The Book of Am-Tuat

 . Chapter I - The First Division Of The Tuat (Which Is Called Net-ra)

[Page 3] IN the scene that illustrates the FIRST DIVISION of the Tuat, which is passed through by the Sun-god during the FIRST HOUR of the night, we see that the centre of the middle section is divided lengthwise into two parts by a river which flows along it. In the upper part is the boat of the dead Sun-god AF, who is in the form of a rain-headed man; he wears a disk upon his head, and stands within a shrine in the SEKTET boat, i.e., the boat in which the god travels [Page 4] from noon to sunset.

In front of the shrine in the boat stand the three deities, AP-UAT, SA, and the "Lady of the Boat," who wears on her head a disk and horns. Behind the shrine stand five gods, each having the head of a man; the names of the first four are HERU-HEKENU, KA-SHU, i.e., the "double of Shu," NEHES, i.e., the "Look-out," and HU, and the fifth is the Steersman KHERP.

On the high prow of the Sektet boat hangs an object which is said to be a carpet by some, and a reed mat by others, and on the side, near the curve of the prow, is an utchat.Boat Of Af

Image right 1: The Boat of Af, the dead Sun-god. (Right) Maati goddesses. Neken-f.
Image right 2:
The gods Khenti-Amentet, Sekhet, Sebeteh-ur, the Four-Terms, and Teha-Unnut.

In front of the boat march: (see 2 images right)

  1. The two goddesses MAAT, the one representing the South of Egypt, and the other the North.
  2. The god NEKENT-F, who holds a spear, or knife, in his left hand.
  3. The god KHENTI AMENTET, bearded, and in mummy form, and wearing the White Crown and the Menat.
  4. The god SEKHET, or as it is written here SEKHMET, lioness-headed.
  5. The god SEHETCH-UR, ram-headed.
  6. Four Terms:
    the first of which is called UT-METU-RA,
    [Page 5] the second UT-METU-TEM,
    the third UT-METU-KHEPERA, and
    the fourth UT-METU-ASAR.
  7. The leader of the company, who is called TCHA-UNNUT; by his side is a serpent, called SA (?), that stands on his tail.


This scene is explained by the horizontal line of inscription written above it, and the hieroglyphic text, based on the editions of Lefébure and Champollion, reads:

[Page 6] "The name of this Field is 'MAATI.'

This god arriveth in the SEKTET BOAT, he maketh a way through the Court of this city, which is two hundred and twenty measures in length, which he travelleth through to URNES. He passeth through the water, which is three hundred measures in extent, and he bestoweth the fields upon the gods who follow him.

NET-RA is the name of this Field, ARNEBAUI is the name of the guardian [of this Field]. This god beginneth to declare in this region the words which perform the destinies (?) of those who are in the Tuat."

In the lower part of the middle section of the scene we have another boat, in the centre. of which is a beetle; on one side of the beetle is a god with his knees in the direction of the prow of the boat, but having his head turned behind him and his hands raised in adoration of the beetle, and on the other is a god who also has his hands raised in adoration of the same object.

The legend reads "the coming into being of Osiris"; as the boat has [Page 7] no reed mat or carpet hanging from the prow, we may assume that it is intended to represent the Atet or Matet Boat, i.e., the boat in which the Sun-god travelled over the sky from sunrise to noon.Boat Of Osiris

Image right 1: The Boat of the Birth of Osiris, with serpents and gods.
Image right 2: Gods in the procession of the Boat of the Birth of Osiris.

In front of the boat glide three serpents, which are called SEK-RE, SEFA, and NEPEN, and in front of these march four man-headed gods and two hawk-headed gods, each with a serpent in his left hand, a god called NABTI, who holds a crook in each hand, NET, or NEITH, goddess [Page 8] of the South, NET, or NEITH, goddess of the North, and the goat goddess ARTET.

The two hawk-headed gods are called TCHATUI and METI, and the four following gods ABENTI, BENBETI, SEKHTI, and SEKHET (?).

The explanation of this scene is given by the horizontal line of hieroglyphic text written above it, which reads:

"[The god cometh to] this Court, he passeth through it in the form of a ram, and he maketh his transformations therein. After he hath passed through this Court, the dead who are in his following do not [go with him], but they remain in this Court, and he speaketh [Page 9] words unto the gods who are therein.

If copies of these things be made according to the ordinances of the hidden house, and after the manner of that which is ordered in the hidden house, they shall act as magical protectors to the man who maketh them."

First Hour Upper

In the upper register are the following:

Image right 1: (Left) The nine Ape-warders. (Right) The twelve goddesses of the gates.
Image right 2: (Left) The nine praisers of Ra. (Right) The twelve goddesses who guide Ra.

I. Nine apes, who are described as "the gods who open the gates to the Great Soul,"

Their names are:

  1. UN-TA,
  2. BA-TA,
  3. MAA-EN-RA,
  4. ABTA,
  5. ABABEN,
  6. AKEN-AB,
  7. BENTH,
  8. AFA,
  9. TCHEHTCHEH.


II. Twelve divine beings, who are. described as the "goddesses who unfold the portals in the earth,"

Their names are:

  1. QAT-A,
  2. NEBT-MEKET,
  3. SEKHIT,
  4. AMENT-URT,
  5. [Page 10] SHEFTU,
  6. REN-THETHEN,
  7. HEKENT-EM-SA-S,
  8. QAT-EM-KHU-S,
  9. SEKHET-EM-KHEFIU-S,
  10. HUIT,
  11. HUNT,
  12. NEBT-ANKH.
     

Each goddess stands with her arms hanging by her sides.

[Page 11] III. Nine seated gods, each with his hands raised in adoration of Ra; they are called the "gods who praise Ra."

IV. Twelve divine beings, in the form of women, who are described as "the goddesses who guide the great god."

Their names are:

  1. TENTENIT,
  2. SBAI,
  3. MAT-NEFERU-NEB-SET,
  4. KHESEFET-SMATET,
  5. KHUAI,
  6. MAKET-ARI-S,
  7. URT-AMT-TUAT,
  8. HER-AB-UAA-SET,
  9. [Page 12] MESPERIT,
  10. USHEM-HAT-KHEFTIU-S,
  11. SHESET-KERH-MAKET-NEB-S,
  12. TESET-TESHERU,


 

In the lower register are the following:First Hour Lower

Image right: (Left) The nine singing apes. (Right) The twelve light-giving uraei.
Image right: (Left) The nine praisers of RA. (Right) The twelve goddesses who sing to RA.

I. Nine seated apes, who are described as the "gods [Page 13] who sing to Ra as he entereth into the Tuat,"

Their names are:

  1. AM-KAR,
  2. KHENTI-SHE-F,
  3. HEN,
  4. HEKEN-EM-BEN-F.
  5. ,
  6. . . . . . . .
  7. HETHTI,
  8. PA-THETH,
  9. . . . . . . .

 

II. Twelve serpents, who throw fire forth from their mouths, and are described as "those who make light [Page 14] the darkness in the Tuat."

Their names are:

  1. BESIT,
  2. HETEPIT,
  3. (illegible).
  4. KHUT-MU,
  5. HESEQ-KHEFTI-SET,
  6. NEFERT-KHA,
  7. MERT-NESER,
  8. BEHENT,
  9. AP-SHE,
  10. NESERT,
  11. AP-AST,
  12. SHENIT.


III. Nine man-headed gods, with their hands raised in adoration, who are described as the "gods who praise [RA], the lord of the company of the gods,"

Their names are:

  1. KA-TUAT,
  2. HETEM-AB,
  3. ARA,
  4. AAU,
  5. HEMHEM,
  6. KA-NETERU,
  7. TUATI,
  8. HEKENNU-RA,
  9. AA-ATER.

[Page 15] IV. Twelve goddesses, with their arms hanging by their sides, who are described as "those who give praises to RA as he passeth over URNES,"

Their names are:

  1. MAA-NETER-S,
  2. ART-NETER-S,
  3. HEKENT,
  4. NET,
  5. APERT-RE,
  6. 6. AB,
  7. 7. NEBT-HET,
  8. 8. HRA-SENI,
  9. 9. TEFNUT,
  10. 10. NUTET,
  11. 11. AMENT,
  12. 12. AST.

 

[Page 16] The Address which the Sun-god makes to the gods in the First Division of the Tuat reads: 1

[Page 17] [Page 18] I. The Majesty of this god standeth up after he hath taken up his position in this Court, and he addresseth words to the gods who are therein, saying,

"Open ye to me your doors, and let me come into your Courts!

Give ye light unto me, and make ye yourselves guides to me,
O ye who came into being, from my members,
my word hath gone forth to you.

Ye are made of my bodies,
I have made you,
having fashioned you of my soul,
I have created you,
I have made you by means [Page 19] of my enchantments,
[and] I have come to avenge myself the blood of my members which have risen up against me,
and I will bring to destruction that which hath been made for it.

I will make perfect with the . . . . . . of my forms Osiris Khenti Amenti.

Open to me the doors with your hands,
O ye Apes, unfold to me the portals of the Courts,
O ye Apes, [and welcome] the gods (or, goddesses) who have come into being from my divine Souls,
come ye into being,
come ye into being for(?) KHEPERA,
O ye who have your being at the head of the Tuat.

Stand ye up, in URNES, and stablish ye yourselves on the secret banks thereof,
and work ye for the gods of Tuat in the Court which ye guard,
possess ye your plans in your seats, in your domains and in your fields."

The gods of this Court say unto Ra,

"O great god, [the doors] are opened to thee,
and the portals of the secret Ament are thrown open before thee,
the doors of Nut the great are thrown wide open,
illumine thou the darkness of night (or, thick darkness),
provide for that which is in the place of destruction,
and approach thou in thy name of Ra the place where is OSIRIS KHENTI AMENTI.

There is a shout of joy to Ra at the entrance to the doors of the earth (?).
Praise be to thee and make thou perfect the light,
and enter thou [in through the habitations] of the Great Country.

The Apes (ambenti) open the doors to thee,
the Apes (amhetetu) unfold to thee the portals,
the serpents sing, and exalt thee,
and the divine serpents [Page 20] lighten thy darkness for thee . . . . . . . O Ra,
the goddess of the hour cometh to thee,
the two SOUL GODDESSES tow thee along in thy form,
and thou takest up thy position on the ground of the Field of [this] land.

Thou hast taken possession of the night,
and thou wilt bring in the day,
and [thou] dost likewise make long the hours,
and thy boat cometh to rest.

Thou seizest the grain of the god HENBET in thy secret place (?) NET.

Thou openest NET-RA,
thou uncoverest the god TCHEBA,
the uraeus goddesses (neterit) of URNES acclaim thee,
the uraeus goddesses (nehenuit) ascribe praise to thee,
thy word is maat against thine enemies,
thou givest tribulations to those who are condemned."

The Majesty of this god uttereth words after he hath come forth into this Court, he doeth battle at the fortifications thereof, the doors of this [Court] are strong, saying,

"Shut [your doors] by your bolts.
Come ye to me, advance ye to me,
make ye your way [to me],
and ye shall abide in your place;
take ye up your stand on the banks of the stream [URNES]."

This great god passeth them by, and they (i.e., the gods) wail when he hath gone by them in the FIELD OF URNES.

[The goddess of] the hour who guideth [this great god] through this Court is "USHEM-HAT-KHEFTIU-NU-RA,"