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Citta, 16 Definition(s)

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Citta is derived from the PaIi word for thinking (cinteti). All cittas have in common that they "think" of an object, but we have to take thinking here in a very general sense, meaning, being conscious of an object, or cognizing an object.

Cittas perform different functions. For examine, seeing is a function (kicca) of citta.

A citta cannot arise alone, it has to be accompanied by cetasikas. The citta is the "leader", while the cetasikas which share the same object perform each their own task.

There is a great variety of cetasikas accompanying the different cittas. Akusala cittas are accompanied by cetasikas which are defilements, whereas kusala cittas are accompanied by cetasikas which are good qualities. Apart from defilements and good qualities there are also cetasikas which accompany cittas which are unwholesome, cittas which are wholesome and cittas which are neither wholesome nor unwholesome.

Added: 31.Jan.2010 | Dhamma Study: Cetasikas
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The mind (citta), which naturally transforms itself into its states (vṛtti), does so for two reasons, which are said to be like its two seeds. One of these is the vibration (parispanda) of prāṇa, and the other, strong and deep-rooted desires and inclinations which construct (dṛḍha-bhāvanā).

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1) Citta,2 (cp.Sk.caitra,the first month of the year:MarchApril,orig.N.of the star Spica (in Virgo); see E.Plunket,Ancient Calendars,etc.,pp.134 sq.,171 sq.) N.of the month Chaitra PvA.135.Cp.Citra-māsa KhA 192.(Page 268)

2) Citta,2 (nt.) (Sk.citta,orig.pp.of cinteti,cit,cp.yutta› yuñjati,mutta›muñcati.On etym.from cit.see cinteti).

I.Meaning:the heart (psychologically),i.e.the centre & focus of man’s emotional nature as well as that intellectual element which inheres in & accompanies its manifestations; i.e.thought.In this wise citta denotes both the agent & that which is enacted (see kamma II.introd.),for in Indian Psychology citta is the seat & organ of thought (cetasā cinteti; cp.Gr.frήn,although on the whole it corresponds more to the Homeric qumόs).As in the verb (cinteti) there are two stems closely allied and almost inseparable in meaning (see § III,),viz.cit & cet (citta & cetas); cp.ye should restrain,curb,subdue citta by ceto,M.I,120,242 (cp.attanā coday’attānaṃ Dhp 379 f.); cetasā cittaṃ samannesati S.I,194 (cp.cetasā cittaṃ samannesati S.I,194).In their general use there is no distinction to be made between the two (see § III,).-- The meaning of citta is best understood when explaining it by expressions familiar to us,as:with all my heart; heart and soul; I have no heart to do it; blessed are the pure in heart; singleness of heart (cp.ekagga); all of which emphasize the emotional & conative side or “thought” more than its mental & rational side (for which see manas & viññāṇa).It may therefore be rendered by intention,impulse,design; mood,disposition,state of mind,reaction to impressions.It is only in later scholastic lgg.that we are justified in applying the term “thought” in its technical sense.It needs to be pointed out,as complementary to this view,that citta nearly always occurs in the singular (=heart),& out of 150 cases in the Nikāyas only 3 times in the plural (=thoughts).The substantiality of citta (cetas) is also evident from its connection with kamma (heart as source of action),kāma & the senses in general.‹-› On the whole subject see Mrs.Rh.D.Buddh.Psych.Eth.introd.& Bud.Psy.ch.II.

II.Cases of citta (cetas),their relation & frequency (enumd for gram.purposes).-- The paradigma is (numbers denoting %,not including cpds.):Nom.cittaṃ; Gen.(Dat.) cetaso (44) & cittassa (9); Instr.cetasā (42) & cittena (3); Loc.citte (2) & cittamhi (2).-- Nom.cittaṃ (see below).Gen.cittassa only (of older passages) in c° upakkileso S.III,232; V,92; A.I,207; c° damatho Dh.35 & c° vasena M.I,214; III,156.Instr.cittena only in S.I,viz.cittena nīyati loko p.39; upakkiliṭṭha° p.179; asallīnena c° p.159.Loc.citte only as Loc.abs.in samāhite citte (see below) & in citte vyāpanne kāyakammam pi v.hoti A.I,162; cittamhi only S.I,129 & cittasmiṃ only S.I,132.-- Plural only in Nom.cittāni in one phrase:āsavehi cittāni (vi) mucciṃsu “they purified their hearts from intoxications” Vin.I,35; S.III,132; IV,20; Sn.p.149; besides this in scholastic works=thoughts,e.g.Vbh.403 (satta cittāni).

III,Citta & cetas in promiscuous application.There is no cogent evidence of a clear separation of their respective fields of meaning; a few cases indicate the rôle of cetas as seat of citta,whereas most of them show no distinction.There are cpds.having both citta° & ceto° in identical meanings (see e.g.citta-samādhi & ceto°),others show a preference for either one or the other,as ceto is preferred in ceto-khila & ceto-vimutti (but:vimutta-citta),whereas citta is restricted to combn w.upakkilesa,etc.The foll.sentences will illustrate this.Vivaṭena cetasā sappabhāsaṃ cittaṃ bhāveti “with open heart he contemplates a radiant thought” S.V,263=D.III,223=A.IV,86; cetasā cittaṃ samannesati vippamuttaṃ “with his heart he scrutinizes their pure mind” S.I,194; vigatâbhijjhena cetasā is followed by abhijjāya cittaṃ parisodheti D.III,49; anupārambhacitto bhabbo cetaso vikkhepaṃ pahātuṃ A.V,149; cetaso vūpasamo foll.by vūpasanta-citto A.I,4; samāhite citte foll.by ceto-samādhi D.I,13≈; cittaṃ paduṭṭhaṃ foll.by ceto-padosa A.I,8; cp.It.12,13; cetaso tato cittaṃ nivāraye “a desire of his heart he shall exclude from this” S.IV,195.

IV.Citta in its relation to other terms referring to mental processes.

1.citta≈hadaya,the heart as incorporating man’s personality:hadayaṃ phaleyya,cittavikkhepaṃ pāpuṇeyya (break his heart,upset his reason) S.I,126; cittaṃ te khipissāmi hadayan te phālessāmi id.S.I,207,214; Sn.p.32; kāmarāgena cittaṃ me pariḍayhati S.I,188›nibbāpehi me hadaya-pariḷāhaṃ Miln.318 (“my heart is on fire”); cp.abhinibbutatto Sn.343=apariḍayhamāna-citto SnA 347; cittaṃ adhiṭṭhahati to set one’s heart on,to wish DhA.I,327.

2.c.as mental status,contrasted to (a) physical status:citta›kāya,e.g.kilanta° weary in body & mind D.I,20=III,32; ātura° S.III,2--5; nikaṭṭha° A.II,137; ṭhita° steadfast in body & soul (cp.ṭhitatta) S.V,74; °passaddhi quiet of body & soul S.V,66.The Commentators distinguish those six pairs of the saṅkhārākkhandha,or the cetasikas:citta-kāya-passaddhi,--lahutā,etc.as quiet,buoyancy,etc.,of (a) the viññāṇakkhandha (consciousness),(b) the other 3 mental khandhas,making up the nāma-kāya (DhsA.150 on Dhs.62:Compendium of Phil.96,n.3); passaddha° D.III,241,288.-- (b) intellectual status:citta›manas & viññāṇa (mind›thought & understanding).These three constitute the invisible energizer of the body,alias mind in its manifestations:yañ ca vuccati cittan ti vā mano ti vā viññāṇan ti vā:(a) ayaṃ attā nicco dhuvo,etc.,D.I,21; (b) tatr’assutavā puthujjano n’âlaṃ nibbindituṃ,etc.S.II,94; (g) taṃ rattiyā ca divasassa ca añña-d-eva uppajjati aññaṃ nirujjhati S.II,95,cf.ThA.1 on 125.-- Under ādesanā-pāṭihāriya (thought reading):evam pi te mano ittham pi te mano iti pi te cittaṃ (thus is your thought & thus your mind,i.e.habit of thinking) D.I,213=III,103; A.I,170.-- niccaṃ idaṃ c.niccaṃ idaṃ mano S.I,53; cittena niyyati loko “by thoughts the world is led” S.I,39=A.II,177 (cp.KS 55); apatiṭṭhita-citto ādīna-manaso avyāpaṇnacetaso S.V,74; vyāpanna-citto paduṭṭha-manasaṅkappo S.III,93; paduṭṭha-citto=paduṭṭha-manaso PvA.34,43. 3.c.as emotional habitus:(a) active=intention,contrasted or compared with:(a) will,c.as one of the four samādhis,viz.chanda,viriya,c.,vīmaṃsā D.III,77; S.V,268; Vbh.288.-- (b) action,c.as the source of kamma:citte vyāpanne kāyakammam pi vyāpannaṃ hoti “when the intention is evil,the deed is evil as well” A.I,262; cittaṃ appamāṇaṃ ...yaṃ kiñci pamāṇakataṃ kammaṃ,etc.A.V,299.-- Esp.in contrast to kāya & vācā,in triad kāyena vācāya cittena (in deed & speech & will otherwise as k.v.manasā,see under kāya III,) S.II,231,271=IV.112.Similarly taṃ vācaṃ appahāya (cittaṃ°,diṭṭhiṃ°) S.IV,319=D.III,13,15; & under the constituents of the dakkhiṇeyyasampatti as khetta-sampatti,citta°,payoga° (the recipient of the gift,the good-will,the means) VvA.30,32.-- (b) passive=mood,feelings,emotion,ranging with kāya & paññā under the (3) bhāvanā D.III,219; S.IV,111; A.III,106; cp.M.I,237; Nett 91; classed with kāya vedanā dhammā under the (4) satipaṭṭhānas D.II,95,100,299 sq.; S.V,114,etc.(see kāya cpds.).As part of the sīlakkhandha (with sīla ethics,paññā understanding) in adhisīla,etc.Vin.V,181; Ps.II,243; Vbh.325; cp.tisso sampadā,scil.sīla,citta,diṭṭhi (see sīla & cp.cetanā,cetasika) A.I,269.-- citta & paññā are frequently grouped together,e.g.S.I,13 = 165; D.III,269; Th.I,125 sq.As feeling citta is contrasted with intellection in the group saññā c.diṭṭhi A.II,52; Ps.II,80; Vbh.376.

4.Definitions of citta (direct or implied):cittan ti viññāṇaṃ bhūmikavatthu-ārammaṇa-kiriyādi-cittatāya pan’etaṃ cittan ti vuttaṃ DhA.I,228; cittan ti mano mānasaṃ KhA 153; cittaṃ manoviññāṇaṃ ti cittassa etaṃ vevacanaṃ Nett 54.yaṃ cittaṃ mano mānasaṃ hadayaṃ paṇḍaraṃ,etc.Dhs.6=111 (same for def.of manindriya,under § 17; see Buddh.Psych.).As rūpâvacara citta at Vism.376.

V.Citta in its range of semantical applications:(1) heart,will,intention,etc.(see I.).

(a) heart as general status of sensory-emotional being; its relation to the senses (indriyāni).A steadfast & constrained heart is the sign of healthy emotional equilibrium,this presupposes the control over the senses; samādahaṃsu cittaṃ attano ujukaṃ akaṃsu,sārathī va nettāni gahetvā indriyāni rakkhanti paṇḍitā S.I,26; ujugato-citto ariyasāvako A.III,285; ṭhita c.S.I,159≈; A.III,377=IV.404 (+ānejjappatta); c.na kampati Sn.268; na vikampate S.IV,71; opp.capalaṃ c.Dh.33; khitta° a heart unbalanced A.II,52 (+visaññin); opp.:avikkhitta° A.V,149; PvA.26; c.rakkhitaṃ mahato atthāya saṃvattati a guarded heart turns to great profit A.I,7; similarly:c.dantaṃ guttaṃ saṃvutaṃ ibid.-- cittaṃ rakkhetha medhāvī cittaṃ guttaṃ sukhāvahaṃ Dh.36; cakkhundriyaṃ asaṃvutassa viharato cittaṃ vyāsiñcati ...rūpesu S.IV,78; ye cittaṃ saññamessanti mokkhanti Mārabandhanā “from the fetters of Māra those are released who control their heart” Dh.37; pāpā cittaṃ nivāraye Dh.116; bhikkhuno c.kulesu na sajjati,gayhati,bajjhati S.II,198 (cp.Schiller:“Nicht an die Güter hänge dein Herz”).

(b) Contact with kāma & rāga:a lustful,worldly,craving heart.-- (a) kāmā:kāmā mathenti cittaṃ Sn.50; S.IV,210; kāmarāgena ḍayhāmi S.I,188; kāme nâpekkhate cittaṃ Sn.435; mā te kāmaguṇe bhamassu cittaṃ Dh.371; manussakehi kāmehi cittaṃ vuṭṭhapetvā S.V,409; na uḷāresu kāmaguṇesu bhogāya cittaṃ namati A.IV,392; S.I,92; kāmāsavā pi cittaṃ vimuccati A.II,211,etc.; kāmesu c.na pakkhandati na ppasīdati na sanṭiṭṭhati (my h.does not leap,sit or stand in cravings) D.III,239; kāmesu tibbasārāgo vyāpannacitto S.III,93; kāmāmise laggacitto (divide thus!) PvA.107.-- (b) rāgā:rāgo cittaṃ anuddhaṃseti (defilement harasses his heart) S.I,185; II,231=271; A.II,126; III,393; rāga-pariyuṭṭhitaṃ c.hoti A.III,285; sārattacitto S.IV,73; viratta° S.IV,74; Sn.235; PvA.168.‹-› (g) various:patibaddha -- c.(fettered in the bonds of °) A.IV,60; Sn.37,65; PvA.46,151,etc.-- pariyādinna° (grasping,greedy),usually combd w.lābhena abhi‹-› bhūta:S.II,226,228; IV,125; A.IV,160; D.III,249.-- upakkiliṭṭha° (etc.) (defiled) S.I,179; III,151,232 sq.; V,92 (kāmacchando cittassa upakkileso); A.I,207; V,93 sq.-- otiṇṇa° fallen in love A.III,67; SnA 322.

(c) A heart,composed,concentrated,settled,selfcontrolled,mastered,constrained.-- (a) c.pasīdati (pasanna-°c) (a heart full of grace,settled in faith) S.I,98; A.I,207; III,248; Sn.434; pasanna°:A.IV,209,213; Sn.316,403,690,cp.c.pakkhandati pasīdati S.III,133; A.III,245; also vippasanna°:S.V,144; Sn.506; cp.vippasannena cetasā Pv.I,1010.-- (b) c.santiṭṭhati in set s.sannisīdati,ekodihoti,samādhiyati (cp.cetaso ekodibhāva) S.II,273; IV,263; A.II,94,157.-- (g) c.samādhiyati (samāhita-c°,cp.ceto-samadhi quiescence) D.I,13=III,30,108; S.I,120,129,188; IV,78=351; A.I,164; II,211; III,17,280; IV,177; Vbh.227; Vism.376,etc.-(d) supatiṭṭhita-c° always in formula catūsu satipaṭṭhānesu-s-c°:S.III,93; V,154; 301; D.III,101; A.V,195.-- (e) susaṇṭhita c.S.V,74.-- vasībhūta c.S.I,132; A.I,165.-- danta c.Dh.35.-- (d) “with purpose of heart,” a heart set on,striving after,endeavouring,etc.-- (a) cittaṃ namati (inclines his h.on,with dat:appossukkatāya S.I,137); nekkhamma-ninna S.III,233; viveka° D.III,283; A.IV,233; V,175.-- (b) cittaṃ padahati (pa+dhā:pro-ti/qhti) in phrase chandaṃ janeti vāyamati viriyaṃ ārabbhati c° ṃ paggaṇhāti padahati D.III,221; A.II,15=IV.462; S.V,269; Nd2 97; Nett 18.In the same ṣense pa-ni-dahati (in paṇidhi,paṇihita bent down on) (cp.ceto-paṇidhi) S.I,133 (tattha) IV.309 (dup°); V,157; Dh.42=Ud.39; Dh.43 (sammā°).

(e) An evil heart (“out of heart proceed evil thoughts” Mk.7,21) -- (a) paduṭṭha-c° (cp.ceto-padosa) D.I,20= III,32; A.I,8 (opp.pasanna-c°); IV,92; It.12,13; Pv A 33,43,etc.-- (b) vyāpanna-c°:citte vyāpanne kāyakammam pi vyāpannaṃ hoti A.I,262.Opp.a°:S.IV,322; A.II,220.-- (g) samoha-c° (+sarāga,etc.) D.I,79; II,299; III,281; Vism.410,& passim.

(f) “blessed are the pure in heart,” a pure,clean,purified (cp.Ger.geläutert),emancipated,free,detached heart.(a) mutta-c°,vimutta-c°,etc.(cp.cetaso vimokkho,ceto-vimutti,muttena cetasā),āsavehi cittāni mucciṃsu S.III,132,etc.; vi° Sn.p.149.-- vimutta:S.I,28 (+subhāvita),29,46=52; III,45 (+viratta),90; IV,236 (rāgā); Sn.23 (+sudanta); Nd2 587.-- suvimutta:S.I,126,141,233; IV,164; A.III,245; V,29; Sn.975 (+satimā).-- (b) cittaṃ parisodheti M.I,347; A.II,211; S.IV,104.-- (g) alīna c.(unstained) S.I,159; A.V,149; Sn.68; 717; Nd2 97 (cp.cetaso līnatta).

(g) good-will,a loving thought,kindliness,tenderheartedness,love (“love the Lord with all your heart”).-- (a) metta-c° usually in phrase mettacittaṃ bhāveti “to nourish the heart with loving thought,” to produce good-will D.I,167; S.II,264; A.I,10; V,81; Sn.507 (cp.mettā-sahagatena cetasā).-- (b) bhāvita-c° “keep thy heart with all diligence” (Prov.4,23) S.I,188 (+susamāhita); IV,294; V,369 (saddhā-paribhāvita); A.I,6 (+bahulīkata,etc.); Sn.134 (=S.I,188); Dh.89=S.V,29; PvA.139.

(h) a heart calmed,allayed,passionless (santa° upasanta°) D.III,49; S.I,141; Sn.746.

(i) a wieldy heart,a heart ready & prepared for truth,an open & receptive mind:kalla° mudu° udagga° pasanna° A.IV,186; kalla° PvA.38 (sanctified); lahu° S.I,201; udagga° Sn.689,1028; S.I,190 (+mudita); mudu° PvA.54.

(k) Various phrases.Abbhuta-cittajātā “while wonder filled their hearts” S.I,178; evaṃcitto “in this state of mind” S.II,199; Sn.985; cittam me Gotamo jānāti (G.knows my heart) S.I,178; theyya-citto intending to steal Vin.III,58; āraddha-citto of determined mind M.I,414; S.II,21,cp.107; Sn.p.102; aññācittaṃ upaṭṭhāpeti S.II,267; nānā° of varying mind J.I,295; nihīnacitto low-minded PvA.107; nikaṭṭha° A.II,137; āhata° A.IV,460=V.18; supahata° S.I,238 (cp.Miln.26); visaṅkhāragata° Dh.154; sampanna° Sn.164; vibbhanta° S.I,61=A.I,70=II.30=III,391. (2) thought:mā pāpakaṃ akusalaṃ cittaṃ cinteyyātha (do not think any evil thought) S.V,418; na cittamattam pi (not even one thought) PvA.3; mama cittaṃ bhaveyya (I should think) PvA.40.For further instances see Dhs.& Vbh.Indexes & cp.cpds.See also remarks above (under I.).Citta likened to a monkey Vism.425.

--âdhipati the influence of thought (adj.°pateyya) Nett 16; Dhs.269,359; DhsA.213.Commentators define c.here as javanacittuppāda,our “thought” in its specialized sense,Compendium of Phil.177,n.2.--ânuparivattin consecutive to thought Dhs.671,772,1522; --ânupassanā the critique of heart,adj.°ânupassin D.II,299; III,221,281; M.I,59 & passim (cp.kāy°); --āvila disturbance of mind Nd2 576 (°karaṇa); --ujjukatā rectitude of mind Dhs.51,277,etc.; --uppāda the rise of a thought,i.e.intention,desire as theyya °ṃ uppādesi he had the intention to steal (a thought of theft) Vin.III,56; -- M.I,43; III,45; J.II,374; --ekaggatā “one-pointedness of mind,” concentration Nett 15,16; Vism.84,137,158; DhA.III,425; ThA.75; cp.ekagga-citto A.III,175; --kali a witch of a heart,a witch-like heart Th.1,356; --kallatā readiness of heart,preparedness of mind VvA.330; --kilesa stain of h.Dh.88 (DhA.II,162=pañca nīvaraṇā); --kelisā pastime of the mind Th.1,1010; --kkhepa derangement of the mind,madness Vin.V,189=193 (ummāda+); A.III,219 (ummāda+); DhA.III,70 (=ummāda); PvA.39; Dh.138; cp.°vikkhepa; --cetasika belonging to heart & thought,i.e.mental state,thought,mind D.I,213; Dhs.1022 (-dhammā,Mrs.Rh.D.:emotional,perceptual & synthetic states as well as those of intellect applied to sense-impressions),1282; Ps.I,84; Miln.87; Vism.61,84,129,337; --dubbhaka a rogue of a heart,a rogue-like heart Th.1,214; --pakopana shaking or upsetting the mind It.84 (dosa); --pamaddin crushing the h.Th.2,357 (=ThA.243; v.l.pamāthin & pamādin); --pariyāya the ways (i.e.behaviour) of the h.A.V,160 (cp.ceto-paricca); --passaddhi calm of h.,serenity of mind (cp.kāya°) S.V,66; Dhs.62; --bhāvanā cultivation of the h.M.III,149; --mala stain of h.PvA.17; --mudutā plasticity of mind (or thought) Dhs.62,277,325; --rucita after the heart’s liking J.I,207; --rūpaṃ according to intention,as much as expected Vin.I,222; II,78; III,161; IV,177,232; --lahutā buoyancy of thought Dhs.62,323,1283; Vism.465; --vikkhepa (cp.°kkhepa) madness S.I,126 (+ummāda); Nett 27; Vism.34; --vippayutta disconnected with thought Dhs.1192,1515; --visaṃsaṭṭha detached fr.thought Dhs.1194,1517; --vūpasama allayment of one’s h.S.I,46; --saṅkilesa (adj.) with impure heart (opp.c.-vodāna) S.III,151; --saññatti conviction Miln.256; --santāpa “heart-burn,” sorrow PvA.18 (=soka); --samādhi (cp.ceto-samādhi) concentration of mind,collectedness of thought,self-possession S.IV,350; V,269; Vbh.218; --samodhāna adjustment,calming of thoughts ThA.45; --sampīḷana (adj.) h.‹-› crushing (cp.°pamaddin & °pakopana) Nett 29 (domanassa).--sahabhū arising together with thought Dhs.670,769,1520.--hetuka (adj.) caused by thought Dhs.667,767.(Page 266)

3) Citta,1 & Citra (adj.) (to cetati; *(s)qait to shine,to be bright,cp.Sk.citra,Sk.P.ketu,Av.ciprō,Lat.caelum,Ags.hador,Ohg.heitar,see also citta2) variegated,manifold,beautiful; tasty,sweet,spiced (of cakes),J.IV,30 (geṇḍuka); Dh.171 (rājaratha); Vv 479; Pv.II,112 (aneka°); IV,313 (pūvā=madhurā PvA.251).Citta (nt.) painting Th.1,674.-- Sn.50 (kāmā=Nd2 240 nānāvaṇṇā),251 (gāthā); J.V,196 (geṇḍuka),241 VI,218.-- sucitta gaily coloured or dressed S.I,226 (b); Dh.151 (rājaratha); Pv.I,109 (vimāna). --akkhara (adj.) with beautiful vowels S.II,267 (Cp.°vyañjana); --attharaka a variegated carpet DA.I,256; --āgāra a painted house,i.e.furnished with pictures; a picture gallery Vin.IV,298; --upāhana a gaily coloured sandal D.I,7≈; --kata adorned,dressed up M.II,64= Dh.147=Th.1,769; DhA.III,109 (=vicitta); --katha (adj.) =next S.I,199 (+bahussuta); --kathin a brilliant speaker,a wise speaker,an orator,preacher.Freq.combd w.bahussuta (of wide knowledge,learned),e.g.paṇḍita ...medhāvin kalyāṇapaṭibhāna S.IV,375,samaṇa bahussuta c.uḷāra Vv 8426.-- A.III,58; J.I,148; Miln.1,21; --kathika=°kathin A.I,24; Th.2,449 (+bahussuta),expld at ThA.281 by cittadhammakatha; --kamma decoration,ornamentation,painting J.IV,408; VI,333; Miln.278; Vism.306; PvA.147; DhsA.334; (m.) a painter J.VI,481; --kāra a painter,a decorator (cp.rajaka) S.II,101=III,152; Th.2,256; J.VI,333; --chatta at J.VI,540 to be changed into °patta; --patta (adj.) having variegated wings J.VI,540,590; --pāṭalī (f.) N.of a plant (the “pied” trumpet-flower) in the world of Asuras J.I,202; DhA.I,280; --pekhuna having coloured wings J.I,207; VI,539; --bimba (-mukhi) (a woman whose face is) like a painted image J.V,452 (cp cittakata); --miga the spotted antelope J.VI,538; --rūpa (nt.) a wonder,something wonderful J.VI,512; as adv.°ṃ (to citta2?) easily Vin.II,78=III,161; IV,177,232; --latā the plant Rubia Munjista J.VI,278; °vana the R.M.grove,one of Indra’s gardens (Sk.caitraratha) J.I,52,104; II,188; VI,590,etc.; --vitāna a bright canopy DhA.IV,14; --vyañjana (adj.) with beautiful consonants (cp.°akkhara) S.II,267=A.I,73=III,107; --sāṇī variegated cloth J.II,290; DhA.IV,14; --sālā a painted room or picture gallery DA.I,253; --sibbana with fine sewing; a cover of various embroidery Sn.304= J.IV,395; J.VI,218.(Page 265)

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citta : (nt.) mind; thought; (m.), name of a month: March-April. (adj.), variegated; manifold; beautiful. (nt.), a painting; picture.

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'mind', 'consciousness', 'state of consciousness', is a synonym of mano and viññāna (s. khandha and Tab. 1).

Dhs. divides all phenomena into consciousness (citta), mental concomitants (cetasika) and corporeality (rūpa).

In adhicitta, 'higher mentality', it signifies the concentrated, quietened mind, and is one of the 3 trainings (s. sikkhā).

The concentration (or intensification) of consciousness is one of the 4 roads to power (s. iddhipāda).

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viññāna (s. khandha),

citta (q.v.), mano (q v ) -

Moment of °: citta-kkhana (q.v.).

Contemplation of °: cittānupassanā: s. satipatthāna -

Corporeality produced by °: citta-ja-rūpa, s. samutthāna -

Abodes or supports of °: cf. viññānatthiti (q.v.)

Functions of °: viññāna-kicca (q.v.).

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First kind of Nama.

1. Citta (consciousness) is of 89 different types. Cittas are divided into four categories:

  1. Moral or skillful consciousness (kusala citta) – 21 types
  2. Immoral or unskillful consciousness (akusala citta) –12 types
  3. Resultant consciousness (vipaka citta) –36 types
  4. Inoperative consciousness (kiriya citta) –20 types

2. Citta is the chief mental phenomena of experience. So in seeing, for example, the function of the moment of seeing (citta) is to see the object. Citta is the chief experiencer.

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Consciousness is the mind, which perceives the different aspects of objects

Added: 19.Sep.2009 | Wisdom Library: Buddhism
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Citta, or consciousness, is the Dhamma which is the leader in knowing what appears, such as seeing or hearing. Cittas have been classified as 89 types in all, or, in special cases, as 121 types.

Citta is an element, which experiences something, a reality which experiences an object. It is the "chief", the leader in knowing the object which appears.

There is not only citta, which sees, citta that hears, citta which smells, citta which tastes or citta which experiences tangible object, there is also citta which thinks about many diverse subjects. The world of each person is ruled by his citta.

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See One Hundred and Tweny One Cittas

Citta means consciousness. It is the nature that is aware of its object. No other dhamma or nature can know anything including themselves. But citta can know everything possible including cittas.

Citta always leads other nama dhamma and rupa dhamma. A citta arises, it passes away immediately after its arising. Another citta arises, and again it falls away. Next arises and dies out immediately. This kind of uninterruptedness is the manifestation of citta. There are immediate causes for arising of citta. They are cittas themselves, nama dhamma and rupa dhamma.

There are 89 cittas in total.

  • 81 cittas are mundane consciousness and
  • 8 cittas are supramundane consciousness.

At another time, citta can be counted as 121 cittas in total.

This happens when 8 lokuttara cittas arise when in jhana. These are called lokuttara jhana cittas. As there are 5 jhanas, then there are 40 lokuttara jhana cittas.

Together with lokiya cittas 40 and 81 will make 121 cittas in total.

When 89 cittas are analysed according to their jati or origin or parentage, there are four classes of citta. They are

  1. 12 akusala cittas ( 8 lobha + 2 dosa + 2 moha citta )
  2. 21 kusala cittas ( 8 mahakusala + 5 rupakusala + 4 arupakusala + 4 lokuttarakusala or magga citta )
  3. 36 vipaka cittas ( 7 ahetuka akusala + 8 ahetuka kusala + 8 mahavipaka + 5 rupavipaka + 4 arupavipaka + 4 lokuttaravipaka or phala citta )
  4. 20 kiriya cittas ( 3 ahetukakiriya + 8 mahakiriya + 5 rupakiriya + 4 arupakiriya )

12 + 21 + 36 + 20 = 89 cittas in total.

When cittas are viewed by bhumi or place or plane of existence, there are 4 classes of citta. They are

  1. 54 kamavacara cittas ( 12 akusala + 18 ahetuka cittas + 24 sobhana cittas )
  2. 15 rupavacara cittas ( 5 rupakusala + 5 rupavipaka + 5 rupakiriya )
  3. 12 arupavacara cittas ( 4 arupakusala + 4 arupavipaka + 4 arupakiriya )
  4. 8 lokuttara cittas (4 lokuttara kusala or magga + 4 lokuttara vipaka or phala)

54 + 15 + 12 + 8 = 89 cittas in total.

When lokuttara cittas arise in parallel with jhana, there will be 121 cittas in total. Then, according to jati or origin or parentage, cittas can be classified as

  1. 37 kusala cittas ( 8 mahakusala, 5 rupakusala, 4arupakusala, 20 lokuttarakusala cittas )
  2. 52 vipaka cittas ( 15 ahetukavipaka, 8 mahavipaka, 5 rupavipaka, 4 arupavipaka, 20 lokuttaravipaka cittas )
  3. 20 kiriya cittas ( 3 ahetuka kiriya, 8 mahakiriya, 5 rupakiriya, 4 arupakiriya )
  4. 12 akusala cittas ( 8 lobha , 2 dosa, 2 moha )

37 + 52 + 20 + 12 = 121 cittas in total.

According to bhumi or place or plane of existence, there are 4 classes of citta. They are

  1. 54 kamavacara cittas ( 12 akusala, 18 ahetuka, 24 sobhana cittas )
  2. 15 rupavacara cittas ( 5 rupakusala, 5 rupavipaka, 5 rupakiriya )
  3. 12 arupavacara cittas ( 4 arupakusala, 4 arupavipaka, 4 arupakiriya )
  4. 40 lokuttara cittas ( 20 lokuttara kusala, 20 lokuttara vipaka )

54 + 15 + 12 + 40 = 121 cittas in total.

Added: 07.Jun.2009 | Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama
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(mind, thought).

Added: 26.Apr.2009 | Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
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1. Citta (called Cittagahapati) - A householder of Macchikasanda, where he was Treasurer. He was later declared by the Buddha to be pre eminent among laymen who preached the Doctrine (A.i.26). On the day of his birth the whole city was covered knee deep with flowers of various hues, hence his name.

When Mahanama visited Macchikasanda, Citta, pleased with his demeanour, invited him to his park, the Ambatakarama, and built for him a monastery there. And there the Elder preached to Citta the Sala yatana vibhatti and Citta became an Anagami. Thereafter many monks visited the Ambatakarama and accepted Cittas hospitality. Among them was Isidatta (q.v.), a former acquaintance of Citta, but Isidatta left when he found that his identity had been discovered. Mahanama and Mahaka did likewise, after having performed miracles at the request of Citta.

The Citta Samyutta (S.iv.282ff) contains a record of conversations between Citta and members of the Order, among whom, besides those already mentioned, were Kamabhu and Godatta. Citta is also said to have had discussions with Nigantha Nataputta and Acela Kassapa and to have refuted their views.

A thera named Sudhamma was a permanent resident in the Ambatakarama and was looked after by Citta. Once, when the two Chief Disciples and several other eminent Elders came to the Ambatakarama, Citta invited first these and then Sudhamma; the latter, feeling slighted, blamed Citta beyond measure, but the Buddha, hearing of this, sent Sudhamma to ask for Cittas pardon (Vin.ii.15ff; DhA.ii.74f; for details see Sudhamma).

Some time later, Citta visited the Buddha. He was accompanied by two thousand others and took with him five hundred cartloads of offerings to the Buddha and the Order. As he fell at the feet of the Buddha, flowers of five hues showered from the sky and the Buddha preached to him the Salayatana vibhatti. For a fortnight he continued distributing his gifts to the Order and the devas filled his carts with all kinds of valuables (AA.i.210).

When Citta lay ill just before his death, devas visited him and advised him to wish for kingship among them, but he refused to aspire to anything so impermanent, and instructed the devas and his kinsfolk gathered round him, telling them of the Buddha and his teachings (S.iv.302f). He is regarded as the ideal layman (E.g., at A.i.88; ii.164; iii.451).

He owned a tributary village called Migapattaka (SA.iii.93).

In the time of Padumuttara Buddha, Citta conceived his desire to be placed first among laymen in the teaching of the Dhamma. In the time of Kassapa Buddha he was a huntsman. One day, seeing a monk in a glen, and being pleased thereat, he hurried home, prepared a meal and brought it to the monk, together with flowers he had gathered on the way. After the offering,

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1. Citta - One of the four wives of Magha.

Added: 11.Apr.2009 | Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
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state of conciousness
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The six consciousnesses, or primary minds, are:

  1. the eye consciousness,
  2. ear consciousness,
  3. nose consciousness,
  4. tongue consciousness,
  5. body consciousness, and
  6. mental consciousness.

See Understanding the Mind.

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Mind; heart; state of consciousness.
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Thought, thoughtfulness, active thoughts, mind, a state of consciousness.
Added: 21.Jun.2008 | Chez Paul: A Buddhist Glossary
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Mind or heart. the two terms being synonymous in Asian religious philosophy.
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- Look for other relevant definitions:

Search found 484 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

· Mahākaruṇācitta
Mahākaruṇācitta (महाकरुणाचित्त):—The bodhisattva who has cultivated wel...
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'mind-produced corporeality'; s. samutthāna.
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Part of Cittas There are 8 lokuttara cittas. They are 4 magga cittas or pat...
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Part of Kamavacara Cittas. 12 akusala cittas are 8 lobha mula cittas or gre...
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· Mahakusala Citta
Part of sobhana Cittas. Mahakusala are cittas that arise as kusala cittas in ka...
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· Hasituppada Citta
Part of Ahetuka Cittas. Hasituppada citta is the citta that arises when arahats...
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· Magga Citta
See Lokuttara Cittas Magga Cittas are called kusala cittas or lokuttara kusala ...
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· Kusala Citta
See Magga Cittas Wholesome Consciousness.
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· Kusalavipaka Citta
Part of Ahetuka Cittas. There are 8 ahetuka kusalavipaka cittas. These are 8 ro...
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Vipaka cittas are resultant consciousness and they will not give rise to any kam...
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· Arupavipaka Citta
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· Kiriya Citta
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