by Nārada Thera | 80,494 words | ISBN-13: 9789380336510
In the Abhidhammattha Sangaha there is a brief exposition of the Law of Dependent Origination, followed by a descriptive account of the Causal Relations that finds no parallel in any other philosophy. Edited in the original Pali Text with English Translation and Explanatory Notes by Narada Maha Thera....
- Janakam upatthambakam upapīlakam upaghātakañc' āti kiccavasena,
- Garukam āsannam ācinnam katattākammañc' āti pākadānapariyāyena,
- Ditthadhammavedanīyam upapajjavedanīyam aparāpariyavedanīyam ahosikammañc' āti pākakālavasena ca cattāri kammāni nāma.
- Tathā akusalam, Kāmāvacarakusalam, Rūpāvacarakusalam, Arūpāvacarakusalam c'āti pākatthānavasena.
Tattha akusalam kāyakammam, vacīkammam, manokammam c'āti kammadvāravasena tividham hoti.
- Pānātipāto, adinnādanam, kāmesu micchācāro ca kāyaviññātti sankhāte kāyadvāre bāhullavuttito kāyakammam nāma.
- Musāvādo, pisunavācā, pharusavācā, samphappalāpo c'āti vacīviññatti sankhāte vacīdvāre bāhullavuttito vacīkammam nāma.
- Abhijjhā, vyāpādo, micchāditthi c'āti aññatrā pi viññattiyā manasmim y' eva bāhullavuttito manokammam nāma.
- Tesu pānātipāto pharusavācā vyāpādo ca dosamūlena jāyanti. Kāmesu micchācāro abhijjhā micchāditthi lobhamūlena. Sesānī cattāri dvīhi mūlehi sambhavanti. Cittuppādavasena pan' etam akusalam sabbathā' pi dvādasasavidham hoti.
- Kāmāvacarakusalam pi ca kāyadvāre pavattam kāyakammam, vacīdvāre pavattam vacīkammam, manodvāre pavattam manokammam c'āti kammadvāravasena tividham hoti.
- Tathā dāna-sīla-bhāvana-vasena cittuppādavasena pan etam atthavidham pi.
- Dāna-sīla-bhavana-pacāyana-veyyāvacca-pattidāna-pattānumodana- dhammasavana-dhammadesana-ditthijjukammavasena dasavidham hoti.
- Tam pan' etam vīsatividham pi kāmāvacarakammam' icc' eva sankham gacchati.
- Rūpāvacarakusalam pana manokammam eva. Tañ ca bhāvanāmayam appanāppattam jhānangabhedena pañcavidham hoti.
- Tathā Arūpāvacarakusalañ ca manokammam. Tam'pi bhāvanāmayam appanāppattam ālambanabhedena catubbidham hoti.
- Ettha akusalakammam uddhaccarahitam apāyabhūmiyam patisandhim janeti. Pavattiyam pana sabbam pi dvā lasavidham. Sattā-kusalapākāni sabbatthā' pi kāmaloke rūpaloke ca yathāraham vipaccanti.
- Kāmāvacarakusalam pi ca kāmasugatiyam eva patisandhim janeti. Tathā pavattiyañ ca mahāvipākāni. Ahetukavipākāni pana attha' pi sabbatthā' pi kāmaloke rūpaloke ca yathāraham vipaccanti.
- Tatth' āpi tihetukam ukkattham kusalam tihetukam patisandhim datvā pavatte solasavipākāni vipaccati.
- Tihetukam omakam divihetukam ukkatthañ ca kusalam, dvihetukam patisandhim datvā pavatte tihetukarahitāni dvādasa vipākāni vipaccati. Dvihetukam omakam pana kusalam ahetukam eva patisandhim deti. Pavatte ca ahetukavipākān' eva vipaccati.
Asankhāram sasankhāra-vipākāni na paccati
Sasankhāram asankhāra-vipākānī' ti kecana.
Tesam dvādasapākāni dasattha ca yathākkamam,
Yathā vuttānusārena yathāsambhavam' uddise
Rūpāvacarakusalam pana pathamajjhānam parittam, bhāvetvā Brahmapārisajjesu uppajjanti. Tad eva majjhimam bhāvetvā Brahmapurohitesu, panītam bhāvetva, Mahā-Brahmesu.
Tathā dutiyajjhānam tatiyajjhānañ ca parittam bhāvetvā Parittābhesu. Majjhimam bhāvetvā Appamānābhesu; panītam bhāvetvā ā bhassaresu. Catutthajjhānam parittam bhāvetvā Parittasubhesu; majjhimam bhāvetvā Appamānasubhesu; panītam bhāvetvā Subhakinhesu. Pañcamajjhānam bhāvetvā Vehapphalesu.
Tam eva saññāvirāgam bhāvetvā Asaññāsattesu.
Anāgāmino pana Suddhāvāsesu uppajjanti.
Arūpāvacarakusalañ ca yathākkamam bhāvetvā āruppesu uppajjanti.
Ittham Mahāggatam puññam yathābhūmi vavatthitam Janeti sadisam pākam patisandhippavattiyam.
Idam ettha Kammacatukkam.
With respect to function there are four kinds of Kamma, namely,
- Reproductive Kamma (30),
- Supportive Kamma (31),
- Obstructive Kamma (32),
- and Destructive Kamma (33).
With respect to the order in which the effect of Kamma takes place, there are four kinds of Kamma, namely,
- Weighty Kamma (34),
- Proximate Kamma (35),
- Habitual Kamma (36),
- and Reserve Kamma (37).
With respect to the time of taking effect, there are four kinds of Kamma-namely,
- Immediately Effective Kamma (38),
- Subsequently Effective Kamma,
- Indefinitely Effective Kamma,
- and Defunct Kamma.
With respect to the place in which effect takes place, there are four kinds of Kamma, namely,
- Immoral Kamma,
- Moral Kamma pertaining to the Sense-sphere,
- Moral Kamma pertaining to the Rūpa plane,
- and Moral Kamma pertaining to the Arūpa plane.
Of them Immoral Kamma is threefold according to the doors of action, namely, bodily action, verbal action, and mental action.
Killing, stealing, and sexual misconduct, are bodily actions done generally (39) through the door of the body, known as bodily intimation (40).
Lying, slandering, harsh speech, and vain talk, are verbal actions done generally through the door of speech, known as verbal intimation (41).
Covetousness, ill will, and false belief (42), are mental actions done generally through the mind itself without (bodily or verbal) intimation.
Of them killing, harsh speech, and ill will, spring from the root of hatred; sexual misconduct, covetousness, and false belief (42), from the root of attachment; the remaining four arise from the two roots.
According to the classes of consciousness Immoral Kamma is twelve fold.
Moral Kamma of the Kāma-plane is threefold according to the doors of action, namely,
- deeds pertaining to the door of the body,
- verbal actions pertaining to the door of speech,
- mental actions pertaining to the door of the mind.
Similarly it is threefold as generosity, morality, and meditation. It is eight fold according to the classes of consciousness.
It is also tenfold according to
- transference of merit,
- rejoicing in (others) merit,
- hearing the doctrine,
- teaching the doctrine,
- and straightening one's views (43).
* Of these ten, (vi) and (vii) are included in generosity (dāna), (iv) and (v) in morality (sīla), (viii), (ix) and (x) in meditation (bhavana).
All these twenty kinds (immoral and moral) are regarded as Kamma pertaining to the kāma-plane.
Moral Kamma of the Rūpa-plane is purely mental action, and is caused by meditation. According to the jhāna factors that involve ecstasy it is fivefold.
Similarly moral Kamma of the Arūpa plane is mental action, and is also caused by meditation. According to the objects of jhāna that involve ecstasy it is fourfold. (See Ch. I.)
Herein immoral Kamma, excluding restlessness (uddhacca is too weak to produce rebirth.), causes rebirth in a Woeful State. But during lifetime all the twelve take effect (44), as the seven unwholesome resultants are experienced anywhere in the kāma plane or the rūpa plane according to circumstances.
Moral Kamma (45) of the kāma-plane produces rebirth in the blissful kāma-plane. Similarly the eight Great Resultants (are experienced in the blissful kāma-plane) during lifetime. The eight (wholesome) rootless resultants are experienced anywhere in the kāma-plane or rūpa-plane according to circumstances.
Therein the highest moral Kamma (46), accompanied by three roots, produces rebirth similarly accompanied by the three roots. During lifetime it gives effect to sixteen kinds of resultants (the eight Beautiful and eight Rootless resultants).
Moral Kamma, accompanied by three roots of a lower class (47), and by two roots of a higher class, produces rebirth with two roots, and gives effect to twelve resultants, excluding those with three roots, during lifetime.
But moral Kamma, accompanied by two roots of a lower class, produces rebirth without roots, and gives effect to rootless resultants during lifetime.
Unprompted moral consciousness does not produce a prompted resultant. Some say that a prompted moral consciousness does not produce and unprompted resultant.
Some (teachers) (48) say that unprompted thoughts do not produce prompted resultants and prompted thoughts do not produce unprompted resultants.
According to them, as stated above, the arising of the resultants, in due order, twelve, ten and eight (49), should be set forth.
As regards moral Kamma of the rūpa-plane those who develop the first jhāna to a minor degree are born amongst Brahma's Retinue. Developing the same to a medium degree, they are born amongst Brahma's Ministers. Developing them to a high degree they are born amongst the Mahā Brahma gods.
Similarly, developing the second jhāna and the third jhāna to a minor degree, they are born amongst the gods of Minor Lustre. Developing them to a medium degree, they are born amongst gods of Infinite Lustre. Developing them to a high degree, they are born amongst the Radiant gods.
Developing the fourth jhāna to a minor degree, they are born amongst the gods of Minor Aura. Developing it to a medium degree, they are born amongst gods full of Unlimited Aura. Developing it to a high degree, they are born amongst gods of Steady Aura.
Developing the fifth jhāna they are born amongst the gods of the Great Reward.
Developing it with no attachment to consciousness, they are born amongst beings without consciousness.
The Never-Returners are born in the Pure Abodes (50).
Developing moral Kamma pertaining to the Formless sphere, they are born in Formless Spheres in corresponding order.
Thus sublimated merit, determined according to sphere, produces similar results (both) at rebirth and in one's lifetime.
Herein this is the fourfold Kamma.
29. Kamma, Sanskrit Karma, lit. means action, of doing. Strictly speaking, Kamma means all moral and immoral volition (cetanā). It covers all that is included in the phrase - "thought, word and deed". It is the law of moral causation. In other words, it is action and reaction in the ethical realm, or "action influence" as Westerners say. It is not fate or predestination. It is one's own doing reacting on oneself.
Every volitional action, except that of a Buddha or of an Arahat, is called Kamma. The Buddhas and Arahats do not accumulate fresh Kamma as they have eradicated ignorance and craving, the roots of Kamma.
Kamma is action, and Vipāka, fruit or result, is its reaction. It is the cause and the effect. Like a seed is Kamma. Vipāka (effect) is like the fruit arising from the tree. As we sow, we reap somewhere and sometime in this life or in a future birth. What we reap today is what we have sown either in the present or in the past.
Kamma is a law in itself, and it operates in its own field without the intervention of an external independent ruling agency.
Inherent in Kamma is the potentiality of producing its due effect. The cause produces the effect; the effect explains the cause. The seed produces the fruit; the fruit explains the seed; such is their relationship. Even so are Kamma and its effect: "the effect already blooms in the cause".
According to Abhidhamma, Kamma constitutes the twelve types of immoral consciousness, eight types of moral consciousness pertaining to the Sense-sphere (kāmāvacara), five types of moral consciousness pertaining to the Realms of Forms (rūpāvacara), and four types of moral consciousness pertaining to the Formless Realms (arūpāvacara).
The eight types of supramundane consciousness (lokuttara citta) are not regarded as Kamma and vipāka, because they tend to eradicate the roots of Kamma that condition rebirth. In the supramundane consciousness wisdom (paññā) is predominant, while in the ordinary types of consciousness volition (cetanā) is predominant.
These twenty-nine types of consciousness are called Kamma because the reproductive power is inherent in them. Just as every object is accompanied by a shadow, even so every volitional activity is accompanied by its due effect.
These types of consciousness that are experienced as inevitable consequences of good and bad thoughts, are called resultant consciousness (vipāka). The 23 types (7+8+8) of resultant consciousness pertaining to the Sense-sphere, the five types of resultant consciousness pertaining to the Realms of Form, and the four types of resultant consciousness pertaining to the Formless Realms, are called vipāka or fruition of Kamma.
(See The Life of the Buddha and his Teachings, pp. 333-391, and Manual of Buddhism, pp. 19-88)
30. Every birth is conditioned by a past good or bad Kamma which predominates at the moment of death. The Kamma that conditions the future birth is called Reproductive (Janaka) Kamma.
The death of a person is merely "the temporary end of a temporary phenomenon". Though the present form perishes, another form which is neither the same nor absolutely different, takes its place according to the potential thought-vibrations generated at the death moment, as the Kammic force which propels the life-flux still survives. It is this last thought, which is technically called Reproductive Kamma, that determines the state of a person in his subsequent birth. This may be either a good or bad Kamma.
According to the commentary, Janaka Kamma is that which produces mental aggregates and material aggregates at the moment of conception. The initial consciousness, which is termed the patisandhi viññāna (rebirth-consciousness), is conditioned by this Janaka Kamma. Simultaneous with the arising of the rebirth-consciousness there arise the body-decade, sex-decade, and base-decade (kāya-bhāva-vatthu dasaka).
The body-decade is composed of the four elements - namely,
- the element of extension (pathavi),
- the element of cohesion (āpo),
- the element of heat (tejo),
- the element of motion (vāyo);
their four derivatives (upādārūpa) - namely,
- colour (vanna),
- odour (gandha),
- taste (rasa),
- nutritive essence (ojā);
vitality (jīvitindriya), and body (kāya). The sex-decade and the base-decade also consist of the first nine plus sex (bhāva) and seat of consciousness (vatthu) respectively.
From this it is evident that the sex is determined at the very conception of a being. I t is conditioned by Kamma and is not a fortuitous combination of sperm and ovum cells. Pain and happiness, which one experiences in the course of one's lifetime, are the inevitable consequences of Janaka Kamma.
31. Upatthambhaka - that which comes near the Reproductive Kamma and supports it. It is either good or bad, and it assists or maintains the action of the Reproductive Kamma in the course of one's lifetime. Immediately after the conception till the death moment, this Kamma steps forward to support the Reproductive Kamma. A moral Supportive Kamma assists in giving health, wealth, happiness, etc., to the person concerned. An immoral Supportive Kamma, on the other hand, assists in giving pain, sorrow, etc., to the person born with an immoral Reproductive Kamma as, for instance, to a beast of burden.
32. Upapīdaka - Obstructive or Counteractive Kamma which, unlike the previous one, tends to weaken, interrupt and retard the fruition of the Reproductive Kamma. For instance, a person born with a good Reproductive Kamma maybe subject to various ailments, etc., thus preventing him from enjoying the blissful results of his good action. An animal, on the other hand, who is born with a bad Reproductive Kamma, may lead a comfortable life by getting good food, lodging, etc., as a result of his good Counteractive Kamma preventing the fruition of the evil Reproductive Kamma.
33. Upaghātaka - According to the Law of Kamma the potential energy of the Reproductive Kamma could be nullified by a more powerful opposing Kamma of the past, which, seeking an opportunity, may quite unexpectedly operate, just as a counteractive powerful force can obstruct the path of a flying arrow and bring it down to the ground. Such an action is called Destructive Kamma, which is more effective than the previous two in that it not only obstructs but also destroys the whole force. This Destructive Kamma also may be either good or bad.
As an instance of the operation of all four, the case of Devadatta, who attempted to kill the Buddha and who caused a schism in the Sangha, may be cited. His good Reproductive Kamma conditioned him a birth in a royal family. His continued comforts and prosperity were due to the action of the Supportive Kamma. The counteractive Kamma came into operation when he was subject to much humiliation as a result of his being excommunicated from the Sangha. Finally the Destructive Kamma brought his life to a miserable end.
34. Garuka - which means either weighty or serious, may be either good or bad. It produces its results in this life, or in the next for certain. If good, it is purely mental as in the case of the jhānas. Otherwise it is verbal or bodily. The five kinds of immoral Weighty Kamma according to their gravity are: - (i) the creation of a schism in the Sangha, (ii) the wounding of a Buddha, (iii) the murder of an Arahat, (iv) matricide, and (v) parricide.
These are also known as ānantariya Kamma because they definitely produce their effects in the subsequent life. Permanent Skepticism (niyata micchāditthi) is also termed one of the Weighty Kammas.
If, for instance, any person were to develop the jhānas and later were to commit one of these heinous crimes, his good Kamma would be obliterated by the powerful evil Kamma. His subsequent birth would be conditioned by the evil Kamma in spite of his having gained the jhānas earlier. Devadatta lost his psychic powers and was born in an evil state, because he wounded the Buddha and caused a schism in the Sangha.
King Ajātasattu would have attained the first stage of sainthood if he had not committed parricide. In this case the powerful evil Kamma acted as an obstacle to his gaining sainthood.
35. āsanna, or Death-proximate Kamma, is that which one does or remembers immediately before the dying moment. Owing to its significance in determining the future birth, the custom of reminding the dying person of his good deeds and making him do good acts on his death-bed still prevails in Buddhist countries.
Sometimes a bad person may die happily and receive a good birth if fortunately he remembers or does a good act at the last moment. A story runs that a certain executioner, who casually happened to give some alms to the Venerable Sāriputta, remembered this good act at the dying moment and was born in a state of bliss. This does not mean that although he enjoys a good birth he will be exempt from the effects of the evil deeds accumulated during his lifetime. They will have their due effects as occasions arise.
At times a good person may die unhappily by suddenly remembering an evil act of his or by harbouring some unpleasant thought, perchance compelled by unfavourable circumstances. Queen Mallikā, the consort of King Pasenadi, led a righteous life, but as a result of remembering, at her death moment, a lie which she had uttered, she had to suffer for about seven days in a state of misery.
These are only exceptional cases. Such reverse changes of birth account for the birth of virtuous children to vicious parents and of vicious children to virtuous parents. As a rule the last thought-process is conditioned by the general conduct of a person.
36. ācinna Kamma is that which one habitually performs and recollects and for which one has a great liking.
Habits, whether good or bad, become second nature. They tend to form the character of a person. At leisure moments we often engage ourselves in our habitual thoughts and deeds. In the same way at the death-moment, unless influenced by other circumstances, we, as a rule, recall to mind such thoughts and deeds.
Cunda, a butcher, who was living in the vicinity of the Buddha's Monastery, died squealing like a pig because he was earning his living by slaughtering pigs.
King Dutthagāmani of Ceylon was in the habit of giving alms to the Bhikkhus before he took his meals. It was this habitual Kamma that gladdened him at the dying moment and gave him birth in the Tusita Realm.
37. Katattā - Reserve or Cumulative Kamma. Literally, it means "because done". All actions that are done once and soon forgotten belong to this category. This is as it were the reserve fund of a particular being.
38. Ditthadhammavedanāya Kamma is that which is experienced in this particular life. Ditthadhamma means this present life.
According to Abhidhamma one does both good and evil during the javana process which usually lasts for seven thought-moments. The effect of the first thought-moment, being the weakest, one may reap in this life itself. This is called the Immediately Effective Kamma. If it does not operate in this life, it is called Defunct or Ineffective (ahosi). The next weakest is the seventh thought-moment. Its evil effect one may reap in the subsequent birth. This is called Upapajjavedanīya Kamma. This, too, becomes ineffective if it does not operate in the second birth. The effects of the intermediate thought-moments may take place at any time until one attains Nibbāna. This type of Kamma is known as Aparāpariyavedanīya - Indefinitely Effective. No one, not even the Buddhas and Arahats, is exempt from this class of Kamma, which one may experience in the course of one's wanderings in Samsāra. There is no special class of Kamma known as ahosi, but when such actions that should produce their effects in the present life or in a subsequent life do not operate, they are termed Ineffective.
39. Bāhullavuttito - This term is used because these actions may be done through the other doors as well.
40. Kāyaviññatti - expressing the intention through bodily movements.
41. Vacīviññatti - expressing the intention through speech.
42. By false beliefs are meant the following three misconceptions:
- Everything has sprung without a cause (ahetuka ditthi).
- Good and bad produce no effect (akiriya ditthi) and
- There is no after-life (natthika ditthi).
43. i.e., by viewing rightly, such as, "it is beneficial to give alms," etc.
44. The evil effects of the twelve types of immoral consciousness are the seven types of rootless resultant consciousness. They may take effect in the course of one's lifetime.
45. The desirable effects of moral actions are the eight types of Rootless resultant consciousness and the eight types of Beautiful resultant consciousness. The effects of the eight types of moral consciousness may not only serve as rebirth consciousness but also give rise to different types of resultant consciousness in the course of one's lifetime.
46. Ukkattha - lit., up (u) drawn (Ö kas). A highest class of moral Kamma is that which is attended with good causes before and after the commission of the act. For instance, alms given to the most virtuous with righteously obtained wealth, with no later repentance, is considered a 'highest' moral Kamma.
47. Omaka - Inferior. While giving alms one may experience a moral consciousness with the three good roots. But, if he were to give to the vicious with unrighteously obtained wealth, and with later repentance, it is regarded as an inferior Kamma.
48. They are the teachers of the school of Mahādhammarakkhita Thera of Moravapi Monastery in Ceylon.
- Twelve - 8 ahetuka vipākas and either 4 Prompted Resultants or 4 Unprompted Resultants.
- Ten - 8 ahetuka vipākas and 2 prompted or 2 unprompted resultants unaccompanied by wisdom.
- Eight - 8 ahetukas.
50. The Sotāpannas and Sakadāgāmis, who develop the fifth jhāna, are born in the Vehapphala plane. But those Sotāpannas and Sakadāgāmis, who develop a dispassion for material existence, are born in formless realms.
The Anāgāmis, who have developed the fifth jhāna and who possess the five faculties such as confidence, energy, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom to an equal degree, are born in the Vehapphala plane. Those who surpass in confidence (saddhā) are born in the Aviha plane; those who surpass in energy (viriya) in the Atappa plane; those who surpass in mindfulness (sati) in the Sudassa plane; those who surpass in concentration (samādhi) in the Suddassi plane; and those who surpass in wisdom (paññā) in the Akanittha plane.
There is no fixed rule that Anāgāmis are not born in other suitable planes.
(Te pana aññattha na nibbattantīti niyamo natthi. - Comm.)
"Dry-visioned" (sukkha-vipassaka) Anāgāmis, who have followed the contemplation course, develop jhānas before death and are consequently born in the Pure Abodes.