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Nirvana, 31 Definition(s)

AKA: Nirvāṇa, Nibbana, Nibbāna

'Nirvana' belongs in these categories: Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism

31 DEFINITION(S):

The deathless; the cessation of all suffering. The very opposite of the Wheel of Birth and Death; it is what those in the Buddhist tradition aspire to experience. The Absolute, which transcends designation and mundane characterization.
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It is the cessation of suffering, the liberation from karma, and therefore the passing over into another existence. The best way to think about nirvana is that it is the final goal of Buddhism, and that Enlightenment is the step immediately before it. Thus one becomes aware of the nature of Ultimate Reality in Enlightenment, and then one becomes unified with that reality in nirvana. Thus the Buddha, when he died, passed into Nirvana, having previously attained Enlightenment during his life and sharing it with humanity. A bodhisattva is one who has attained Enlightenment, but rather than passing over into nirvana, chose to come back to this world to use their power to help other people.
Added: 06.Jun.2008 | Source: Exploring Religions: Buddhism Glossary
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The extinction of the fires of greed,of hatred and ignorance, the Unconditioned, the Supreme Goal of Buddhism, the final emancipation.
Added: 29.Jun.2008 | Source: Chez Paul: A Buddhist Glossary
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Liberation; literally, the "unbinding" of the mind from the mental effluents (see asava), defilements (see kilesa), and the round of rebirth (see vatta), and from all that can be described or defined. As this term also denotes the extinguishing of a fire, it carries the connotations of stilling, cooling, and peace. (According to the physics taught at the time of the Buddha, a burning fire seizes or adheres to its fuel; when extinguished, it is unbound.) "Total nibbana" in some contexts denotes the experience of Awakening; in others, the final passing away of an arahant. Hindrances to concentration - sensual desire, ill will, sloth and drowsiness, restlessness and anxiety, and uncertainty.
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(Sanskrit, "to snuff out "). Liberation from suffering and samsara, in which all desire is extinguished.
Added: 21.Sep.2008 | Source: Religion Facts: Glossary of Buddhism
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Absolute extinction of suffering and its causes.
Added: 21.Sep.2008 | Source: Buddhism in Ottawa: Glossary of Buddhist Terms
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Nirvana is a Sanskrit word which is originally translated as "perfect stillness". It has many other meanings, such as liberation, eternal bliss, tranquil extinction, extinction of individual existence, unconditioned, no rebirth, calm joy, etc. It is usually described as transmigration to "extinction", but the meaning given to "extinction" varies. There are four kinds of Nirvana: 1. Nirvana of pure, clear self nature 2. Nirvana with residue 3. Nirvana without residue 4. Nirvana of no dwelling
Added: 27.Sep.2008 | Source: Buddhist Door: Glossary
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It is the cessation of suffering, the liberation from karma, and therefore the passing over into another world. The best way to think about nirvana is that it is the final goal of Buddhism, and that Enlightenment is the step immediately before it. Thus one becomes aware of the nature of Ultimate Reality in Enlightenment, and then one becomes unified with that reality in nirvana. Thus the Buddha, when he died, passed into Nirvana, having perviously attained Enlightenment during his life and sharing it with humanity. A bodhisattva is one who has attained Enlightenment, but rather than passing over into nirvana, chose to come back to this world to use their power to help other people.
Added: 27.Sep.2008 | Source: Barricks: Official Buddhism Glossary
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Blowing out of the fires of greed, hatred and ignorance, and the state of secure perfect peace that follows. A key Buddhist term.
Added: 27.Sep.2008 | Source: GCSE: A Glossary of Buddhist Terms
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Extinction of the fires of attachment, hatred and delusion that cause suffering; liberation from cyclic existence
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NIRVANA (Skt.). State of release from the endless circling (SAMSARA) of rebirth in the world.
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(Pronunciation: "neer VAH nah") Enlightenment, the ultimate goal of Buddhist practice. Nirvana is the state in which all illusions and desires binding humankind to the cycle of birth and death are extinguished.
Added: 04.Oct.2008 | Source: The Art of Asia: Buddhism Glossary
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Nirvana means "to extinguish," such as extinguishing the flame of a candle. However, this "extinguishment" is not understood by Buddhists to mean annihilation.
Added: 23.Nov.2008 | Source: About: Glossary of Buddhist Terms
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Sanskrit word for aE liberationaE . Complete freedom from samsara and its cause, the delusions. See Joyful Path of Good Fortune.
Added: 23.Nov.2008 | Source: Kadampa: Glossary of Buddhist Terms
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the goal of Buddhism; freedom from Karma; extinction of all craving; the realizatoin of the true nature of the mind
Added: 23.Nov.2008 | Source: Ashes of Ego: A Buddhist Compendium
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Nirvana means extinguishing. Attaining nirvana - reaching enlightenment - means extinguishing the three fires of greed, delusion and hatred.

Someone who reaches nirvana does not immediately disappear to a heavenly realm. Nirvana is better understood as a state of mind that humans can reach. It is a state of profound spiritual joy, without negative emotions and fears.

Someone who has attained enlightenment is filled with compassion for all living things.

After death an enlightened person is liberated from the cycle of rebirth, but Buddhism gives no definite answers as to what happens next.

Added: 10.Apr.2009 | Source: BBC: Buddhism
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Liberation; literally, the "unbinding" of the mind from the mental effluents, defilements, and the round of rebirth, and from all that can be described or defined. As this term also denotes the extinguishing of a fire, it carries the connotations of stilling, cooling, and peace. (According to the physics taught at the time of the Buddha, a burning fire seizes or adheres to its fuel; when extinguished, it is unbound.) "Total nibbana" in some contexts denotes the experience of Awakening; in others, the final passing away of an arahant.
Added: 11.Apr.2009 | Source: Mahidol University: Glossary
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N (Disappearance of mental impurities (and of the dangers that they do carry out)). Reality bearing neither object, nor consciousness. Innibbana, physical and mental phenomena do no longer appear.

When a being does experience nibbana, he/she becomes an ariya. Being no longer enclined to commit strongly negative actions, such as killing or stealing, he/she will never take birth within lower worlds. nibbana can be experienced a large number of times and last from the fraction of a second up to several hours according to the intensity of concentration being developed. The one who has eradicated the whole of kilesas (the arahanta) will experience nibbana at the end of his/her life and will never more depart from it. This is called parinibbana.

Among all these terms, nibbana is probably the subtlest and most difficult to understand. It is inconceivable by definition.

See also: nibbana

Added: 26.Apr.2009 | Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
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(nib bah na) freedom from attachments. The basis for the enlightened vision of things as they are. (Sanskrit: Nirvana.)

Added: 16.May.2009 | Source: Amaravati: Glossary
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Nibbaana: the extinction of the fires of greed, of hatred and of ignorance; the extinction of all defilements; Deliverance from all suffering.

Added: 31.May.2009 | Source: Access to Insight: The Bhikkhus Rules
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Nibbana is where we intend to destinate and nibbana is our definite goal. No other dhamma excels nibbana and after crossing samsara oceans with panna ocean liner there is nibbana welcoming us with full effect.

Nibbana the term derives from ivana or irvana. Ni means ikkhanta or liberated from vana or binding. Vana is the dhamma that bind various different lives in the samsara. So nibbana means liberated from binding in the samsara. This binding is tanha.

Nibbana is the Fourth Ultimate Reality.

While nibbana is wide, deep, and large, the simile ocean is used for nibbana.

Added: 09.Aug.2009 | Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama
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Nibbana is the Dhamma which is the end of defilements and the ceasing of dukkha. Nibbana does not have conditions which could cause its arising, it does not arise and fall away.

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Sanskrit; literally, "extinction, blowing out"; the goal of spiritual practice in Buddhism; liberation from the cycle of rebirth and suffering.

Added: 30.Aug.2009 | Source: Mokurai's Temple: A Buddhist Glossary
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Nibbana is the one kind of unconditioned reality. It is not matter, it is not a place where one goes, it has no form or shape or solidity, it is not something that one unites with. It is a mental phenomena, but it is different from consciousness and mental factors. It is unconditioned. That means that there are no causes which make it arise. It does not begin and it does not end. It does not experience anything, but it can be the object of experience. It is experienced by supra mundane consciousness, i.e., the consciousness that contains fully developed wisdom.

It is also important to note that it cannot be understood intellectually. It can only by directly experienced when wisdom has been sufficiently developed.

Added: 31.Jan.2010 | Source: Dhamma Study: Introduction to the Dhamma
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(Sanskrit nirvāna): lit. 'extinction' (nir + Ö va, to cease blowing, to become extinguished); according to the commentaries, 'freedom from desire' (nir+ vana). Nibbāna constitutes the highest and ultimate goal of all Buddhist aspirations, i.e. absolute extinction of that life-affirming will manifested as greed, hate and delusion, and convulsively clinging to existence; and therewith also the ultimate and absolute deliverance from all future rebirth, old age, disease and death, from all suffering and misery. Cf. Parinibbāna.

"Extinction of greed, extinction of hate, extinction of delusion: this is called Nibbāna" (S. XXXVIII. 1).

The 2 aspects of Nibbāna are:

  • (1) The full extinction of defilements (kilesa-parinibbāna), also called sa-upādi-sesa-nibbāna (s. It. 41), i.e. 'Nibbāna with the groups of existence still remaining' (s. upādi). This takes place at the attainment of Arahatship, or perfect holiness (s. ariya-puggala).

  • (2) The full extinction of the groups of existence (khandha-parinibbāna), also called an-upādi-sesa-nibbāna (s. It. 41, A.IV.118), i.e. 'Nibbāna without the groups remaining', in other words, the coming to rest, or rather the 'no-more-continuing' of this physico-mental process of existence. This takes place at the death of the Arahat. - (App.: Nibbāna).

Sometimes both aspects take place at one and the same moment, i.e. at the death of the Arahat; s. sama-sīsī.

"This, o monks, truly is the peace, this is the highest, namely the end of all formations, the forsaking of every substratum of rebirth, the fading away of craving, detachment, extinction, Nibbāna" (A. III, 32).

"Enraptured with lust (rāga), enraged with anger (dosa), blinded by delusion (moha), overwhelmed, with mind ensnared, man aims at his own ruin, at the ruin of others, at the ruin of both, and he experiences mental pain and grief. But if lust, anger and delusion are given up, man aims neither at his own ruin, nor at the ruin of others, nor at the ruin of both, and he experiences no mental pain and grief. Thus is Nibbāna visible in this life, immediate, inviting, attractive, and comprehensible to the wise" (A.III.55).

"Just as a rock of one solid mass remains unshaken by the wind, even so neither visible forms, nor sounds, nor odours, nor tastes, nor bodily impressions, neither the desired nor the undesired, can cause such a one to waver. Steadfast is his mind, gained is deliverance" (A.VI.55).

"Verily, there is an Unborn, Unoriginated, Uncreated, Unformed. If there were not this Unborn, Unoriginated, Uncreated, Unformed, escape from the world of the born, the originated, the created, the formed, would not be possible" (Ud.VIII.3).

One cannot too often and too emphatically stress the fact that not only for the actual realization of the goal of Nibbāna, but also for a theoretical understanding of it, it is an indispensable preliminary condition to grasp fully the truth of anattā (q.v.), the egolessness and insubstantiality of all forms of existence. Without such an understanding, one will necessarily misconceive Nibbāna - according to one's either materialistic or metaphysical leanings - either as annihilation of an ego, or as an eternal state of existence into which an ego or self enters or with which it merges. Hence it is said:

"Mere suffering exists, no sufferer is found; The deed is, but no doer of the deed is there; Nibbāna is, but not the man that enters it; The path is, but no traveler on it is seen."

(Vis.M. XVI)

Literature:

  • For texts on Nibbāna, see Path, 36ff. -
  • See Vis.M. XVI. 64ff. -
  • Anattā and Nibbāna, by Nyanaponika Thera (WHEEL 11);
  • The Buddhist Doctrine of Nibbāna, by Ven. P. Vajiranana & F. Story (WHEEL 165/166).

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(Sanskrit= ) Nibbāna.

Added: 06.Jun.2010 | Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
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the state of enlightenment; an end to the cycle of rebirth in samsara.

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Peace; Nibbana is the unconditioned dhamma, visankhara dhamma or asankhata dhamma; it does not arise and fall away. Nibbana is the object of the supramundane citta, lokuttara citta, arising at the moment of enlightenment.

Added: 08.Jun.2010 | Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas
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Nirvana is an ideal state, in which mans soul, after being cleansed from all selfishness, hatred and lust, has become a habitation of the truth, teaching him to distrust the allurements of pleasure and to confine all his energies to attending to the duties of life.

Buddha explained to Kisa Gotami how Nirvana is attained:

"When the fire of lust is gone out, then Nirvana is gained; when the fires of hatred and delusion are gone out, then Nirvana is gained; when the troubles of mind, arising from blind credulity, and all other evils have ceased, then Nirvana is gained!"

Added: 14.Apr.2011 | Source: Sacred Texts: Gospel of Buddha
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Nirvāna Skt., lit., “extinction” (Pali, nibbāna; Jap., nehan); the goal of spiritual practice in all branches of Buddhism. In the un­derstanding of early Buddhism, it is departure from the cycle of rebirths (samsāra) and entry into an entirely different mode of existence. It requires complete overcoming of the three un­wholesome roots—desire, hatred, and delusion, and the coming to rest of active volition. It means freedom from the determining effect of karma. Nirvāna is unconditioned (asamskrita); its characteris­tic mark is the absence of arising, subsisting, changing, and passing away.

In Hīnayāna two types of nirvāna are dis­tinguished: nirvāna with a remainder of condi­tionality, which can be attained before death; and nirvāna without conditionality, which is at­tained at death.

In Mahāyāna, the notion of nirvāna under­goes a change that may be attributed to the in­troduction of the bodhisattva ideal and an emphasis on the unified nature of the world. Nirvāna is conceived as oneness with the abso­lute, the unity of samsāra and transcendence. It is also described as dwelling in the experience of the absolute, bliss in cognizing one’s identity with the absolute, and as freedom from attach­ment to illusions, affects, and desires.

In the West nirvāna has often been misunder­stood as mere annihilation; even in early Bud­dhism it was not so conceived. In many texts, to explain what is described as nirvāna, the simi­le of extinguishing a flame is used. The fire that goes out does not pass away, but merely be­comes invisible by passing into space; thus the term nirvāna does not indicate annihilation but rather entry into another mode of existence. The fire comes forth from space and returns back into it; thus nirvāna is a spiri­tual event that takes place in time but is also, in an unmanifest and imperishable sphere, always already there. This is the “abode of immortali­ty,” which is not spatially localizable, but is rather transcendent, supramundane, and only accessible to mystical expe­rience. Thus in early Buddhism, nirvāna is not seen in a positive relation to the world but is only a place of salvation.

In some places in the sūtras an expression is used for nirvāna that means “bliss,” but far more often nirvāna is characterized merely as a process or state of cessation of suffering (duhkha). This should not, however, be regarded as proof of a nihilistic attitude; it is rather an in­dication of the inadequacy of words to represent the nature of nirvāna, which is beyond speech and thought, in a positive manner. As a positive statement concerning nirvāna, only an indica­tion concerning its not being nothing is possible. For Buddhism, which sees all of existence as rid­den with suffering, nirvāna interpreted as the cessation of suffering suffices as a goal for the spiritual effort; for spiritual practice it is irrele­vant whether nirvāna is a positive state or mere annihilation. For this reason the Buddha de­clined to make any statement concerning the na­ture of nirvāna.

Added: 23.Jul.2011 | Source: Shambala Publications: General
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Nirvāṇa (निर्वाण): Literally "extinction" and/or "extinguishing", is the culmination of the yogi's pursuit of liberation. Hinduism uses the word nirvana to describe the state of moksha, roughly equivalent to heaven.

Added: 29.Jun.2012 | Source: WikiPedia: Glossary of Hinduism terms
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Nirvāṇa is a term used in Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism. It leads to mokṣa, liberation from samsara, or release from a state of suffering, after an often lengthy period of bhāvanā or sādhanā.

In Jainism, mokṣa (liberation) follows nirvāṇa. Nirvana means final release from the karmic bondage. An arhat becomes a siddha ("one who is accomplished") after nirvāṇa. When an enlightened human, such as an arihant or a Tirthankara, extinguishes his remaining aghatiya karmas and thus ends his worldly existence, it is called nirvāṇa. Jains celebrate Diwali as the day of nirvāṇa of Mahavira.

In the Buddhist tradition, nirvana is described as the extinguishing of the fires that cause suffering. These fires are typically identified as the fires of attachment (raga), aversion (dveṣa) and ignorance (moha or avidya). When the fires are extinguished, suffering (dukkha) comes to an end. The cessation of suffering is described as complete peace.

Hinduism: According to Zaehner and "many commentators", nirvana is a Buddhist term rather than a Hindu term. The term nirvana was not used in Hinduism prior to its use in the Bhagavad Gita, though according to van Buitenen the use of the term was not confined to Buddhism at the time the Bhagavad Gita was written. According to Johnson the use of the term nirvana is borrowed from the Buddhists to link the Buddhist state of liberation with Brahman, the supreme or absolute principle of the Upaniṣads and the Vedic tradition.

Added: 09.Jul.2014 | Source: WikiPedia: Indian Culture
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