied by sati considers the characteristics of nama and rupa over and over again, it becomes more accomplished, so that different stages of insight, vipassanā ñāṇas, can be reached. Then paññā is accompanied by seven factors of enlightenment, bojjhangas. These factors which lead to the realization of the noble Truths are the following:
- The enlightenment factor of mindfulness, sati cetasika.
- The enlightenment factor of investigation of Dhamma, Dhamma-vicaya. This is paññā cetasika.
- The enlightenment factor of energy, viriya cetasika.
- The enlightenment factor of rapture, pīti cetasika.
- The enlightenment factor of calm, passaddhi. These are the cetasikas which are calm of cetasikas, kāya-passaddhi, and calm of citta, citta-passaddhi.
- The enlightenment factor of concentration which is samādhi, ekaggatā cetasika.
- The enlightenment factor of equanimity, upekkhā, which is tatramajjhattatā cetasika.
When paññā has become accomplished to the degree that it can realize the noble Truths it is accompanied by these seven factors of enlightenment. Paññā reaches accomplishment by means of thirty-seven Dhammas pertaining to enlightenment, the bodhipakkhiya Dhammas. These are: the four applications of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four bases of success, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven factors of enlightenment and the eight Path-factors .
The lokuttara citta is accompanied by all eight Path-factors. These are the following cetasikas: sammā-diṭṭhi, right view, sammā-sankappa, right thinking, sammā-vāca, right speech, sammā-kammanta, right action, sammā-ājīva, right livelihood, sammā-vāyāma, right effort, sammā-sati, right mindfulness, and sammā-samādhi, right concentration. The lokuttara citta is accompanied by all the Dhammas pertaining to enlightenment, bodhipakkhiya Dhammas, when enlightenment is attained and nibbāna is experienced in a mind-door process. That process runs as follows:
- bhavanga-cittas , vipākacittas which are ñāṇa-sampayutta 
- bhavanga-calana, vibrating bhavanga, vipākacitta, ñāṇa-sampayutta
- bhavangupaccheda, arrest bhavanga, vipākacitta, ñāṇa-sampayutta
- manodvārāvajjana-citta which is kiriyacitta
- parikamma (preparatory), maha-kusala, ñāṇa-sampayutta
- upacāra (proximatory), maha-kusala, ñāṇa-sampayutta, of the same type as parikamma
- anuloma (adaptation), maha-kusala ñāṇa-sampayutta, of the same type as parikamma
- |gotrabhū (change-of-lineage  ), maha-kusala citta ñāṇa-sampayutta, of the same type as parikamma
- |sotapatti magga-citta, lokuttara kusala citta
- |sotapatti phala-citta, lokuttara vipākacitta
- |sotapatti phala-citta, lokuttara vipākacitta
- bhavanga-citta, vipākacitta, ñāṇa-sampayutta
In the case of lokuttara jhāna , the lokuttara jhānacitta is accompanied by the jhāna-factors of the stage of jhāna which was attained just before enlightenment. Thus, if there is lokuttara jhānacitta accompanied by the factors of the second stage of jhāna, vitakka cetasika, sammā-sankappa (right thinking) does not arise  . If there is lokuttara jhānacitta accompanied by the factors of the third stage of jhāna, vicāra cetasika (sustained thinking) does not arise. If there is lokuttara jhānacitta accompanied by the factors of the fourth stage of jhāna, pīti cetasika (rapture) does not arise. If there is lokuttara jhānacitta accompanied by the factors of the fifth stage of jhāna, there is upekkhā vedanā (indifferent feeling), instead of somanassa (pleasant feeling).
A person who is keen (tikkha puggala) and realizes the noble Truths rapidly, does not need parikamma (preparatory consciousness) in the process during which magga-citta arises. Thus, in that process there are upacāra (proximatory consciousness), anuloma (adaptation), gotrabhū (change-of-lineage), magga-citta, and then, instead of two moments of phala-citta, there are three moments of phala-citta  .
When the magga-vīthi-cittas have fallen away, there are bhavanga-cittas arising and falling away, and then there are processes of cittas reviewing the enlightenment which was attained (paccavekkhaṇa vīthi). There are five different processes of reviewing, and during one process at a time the cittas review the magga-citta, the phala-citta, nibbāna, the defilements which have been eradicated and the defilements which have not yet been eradicated.
When the magga-vīthi-cittas of the different stages of enlightenment have fallen away, they must be followed by processes of reviewing. Thus, the Aryan does not have wrong understanding with regard to his stage of enlightenment. The sotāpanna does not erroneously believe that he is a Sakadagami (once-returner, who has attained the second stage of enlightenment), and it is the same for the Sakadagami, the Anagami (non-returner, who has attained the third stage of enlightenment) and the arahat.
At the higher stages of enlightenment, following upon the stage of the sotāpanna, there is in the process of enlightenment instead of change-of-lineage, gotrabhū, "purification", vodāna. The reason is that the person who attains a higher stage of enlightenment is no longer an ordinary person.
Footnotes and references:
Vītikkama means transgression and kilesa means defilement.
Pariyuṭṭhāna is derived from pariyuṭṭhāti, to arise, to pervade.
Vikkhambhana means suppression, and pahāna means giving up, elimination.
Anusayati means to lie dormant.
Samuccheda means extirpation.
The Sangha is the order of monks, and the ariyan Sangha are all those who have attained enlightenment, be they monks or lay followers.
Anupassanā means consideration, contemplation. It is derived from passati, to see, to understand.
Nama and rupa which are included in the fourth application of mindfulness are classified under different aspects, such as the "hindrances", the five khandhas, the āyatanas.
Iddhi means power or success and pāda is foot or step. The iddhi-pādas in vipassanā are a basis for reaching enlightenment. They are among the thirty-seven factors pertaining to enlightenment, bodhipakkhiya Dhammas.
See the "Dispeller of Delusion", Sammohavinodanī, Commentary to the Book of Analysis, in the section on Iddhi-pādas (II, Ch 9).
In the classification of these thirty-seven Dhammas the same cetasikas occur several times, but they have been classified under different aspects and with different intensities. This shows how many qualities have to be developed so that there are conditions for the attainment of enlightenment.
The person who attains enlightenment was born with a paṭisandhi-citta accompanied by paññā, and thus all bhavanga-cittas are of the same type, vipākacitta which is ñāṇa-sampayutta.
It transcends the sense sphere so that the plane of lokuttara citta can be reached.
For those who have developed samatha and vipassanā. See Appendix to Citta.
See the section on Samatha.
Thus, altogether there are seven javana-cittas.