Yoga, 16 Definition(s)
Yoga is a Sanskrit word which means "union" and is interpreted as "union with the divine". One of the most detailed and thorough expositions on the subject is the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali, which defines yoga as "the stilling of the changing states of the mind" (Sanskrit: yogaḥ citta-vṛtti nirodhaḥ). Yoga is also interpreted as the yoke that connects beings to the machine of existence.
In Vedic Sanskrit, the more commonly used, literal meaning of the Sanskrit word yoga which is "to add", "to join", "to unite", or "to attach" from the root yuj, already had a much more figurative sense, where the yoking or harnessing of oxen or horses takes on broader meanings such as "employment, use, application, performance" (compare the figurative uses of "to harness" as in "to put something to some use"). All further developments of the sense of this word are post-Vedic. More prosaic moods such as "exertion", "endeavour", "zeal" and "diligence" are also found in Epic Sanskrit. There are very many compound words containing yog in Sanskrit. Yoga can take on meanings such as "connection", "contact", "method", "application", "addition" and "performance".
In Hindu philosophy, the word yoga is used to refer to one of the six orthodox (āstika) schools of Hindu philosophy. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali are often labelled as Rāja yoga.
According to Pāṇini, a 6th-century BCE Sanskrit grammarian, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga (to yoke) or yuj samādhau (to concentrate). In the context of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, the root yuj samādhau (to concentrate) is considered by traditional commentators as the correct etymology.
In accordance with Pāṇini, Vyasa (c. 4th or 5th century CE), who wrote the first commentary on the Yoga Sutras, states that yoga means samādhi (concentration).
In other texts and contexts, such as the Bhagavad Gītā and the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the word yoga has been used in conformity with yujir yoge (to yoke). Someone who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy with a high level of commitment is called a yogi or yogini.
This word, derived from the root Yuj (“to join”), is in grammer samdhi, in logic avayavaśakti, or the power of the parts taken together and in its most widely known and present sense the union of the jīva or embodied spirit, with the Paramātmā, or Supreme Spirit, and the practices by which this union may be attained. There is a natural yoga, in which all beings are, for it is only by virtue of this identity in fact that they exist. Yoga is variously named according to the methods employed, but the two main divisions are those of the haṭhayoga (or ghaṭasthayoga) and samādhiyoga, of which rājayoga is one of the forms.
Yoga (Sanskrit: yoga, 'union') is a combination of planets placed in a specific relationship to each other.
Rāja Yogas are givers of fame, status and authority and are formed typically by the association of the Lord of Keṅdras/ quadrants, when reckoned from the Lagna/ ascendant, and the Lords of the Tṛkoṇa/ trines. The Rāja Yogas are culminations of the blessings of Viṣṇu and Lakṣmī. Some planets, such as Mars for Leo Lagna, do not need another Graha to create Rājayoga, but are capable of giving Rājayoga suo-moto due to their own lordship of the 4th Bhāva and the 9th Bhāva from the Lagna, the two being a Keṅdra and Tṛkoṇa Bhāva respectively.
Dhana Yogas are formed by the association of wealth-giving planets such as the Dhaneśa or the 2nd Lord and the Lābheśa or the 11th Lord from the Lagna. Dhana Yogas are also formed due to the auspicious placement of the Dārāpada/ A7, when reckoned from the Ārūḍha Lagna (AL). The combination of the Lagneśa and the Bhāgyeśa also leads to wealth through the Lakṣmī Yoga.
Sanyāsa Yogas are formed due to the placement of four or more Grahas, excluding the Sun, in a Keṅdra Bhāva from the Lagna.
There are some overarching Yogas in Jyotiṣa such as Amāvasyā Doṣa, Kāla Sarpa Yoga-Kāla Amṛta Yoga and Graha Mālika Yoga that can take precedence over planetary placements in the horoscope.
Yoga, (Vedic yoga, see etym. under yuga & yuñjati. Usually m.; pl. nt. yogāni occurs at D. II, 274 in meaning “bonds”) lit. “yoking, or being yoked, ” i.e. connection, bond, means; fig. application, endeavour, device.—1. yoke, yoking (rare?) J. VI, 206 (meant here the yoke of the churning-sticks; cp. J. VI, 209).—2. con‹-› nection with (-°), application to; (natural) relation (i.e. body, living connection), association; also conjunction (of stars). mānusaka yoga the relation to the world of men (the human body), opp. dibba yoga: S. I, 35=60; Sn. 641; Dh. 417; expld at DhA. IV, 225 as “kāya. ” ‹-› association with: D. III, 176; application: Vism. 520 (+uppāda). yogato (Abl.) from being connected with, by association with PvA. 40 (bālya°), 98 (sammappadhāna°).—pubba° connection with a former body, one’s former action or life-history J. V, 476; VI, 480; Miln. 2. See pubbe1.—aḍḍhayoga a “half-connected” building, i.e. a half-roofed monastery Vin. I, 239; Vism. 34.—nakkhatta° a conjunction of planets, peculiar constellation (in astrology) J. I, 82, 253 (dhana-vassāpanaka suitable for a shower of wealth); III, 98; DhA. I, 174; DhsA. 232 (in simile).—3. (fig.) bond, tie; attachment (to the world and its lusts), or what yokes to rebirth (Cpd. 1712). There are 4 yogas, which are identical with the 4 oghas viz. kāma°, bhava°, diṭṭhi°, avijjā°, or the bonds of craving, existence, false views, and ignorance; enumd in detail at A. II, 10; D. III, 230, 276; J. I, 374; cp. Ps. I, 129 (catūhi yogehi yutto lokasannivāso catu-yoga-yojito); VbhA. 35. Mentioned or referred to at S. V, 59; Dhs. 1059 (ogha+, in defn of taṇhā), cp, Dhs. trsln 308; Nett 31 (with ogha), 114 (id.); as sabba- (or sabbe) yogā at Th. 2, 4; 76; S. I, 213; DhA. III, 233; severally at It. 95 (bhava-yoga-yutta āgāmī hoti, +kāma°); ogha+yoga: Pug. 21 (avijjā°); Vism. 211, 684; cp. also D. II, 274 (pāpima-yogāni the ties of the Evil one); It. 80 (yogā pamocenti bahujanaṃ).—4. application, endeavour, undertaking, effort DhA. III, 233, 234 (=samma-ppadhāna). yogaṃ karoti to make an effort, to strive after (Dat.) S. II, 131; A. II, 93 (āsavānaṃ khayāya y. karaṇīya); Miln. 35. yogaṃ āpajjati to show (earnest) endeavour, to be active S. III, 11 sq.; Vbh. 356 (attanā).—dhamma° one who is devoted to the Dhamma A. III, 355; yutta° (bent on, i.e. ) earnest in endeavour J. I, 65; yāca° given to making offerings: see yāca.—5. pondering (over), concentration, devotion M. I, 472; Dh. 209 (=yoniso manasikāra DhA. III, 275), 282 (same expln at DhA. III, 421); Miln. 3; Vbh. 324 (yoga-vihitesu kamm’& sipp’—āyatanesu; VbhA. 410 expls: y. vuccati paññā;— perhaps better to above 4?).—6. (magic) power, influence, device, scheme J. VI, 212 (yoga-yogena practice of spells etc. =tāya tāya yuttiyā C.); PvA. 117 (combd with manta, ascribed to devas).—7. means, instrument, remedy J. I, 380 (vamana° an emetic); VI, 74 (ekaṃ yogaṃ datvā; but we better read bhesajjaṃ tassa datvā for vatvā, and ekaṃ yogaṃ vatvā for datvā; taking yoga in meaning of “charm, incantation”); Miln. 109 (yena yogena sattānaṃ guṇa-vaḍḍhi ... tena hitaṃ upadahati).
—âtiga one who has conquered the yoke, i.e. bond of the body or rebirth It. 61 (muni), 81 (id.). —âtigāmin= °âtiga; A. II, 12 (same as sabba-yoga-visaṃyutta). —âvacara “one at home in endeavour, ” or in spiritual (esp. jhāna-) exercises; one who practises “yoga”; an earnest student. The term is peculiar to the Abhidhamma literature.—J. I, 303, 394, 400; III, 241 (saṃsārasāgaraṃ taranto y.); Ps. II, 26; KvuA 32; Miln. 33 sq. 43, 366, 378 sq.; Vism. 245 (as hunter) 246 (as begging bhikkhu), 375 (iddhi-study), 587, 637, 666, 708; DhA. II, 12 (padhānaṃ padahanto y.); III, 241 (°bhikkhu); DhsA. 187 (ādhikammika), 246 (°kulayutta); VbhA. 115, 220, 228 (as bhikkhu on alms-round), 229 (as hunter), 258, 331; KhA 74; SnA 20, 374. —kkhema (already Vedic yoga-kṣema exertion & rest, acquisition & possession) rest from work or exertion, or fig. in scholastic interpretation “peace from bondage, ” i.e. perfect peace or “uttermost safety” (K. S. II. 132); a freq. epithet of nibbāna (same in BSk. : yogakṣema, e.g. Divy 98, 123, 303, 498) M. I, 117 (°kāma), 349, 357, (anuttara); S. I, 173 (°adhivāhana); II, 195 (anuttara), 226; III, 112 (°kāma, neg.); IV, 125; V, 130 sq.; A. I, 50 (anuttara); II, 40, 52 (a°), 87, 247; III, 21, 294 sq. 353; D. III, 123, 125, 164 (°kāma); Vin. II, 205=It. 11 (°ato dhaṃsati, whereas Vin °ā padhaṃsati); It. 9, 27 (abhabbo °ssa adhigamāya); Th. 2, 6; Sn. 79 (°adhivāhana), 425; Dh. 23 (anuttara, cp. DhA. I, 231); Ps. I, 39; II, 81; Vbh. 247 (kulāni y-kh-kāmāni, which VbhA. 341 expls: catūhi yogehi khemaṃ nibbhayaṃ icchanti); ThA. 13.—kkhemin finding one’s rest, peace, or salvation; emancipated, free, an Arahant S. III, 13 (accanta°); IV, 85; A. II, 12; IV, 310 (patta°); V, 326 (accanta°); DhA. III, 233, 234 (=sabba-yoga-visaṃyutta); neg. a° not finding one’s salvation A. II, 52 (in verse)=Ps. II, 80; It. 50.—ññu knowing the (right) means Miln. 169 sq. —bahula strong in exertion A. III, 432. —yutta (Mārassa) one who is tied in the bonds (of Māra) A. II, 52 (so read for °gutta; the verse also at Ps. II, 80, 81, and It. 50). —vibhāga dividing (division) of the relation (in grammar: to yoga 2) SnA 266. (Page 558)
yoga : (m.) connection; bond; endeavour; conjunction; attachment; effort; mixture.
Yoga (योग): Spiritual practices performed primarily as a means to enlightenment (or bodhi). Traditionally, Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Jnana Yoga, and Raja Yoga are considered the four main yogas. In the West, yoga has become associated with the asanas (postures) of Hatha Yoga, popular as fitness exercises.
- A well-known implement of husbandry, frequently used metaphorically for subjection , e.g. ( 1 Kings 12:4 1 Kings 12:9-11 ; Isaiah 9:4 ; Jeremiah 5:5 ) hence an "iron yoke" represents an unusually galling bondage. ( 28:48 ; Jeremiah 28:13 )
- A pair of oxen, so termed as being yoked together. ( 1 Samuel 11:7 ; 1 Kings 19:19 1 Kings 19:21 ) The Hebrew term is also applied to asses, ( Judges 19:10 ) and mules, ( 2 Kings 5:17 ) and even to a couple of riders. ( Isaiah 21:7 )
- The term is also applied to a certain amount of land, ( 1 Samuel 14:14 ) equivalent to that which a couple of oxen could plough in a day, ( Isaiah 5:10 ) (Authorized Version "acre"), corresponding to the Latin jugum .
Fitted on the neck of oxen for the purpose of binding to them the traces by which they might draw the plough, etc. ( Numbers 19:2 ; Deuteronomy 21:3 ). It was a curved piece of wood called 'ol .
In Jeremiah 27:2 ; 28:10,12the word in the Authorized Version rendered "yoke" is motah , which properly means a "staff," or as in the Revised Version, "bar."
These words in the Hebrew are both used figuratively of severe bondage, or affliction, or subjection ( Leviticus 26:13 ; 1 Kings 12:4 ; Isaiah 47:6 ; Lamentations 1:14 ; 3:27 ). In the New Testament the word "yoke" is also used to denote servitude ( Matthew 11:29 Matthew 11:30 ; Acts 15:10 ; Galatians 5:1 ).
In 1Sam 1 Samuel 19:21 , Job 1:3 the word thus translated is tzemed , which signifies a pair, two oxen yoked or coupled together, and hence in 1 Samuel 14:14 it represents as much land as a yoke of oxen could plough in a day, like the Latin jugum . In Isaiah 5:10 this word in the plural is translated "acres."
The Yokes or Yogas are another group of defilements. The "yokes" tie a person to the cycle of birth and death.
The four yoghas are:
- the yoke of sensuous desire, kamayogha
- the yoke of desire for rebirth, bhavayogha
- the yoke of wrong view, ditthiyogha
- the yoke of ignorance, avijjayogha
Yoga means: to merge, join or unite; Yoga is a form of exercise based on the belief that the body and breath are intimately connected with the mind. Yoga is a means of balancing and harmonizing the body, mind and emotions and is a tool that allows us to withdraw from the chaos of the world and find a quiet space within. To achieve this, yoga uses movement, breath, posture, relaxation and meditation in order to establish a healthy, vibrant and balanced approach to living.
'yokes, bonds', is another name for the 4 cankers (āsava) .
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