The Mandukya Upanishad with Gaudapada’s Karika and Shankara’s Commentary
Kārikā, verse 3.44
लये संबोधयेच्चित्तं विक्षिप्तं शमयेत्पुनः ।
सकषायं विजानीयात्समप्राप्तं न चालयेत् ॥ ४४ ॥
laye saṃbodhayeccittaṃ vikṣiptaṃ śamayetpunaḥ |
sakaṣāyaṃ vijānīyātsamaprāptaṃ na cālayet || 44 ||
44. If the mind becomes inactive in a state of oblivion awaken it again. If it is distracted,, bring it back to the state of tranquillity. (In the intermediary state) know the mind containing within it desires in potential form. If the mind has attained to the state of equilibrium, then do not disturb it again.
When1 the mind is immersed in oblivion, i.e., in Suṣupti, then rouse it up by means of knowledge and by detachment. That is to say, turn the mind to the exercise of discrimination which leads to the knowledge of the Self. The word “Chitta” in the text bears the same meaning as “Manas” or mind. Bring2 the mind back to the state of tranquillity if it is distracted by the various objects of desires. When the mind is thus, by constant practice, awakened from the state of inactivity and also turned back from all objects, but not yet established in equilibrium,3 that is to say, when the mind still dwells in an intermediary state,—then know4 the mind to be possessed of attachment. Then the mind contains within it the seeds of desires for enjoyment and inactivity. From5 that state also, bring the mind, with care, to the realisation of equilibrium. Once the mind hás realised the state of equilibrium, that is, when it is on the way to realise that state, then do not disturb it again. In other words, do not turn it to (by attachment) external objects.
Ānandagiri’s Ṭīkā (glossary):
1 When the, etc.—This is the warning given against pursuing the Yogic Samādhi as the state of the highest spiritual realisation. The mind seeking Truth and frightened at the immensity of effort necessary for its realisation often seeks relief in Samādhi. The commentator exhorts us to practise discrimination even when the mind passes into the passivity of Samādhi and to extricate it from that state by cultivating the spirit of non-attachment to any pleasure experienced in the state of Samādhi. The object of life is not to enjoy any bliss arising out of inactivity as one experiences in Samādhi or deep sleep, but to know the real nature of the Self.
2 Bring, etc.—The Yogic method may be followed with certain advantages by the student of mediocre intellect who wants to turn his turbulent mind from the pursuit of external objects. The Yogic method gives him control over his mind. But even in such a case, Yoga serves only a temporary or subordinate purpose.
3 Equilibrium—The non-dual Brahman which is characterised by sameness throughout.
4 Know, etc.—This is another state of the mind. In this state the mind is roused from the state of inactivity. It is also withdrawn from objects. But it has not yet realised its identity with the non-dual Brahman. In this intermediary state, the mind con-tàins, in potential form, the desires for the enjoyment of external objects or the bliss in a state of inactivity.
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