Durga, aka: Durgā; 9 Definition(s)
Durga (दुर्ग, ‘hard to approach’) occurs in the Rigveda as a neuter substantive only, sometimes in the sense of ‘fort’, ‘stronghold’.
Durga (दुर्ग):—The setting up of fort is another duty of king. While discussing on the suitable place for royal resident, the concept of fort is introduced. This is very much important for the security of not only the king himself but also the capital itself. There are six kinds of forts.
These are named thus:
- Dhānvadurga (surrounded by desert),
- Mahīdurga (built with stone or bricks),
- Abdurga (surrounded by water),
- Vārkṣadurga (surrounded by forest),
- Nṛdurga (surrounded by elephants, horses chariots and army)
- and Giridurga (on a mountain)
The king is supposed to occupy any kind of these f orts. From the security view point, these forts are very much reliable. If the king reside in any one of these forts enemy cannot assail him.
The Śāntiparva of Mahābhārata recognizes that among these six forts, Nṛdurga is the best because this type of Durga is very tough for enemies to capture.
But Kautilya recognizes only four types of durgas. These are—
- Audakdurga (water fort),
- Pārvatadurga (mountain fort),
- Dhānvadurga (desert fort)
- and Vanadurga (forest fort).
Durga (दुर्ग) is a Sanskrit technical term referring to “fort”. It is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti and the Baudhāyana-dharmasūtra. The Dharmaśāstra represents a branch of Hindu science dealing with a universal set of religious and spiritual customs.
Durgā’s feminine power contains the combined energies of all the gods. Each of her weapons was given to her by the various gods: Rudra’s trident, Vishnu’s discus, Indra’s thunderbolt, Brahma’s Kamaṇḍalu, etc. etc. According to a narrative in the Devi Māhātmya, Durgā appeared as a warrior goddess to fight an Asura (an anti-god) named Mahiṣāsura or ‘buffalo-demon’.
Durgā (दुर्गा, “invincible”):—Name of one of the sixty-four mātṛs to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”, or “Durgā’s Retinue”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva. They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.
Her mantra is as follows:
ॐ दुर्गायै नमः
oṃ durgāyai namaḥ.
A similar mantra is mentioned by the same text, prefixed with ह्रीं (hrīṃ), to be worshipped at the goddess’s right.
A fort or durga is perhaps surrounded by a ditch, always filled with water. There are four kinds of durgas. the first three kinds of durgas are protected by hills and ditches. The fourth kind of durga is called the Kṛtrima, i.e., artificial. It is distinguished by a rampart that runs round it. It has only one gate known as the svastika and has a Kumārīpura in it. The ditch in front of the gate is about 8 x 10 hastas deep and wide (according to some 8 x 9 hastas). River-fort (nadī-durga) is also mentioned.
The Goddess who is known as the ultimate reality is the adi-parashakti, Goddess Durga . In Shaktism, She is, was and will be only owner and source of this universe and all other universes and is regarded as dynamic form of ultimate reality, Param-Brahman. Shaktas consider her dynamic Param Brahman and Param Brahman is considered as Static Adi parashakti. When there is no universe, they both unite from which universe is created and when Universe is created, Adi parashakti manifests herself as dynamic in feminine form like Goddess Parvati, Goddess Durga, Goddess Lakshmi and Goddess Saraswati. She is tridevi - the eternal beloved consort of trimurti (Godhead - the three aspects of God)
Durgā (दुर्गा): A form of Devi, the supreme goddess. She is depicted as a woman riding a lion with multiple hands carrying weapons and assuming mudras.
Mahīdurga (महीदुर्ग).—One of six kinds of fortresses.** Matsya-purāṇa 217. 6.
The Giridurga (गिरिदुर्ग) is erected either on the summit of a mountain, or in a tract of la...
Dhanvadurga (धन्वदुर्ग) is ‘the fortification in the midst of a desert’, called ...
Naradurga (नरदुर्ग).—One of the 6 kinds of fortresses.** Matsya-purāṇa 217. 6.
The autumnal Durgā Pūjā, the ten-lunar-day worship of the goddess Durgā, also known as Caṇḍī...
The Durgāpūjātattva (दुर्गापूजातत्त्व, “The truth concerning the rite of Durgā”)...
Durgābhaktitaraṅgiṇī (दुर्गाभक्तितरङ्गिणी, “A River of Devotion to Durgā”):&mdas...
Durgāpūjāviveka (दुर्गापूजाविवेक):—Name of a Sanskrit work written by Śrīnātha Ācāryac...
The Vanadurga (वनदुर्ग) is a tract of land surrounded by impenetrable forests and trees. (Se...
Baladurga (बलदुर्ग) or Nṛdurga is that line of defence which consists in the dispositions of...
Nṛdurga (नृदुर्ग) is a Sanskrit technical term referring to type of “fort”, char...
Abdurga (अब्दुर्ग) is a Sanskrit technical term referring to type of “fort”, cha...
Vārkṣadurga (वार्क्षदुर्ग) is a Sanskrit technical term referring to type of “fort&rdq...
The Jaladurga (जलदुर्ग) consists of that place which is surrounded by swift, and unfordable ...
Tārā (तारा) is a Sanskrit technical term referring to the “eyeballs”. It is one ...
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- · Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi > ... > Fortification (durga)
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- · Śrī Sanatkumara-saṃhita > Text 76
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- · Brihad Bhagavatamrita > ... > Verse 1.3.27
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- · Brihad Bhagavatamrita > ... > Verse 1.4.44
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- · Baudhāyana Dharmasūtra > Praśna IV, Adhyāya 3
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