Nānā, (adv.) (Ved. nānā, a redupl. nā (emphatic particle, see na1) “so and so, ” i.e. various, of all kinds) variously, differently. 1. (abs.) A. I, 138 (on different sides, viz. right ; left); Sn. 878 (=na ekaṃ SnA 554; =vividhaṃ aññoññaṃ puthu na ekaṃ Nd1 285), 884 sq.—2. more frequently in cpds. , as first part of adj. or n. where it may be trsld as “different, divers, all kinds of” etc. Before a double cons. the final ā is shortened: nānagga (for nānā+agga), nānappakāra etc. see below.
—agga (-rasa) all the choicest delicacies J. I, 266 (°bhojana, of food); VI, 366; PvA. 155 (°dibbabhojana); —âdhimuttikatā diversity of dispositions DA. I, 44; Nett 98; —āvudhā (pl.) various weapons J. I, 150; —karaṇa difference, diversity Vin. I, 339 (saṅgha°); M. II, 128; cp. Divy 222; —gotta of all kinds of descent Pv. II, 916; —citta of varying mind J. I, 295 (itthiyo); —jana all kinds of folk Sn. 1102; Nd1 308 (puthu°); —titthiya of var. sects D. III, 16 sq.; —pakkāra various, manifold J. I, 52 (sakuṇā), 127, 278 (phalāni); DAI. 148 (āvudhā); PvA. 50, 123, 135; —ratta multi-coloured Sn. 287; J. VI, 230; —rasā (pl.) all kinds of dainties Pv. II, 911; —vāda difference of opinion D. I, 236; —vidha divers, various, motley PvA. 53, 96, 113, and passim; —saṃvāsaka living in a different part, or living apart Vin. I, 134 sq. (opp. samāna°), 321; II, 162. (Page 349)
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Ñāṇa, (nt.) (from jānāti. See also jānana. *genē, as in Gr. gnώ—sis (cp. gnostic), gnw/mh; Lat. (co)gnitio; Goth. kunpi; Ogh. kunst; E. knowledge) knowledge, intelligence, insight, conviction, recognition, opp. añāṇa & avijjā, lack of k. or ignorance.—1. Ñāṇa in the theory of cognition: it occurs in intensive couple-compounds with terms of sight as cakkhu (eye) & dassana (sight, view), e.g. in cakkhu-karaṇa ñāṇa-karaṇa “opening our eyes & thus producing knowledge” i.e. giving us the eye of knowledge (a mental eye) (see cakkhu, jānāti passati, & cpd. °karaṇa): Bhagavā jānaṃ jānāti passaṃ passati cakkhu-bhūto ñāṇa-bhūto (=he is one perfected in knowledge) M. I, 111=Nd2 2353h; natthi hetu natthi paccayo ñāṇāya dassanāya ahetu apaccayo ñāṇaṃ dassanaṃ hoti “through seeing & knowing, ” i.e. on grounds of definite knowledge arises the sure conviction that where there is no cause there is no consequence S. V, 126. Cp. also the relation of diṭṭhi to ñāṇa. This implies that all things visible are knowable as well as that all our knowledge is based on empirical grounds; yāvatakaṃ ñeyyaṃ tāvatakaṃ ñāṇaṃ Nd2 2353m; yaṃ ñāṇaṃ taṃ dassanaṃ, yaṃ dassanaṃ taṃ ñāṇaṃ Vin. III, 91; ñāṇa+dassana (i.e. full vision) as one of the characteristics of Arahantship: see arahant II. D. Cp. BSk. jñānadarśana, e.g. AvŚ I. 210.—2. Scope and character of ñāṇa: ñ. as faculty of understanding is included in paññā (cp. wisdom=perfected knowledge). The latter signifies the spiritual wisdom which embraces the fundamental truths of morality & conviction (such as aniccaṃ anattā dukkhaṃ: Miln. 42); whereas ñ. is relative to common experience (see Nd2 2353 under cakkhumā, & on rel. of p. & ñ. Ps. I, 59 sq.; 118 sq.; II, 189 sq.).—Perception (saññā) is necessary to the forming of ñāṇa, it precedes it (D. I, 185); as sure knowledge ñ. is preferable to saddhā (S. IV, 298); at Vin. III, 91 the definition of ñ. is given with tisso vijjā (3 kinds of knowledge); they are specified at Nd2 266 as aṭṭhasamāpatti-ñāṇa (consisting in the 8 attainments, viz. jhāna & its 4 succeeding developments), pañc’abhiññā° (the 5 higher knowledges, see paññā & abhi°), micchā° (false k. or heresy). Three degrees of k. are distinguished at DA. I, 100, viz. sāvaka-pāramī-ñāṇa, paccekabuddha°, sabbaññuta° (highest k. of a relig. student, k. of a wise man, & omniscience). Four objects of k. (as objects of truth or sammādiṭṭhi) are enumd as dhamme ñāṇaṃ, anvaye ñ. , paricchede ñ. , sammuti ñ. at D. III, 226, 277; other four as dukkhe ñ. (dukkha-) samudaye ñ. , nirodhe ñ. , magge ñ. (i.e. the knowledge of the paṭicca-samuppāda) at D. III, 227; Ps. I, 118; Vbh. 235 (=sammādiṭṭhi). Right knowledge (or truth) is contrasted with false k. (micchā-ñāṇa=micchādiṭṭhi): S. V, 384; M. II, 29; A. II, 222; V, 327; Vbh. 392. ‹-› 3. Ñāṇa in application: (a) Vin. I, 35; D. II, 155 (opp. pasāda); S. I, 129 (cittamhi susamāhite ñāṇamhi vuttamānamhi); II, 60 (jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇan ti ñ.; see ñ-vatthu); A. I, 219 (on precedence of either samādhi or ñ.); Sn. 378, 789, 987 (muddhani ñāṇaṃ tassa na vijjati), 1078 (diṭṭhi, suti, ñ. : doctrine, revelation, personal knowledge, i.e. intelligence; differently expl. at Nd2 266), 1113; Pv III, 51 (Sugatassa ñ. is asādhāraṇaṃ) Ps. I, 194 sq.; II, 244; Vbh. 306 sq. (ñ-vibhaṅga), 328 sq. (kammassakataṃ ñ.); Nett 15 sq.; 161 (+ñeyya), 191 (id.).—(b) ñāṇaṃ hoti or uppajjati knowledge comes to (him) i.e. to reason, to arrive at a conclusion (with iti=that ... ) S. II, 124=III, 28 (uppajjati); D. III, 278 (id.); A. II, 211≈; IV, 75; V, 195; S. III, 154. See also arahant II. D.—(c) Var. attributes of ñ. : anuttariya A. V, 37; aparapaccayā (k. of the non-effect of causation through lack of cause) S. II, 17, 78; III, 135; V, 179, 422 sq. (=sammādiṭṭhi), same as ahetu-ñāṇa S. V, 126; asādhāraṇa (incomparable, uncommon k.) A. III, 441; PvA. 197; akuppa D. III, 273; ariya A. III, 451; pariyodāta S. I, 198; bhiyyosomatta S. III, 112; yathā bhūtaṃ (proper, definite, right k.) (concerning kāya, etc.) S. V, 144; A. III, 420; V, 37.—(d) knowledge of, about or concerning, consisting in or belonging to, is expressed either by Loc. or —° (equal to subj. or obj. Gen.).—(a) with Loc. : anuppāde ñ. D. III, 214, 274; anvaye D. III, 226, 277; kāye D. III, 274; khaye D. III, 214, 220 (āsavānaṃ; cp. M. I, 23, 183, 348; II, 38), 275; S. II, 30; Nett 15; cutûpapāte D. III, 111, 220; dukkhe (etc.) D IIII, 227; S. II, 4; V, 8, 430; dhamme D. III, 226; S. II, 58; nibbāne S. II, 124 (cp. IV. 86).—(b) as —°: anāvaraṇa° DA. I, 100; ariya S. I, 228; A. III, 451; khanti Ps. I, 106; jātissara J. I, 167; cutûpapāta M. I, 22, 183, 347; II, 38, etc.; ceto-pariya D. III, 100, & °pariyāya S. V, 160; dibbacakkhu Ps. I, 114; dhammaṭṭhiti S. II, 60, 124; Ps. I, 50; nibbidā Ps. I, 195; pubbe-nivāsânusati M. I, 22, 248, 347; II, 38, etc.; Buddha° Nd2 2353; Ps. I, 133; II, 31, 195; DA. I, 100; sabbaññuta Ps. I, 131 sq.; DA. I, 99 sq.; PvA. 197; sekha S. II, 43, 58, 80, & asekha S. III, 83.—(e) aññāṇa wrong k. , false view, ignorance, untruth S. I, 181; II, 92; III, 258 sq.; V, 126; A. II, 11; Sn. 347, 839; Ps. I, 80; Pug. 21; Dhs. 390, 1061; see avijjā & micchādiṭṭhi.
—indriya the faculty of cognition or understanding Dhs. 157; —ûpapanna endowed with k. Sn. 1077 (=Nd2 266b °upeta); —karaṇa (adj.) giving (right) understanding, enlightening, in combn w. cakkhukaraṇa (giving (in)—sight, cp. “your eyes shall be opened and ye shall be knowing good and evil” Gen. 35): kusalavitakkā anandha-karaṇā cakkhu° ñāṇa° It. 82; f.—ī (of majjhimā-paṭipadā) S. IV, 331; —cakkhu the eye of k. PvA. 166; —jāla the net of k. , in phrase ñāṇajālassa anto paviṭṭha coming within the net, i.e. into the range of one’s intelligence or mental eye (clear sight) DhA. I, 26; II, 37, 58, 96; III, 171, 193; IV, 61; VvA. 63; —dassana “knowing and seeing, ” “clear sight, ” i.e. perfect knowledge; having a vision of truth, i.e. recognition of truth, philosophy, (right) theory of life, all-comprising knowledge. Defined as tisso vijjā (see above 2) at Vin. IV, 26; fully discussed at DA. I, 220, cp. also def. at Ps. II, 244.—Vin. II, 178. (parisuddha°; +ājīva, dhammadesanā, veyyākaraṇa); III, 90 sq.; V, 164, 197; D. I, 76≈(following after the jhānas as the first step of paññā, see paññā-sampadā); III, 134, 222 (°paṭilābha), 288 (°visuddhi); M. I, 195 sq.; 202 sq. , 482; II, 9, 31; Nett 17, 18, 28; see also vimutti°; —dassin one who possesses perfect k. Sn. 478; —patha the path of k. Sn. 868; —phusanā experience, gaining of k. DhA. I, 230; —bandhu an associate or friend of k. Sn. 911; —bhūta in comb” w. cakkhubhūta, having become seeing & knowing, i.e. being wise S. II, 255; IV, 94; A. V, 226 sq.; —vatthūni (pl.) the objects or items of (right) knowledge which means k. of the paṭiccasamuppāda or causal connection of phenomena. As 44 (i.e. 4 X 11, all constituents except avijjā, in analogy to the 4 parts of the ariyasaccāni) S. II, 56 sq. , as 77 (7 X 11) S. II, 59 sq.; discussed in extenso at Vbh. 306—344 (called ñāṇavatthu); —vāda talk about (the attainment of supreme) knowledge D. III, 13 sq.; A. V, 42 sq.; —vippayutta disconnected with k. Dhs. 147, 157, 270; —vimokkha emancipation through k. Ps. II, 36, 42; —visesa distinction of k. , superior k. PvA. 196; —sampayutta associated with k. Dhs. 1, 147, 157, etc.; Vbh. 169 sq. , 184, 285 sq. , 414 sq. (Page 287)