Hathor, aka: Hathur; 4 Definition(s)
The feminine goddess par excellence in ancient Egypt, Hathor was a pre-Dynastic goddess who gained enormous popularity early on. Her name is translated as "the House of Horus", which may be a reference to her as the embodiment of the sky in her role of the Celestial Cow, being that which surrounds the decidedly sky-oriented hawk-deity, Horus, when he takes wing. If Horus was the god associated with the living king, Hathor was the god associated with the living queen.
In earlier periods she was most often depicted as a full cow with the sundisk between her horns or as a slender woman wearing the horns-and-a-sundisk headdress. Hathor's symbology included such items as sistra, the horns-and-sundisk headdress, the menat, and mirrors. Hathor, as the Eye of Ra, "becomes" Sakhmet in the story "The Destruction of Mankind".
The Greeks called Hathor by the name of their goddess, Aphrodite. In the very late stages of Egyptian religion she became almost totally absorbed into Isis, resulting in frequent mistaken identity between the two.
The name of Hathor in hieroglyphs.
The goddess Hathor is one of the oldest known deities of Egypt, and it is certain that, under the form of a cow, she was worshipped in the early part of the archaic period, because a flint model of the head and horns of the cow, which was her type and symbol, has been found among the early archaic, or late predynastic flints in Egypt.The forms in which the goddess is depicted are numerous, but this is not to be wondered at, because during the course of the dynastic period she was identified with every important local goddess, and all their attributes, of whatever class and kind, were ascribed to her. The oldest form of all is probably that of the cow, and this was preserved, though chiefly in funeral scenes and in the Book of the Dead, until the beginning of the Roman period.
Ḥet-Ḥert, the name of the goddess, means the “House above,” i.e., the region of the sky or heaven, and another form of it, which is to be read Ḥet-Ḥeru, and which means “House of Horus,” shows that she was a personification of the house in which Horus the Sun-god dwelt, and that she represented the portion of the sky through which the course of the god lay.
At the time when the Egyptians first formulated their theogony Hathor was certainly a cosmic goddess, and was associated with the Sun-god Rā, of whom she was the principal female counterpart. In the theological system of the priests of Heliopolis she became, as Brugsch says, the “mother of the light,” the birth of which was the first act of creation; her next creative act was to produce Shu and Tefnut, that is to say, certain aspects of these gods, for according to a very old tradition Temu was their begetter and producer.
The Goddess of love, music and dance. She is depicted with cow horns and a sundisk on the head. Hathor was the goddess of joy, motherhood, and love. She looked after all women. She was the goddess of music and dancing, as well. Dead women were identified with Hathor, as men were identified with Osiris.
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- · The Gods of the Egyptians Vol 1 > Hathor And The Hathor-goddesses
- · Egypt Through The Stereoscope > ... > The Beautiful Temple Of Hathor At Denderah—view South Over The Remains Of A Vanished City
- · Egypt Through The Stereoscope > ... > The Pylons And The Court Of The Temple Of Horus At Edfu (looking East To The Nile)
- · Egypt Through The Stereoscope > ... > Interior Of The Rock-hewn Temple Of Abu Simbel, Showing The Holy Of Holies, With The Statues Of The Gods In The Rear
- · Egypt Through The Stereoscope > ... > Looking Down (northeast) Upon The Island Of Philae And Its Temples From The Island Of Bigeh.
- · The Literature of the Ancient Egyptians > Miscellaneous Literature
- · The Gods of the Egyptians Vol 1 > The Myths Of Rā
- · The Gods of the Egyptians Vol 1 > The Destruction Of Mankind
- · The Literature of the Ancient Egyptians > Legends Of The Gods
- · The Gods of the Egyptians Vol 1 > The Great Triad Of Memphis, Pthaḥ, Skehet, And I-em-ḥetep
- · The Gods of the Egyptians Vol 1 > The Horus Gods
- · The Gods of the Egyptians Vol 1 > Conception Of God And The "gods"
- · Ancient Egypt the Light of the World > Egyptian Wisdom In The Revelation Of John The Divine
- · The Gods of the Egyptians Vol 1 > Thoth And Maāt
- · Ancient Egypt the Light of the World > Egyptian Wisdom And The Hebrew Genesis
- · The Gods of the Egyptians Vol 1 > Primitive Gods And Nome-gods
- · The Literature of the Ancient Egyptians > The Pyramid Texts
- · Ancient Egypt the Light of the World > The Exodus From Egypt And The Desert Of Amenta
- · The Literature of the Ancient Egyptians > Fairy Tales
- · Ancient Egypt the Light of the World > The Sign-language Of Astronomical Mythology - Part 1
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