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Śila, 17 Definition(s)

AKA: Siila, Shila, Silā, Sīla

'Śila' belongs in these categories: Buddhism, Pali

- BEST RATED DEFINITION:

Shīla (śīla) Skt. (Pali, sīla), “obligations, pre­cepts”; refers to the ethical guidelines that in Buddhism determine the behavior of monks, nuns, and laypersons and that constitute the precondition for any progress on the path of awakening.

The ten shīlas for monks, nuns and novices are:

  1. refraining from killing,
  2. not taking what is not given,
  3. refraining from prohibited sexual activity,
  4. refraining from unjust speech,
  5. abstaining from intoxi­cating drinks,
  6. abstaining from solid food af­ter noon,
  7. avoiding music, dance, plays, and other entertainments,
  8. abstaining from the use of perfumes and ornamental jewelry,
  9. re­fraining from sleeping in high, soft beds,
  10. re­fraining from contact with money and other valuables.

The first five shīlas apply also to Bud­dhist laypersons, who on certain days observe the first eight.

Added: 23.Jul.2011 | Source: Shambala Publications: General
Rating: 10

16 MORE DEFINITION(S):

Virtue, morality. The quality of ethical and moral purity that prevents one from falling away from the eightfold path. Also, the training precepts that restrain one from performing unskillful actions. Sila is the second theme in the gradual training (see anupubbi katha), one of the ten paramis, the second of the seven treasures (see dhana), and the first of the three grounds for meritorious action
Rating: 8

'morality', 'virtue', is a mode of mind and volition (cetana) manifested in speech or bodily action (s. karma). It is the foundation of the whole Buddhist practice, and therewith the first of the 3 kinds of training (sikkhā) that form the 3-fold division of the 8-fold Path (s. magga), i.e. morality, concentration and wisdom.

Buddhist morality is not, as it may appear from the negative formulations in the Sutta-texts, something negative. And it does not consist in the mere not committing of evil actions, but is in each instance the clearly conscious and intentional restraint from the bad actions in question and corresponds to the simultaneously arising volition.

Morality of the 8-fold Path, namely, right speech, right action and right livelihood, is called 'genuine or natural morality' pakatisīla), as distinguished from the external rules for monks or laymen, the so-called 'prescribed morality' (paññatti-sīla, q.v.), which, as such, is karmically neutral.

"What now is karmically wholesome morality (kusala-sīla)? It is the wholesome bodily action (kāya-kamma, s. karma), wholesome verbal action (vacī-kamma, s. karma), and also the purity with regard to livelihood which I call morality"

(M. 78). Cf. magga, 3-5.

For the 5, 8 and 10 rules, s. sikkhāpada. Further cf. cāritta- and vāritta-sīla.

The 4 kinds of morality consisting of purification (catupārisuddhi-sīla) are:

  1. Restraint with regard to the Disciplinary Code (pātimokkha-samvara-sīla). "Here the monk is restrained in accordance with the monks' Disciplinary Code, is perfect in conduct and behaviour, and perceiving danger even in the least offences, he trains himself in the rules he has taken upon him" (A . V, 87,109 ,114, etc. ) .
  2. Restraint of the senses (indriya-samvara-sīla). "Whenever the monk perceives a form with the eye, a sound with the ear, an odour with the nose, a taste with the tongue, an impression with the body, an object with the mind, he neither adheres to the appearance as a whole, nor to its parts. And he strives to ward off that through which evil and unwholesome things, greed and sorrow, would arise, if he remained with unguarded senses; and he watches over his senses, restrains his senses" (M 38).
  3. Purification of livelihood (ājīva-pārisuddhi-sīla). It consists therein that the monk does not acquire his livelihood in a way unbefitting to a monk.
  4. Morality with regard to the 4 requisites (paccaya-sannissita-sīla). It consists therein that the monk is guided by the right mental attitude when making use of the 4 requisites: robes, alms food, dwelling and medicine. "Wisely reflecting he makes use of his robes ... merely to protect himself against cold and heat, etc. Wisely reflecting he makes use of his alms food... merely as a prop and support to this body.... Wisely reflecting he makes use of his dwelling... merely to keep off the dangers of weather and to enjoy solitude.... Wisely reflecting he makes use of the necessary medicines, merely to suppress feelings of sickness that arise, and to reach perfect freedom from suffering" (cf. M. 2).

About these 4 kinds of morality, Vis.M. I gives a detailed exposition.

Added: 06.Jun.2010 | Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
Rating: 6
Moral precepts. These number 5,8,10,250 or 350. Also, one of the Paramitas.
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This term means precept or rule. It usually is used in reference to the Five or Ten Precepts which form the basic guidelines for the sanghas behavior.
Added: 06.Jun.2008 | Source: Exploring Religions: Buddhism Glossary
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Morality
Added: 29.Jun.2008 | Source: Chez Paul: A Buddhist Glossary
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(Sanskrit, Pali, "precepts"). Basic obligations that Buddhists undertake. Monks and nuns adhere to all ten; laypersons to the first five sila. The ten precepts are to abstain from: harming a living being; taking anything not given; sensual misconduct; false speech; intoxication; solid food after midday; frivolous entertainments; perfumes and jewelry; raised beds; and involvement with money.
Added: 21.Sep.2008 | Source: Religion Facts: Glossary of Buddhism
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See the Five Precepts.
Added: 27.Sep.2008 | Source: Barricks: Official Buddhism Glossary
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Morality.
Added: 27.Sep.2008 | Source: GCSE: A Glossary of Buddhist Terms
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Moral or ethical conduct, virtue, the foundation of Buddhist practice
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Moral precepts. These number 5,8,10,250 or 350. Also, one of the Paramitas.
Added: 23.Nov.2008 | Source: Guoxue: Buddhism Glossary
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N Morality, virtue, conduct, good behaviour, attitude.

Main foundation of all kinds of practices of dhamma. Without training into sila, it is not possible to progress on this path.

Added: 26.Apr.2009 | Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
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virtuous conduct of body and speech. Sila is also known as Precepts.

Added: 16.May.2009 | Source: Amaravati: Glossary
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morality; the precepts accepted by monks.

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morality; Sila is not only abstaining from what should not be done, it is also observing what should be done, we can observe moral precepts which are the foundation of wholesome conduct.

Added: 27.Feb.2011 | Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas
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silā : (f.) a stone. || sīla (nt.) nature; habit; moral practice; code of morality.

Added: 03.Aug.2014 | Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
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Silā,(f.) (cp.Sk.śilā) a stone,rock Vin.I,28; S.IV,312 sq.; Vin 445; DA.I,154; J.V,68; Vism.230 (in comparison); VbhA.64 (var.kinds); a precious stone,quartz Vin.II,238; Miln.267,380; Vv 8415 (=phalika° VvA.339); pada-silā a flag-stone Vin.II,121,154.Cp.sela

--uccaya a mountain A.III,346; Th.1,692; J.I,29; VI,272,278; Dāvs.V,63.--guḷa a ball of stone,a round stone M.III,94.--tthambha (sila°) stone pillar Mhvs 15,173.--paṭimā stone image J.IV,95.--paṭṭa a slab of stone,a stone bench J.I,59; VI,37 (maṅgala°); SnA 80,117.--pākāra stone wall Vin.II,153.--maya made of stone J.VI,269,270; Mhvs 33,22; 36,104.--yūpa a stone column S.V,445; A.IV,404; Mhvs 28,2.--santhāra stone floor Vin.II,120.(Page 711)

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Sīla,(nt.) (cp.Sk.śīla.It is interesting to note that the Dhtp puts down a root sīl in meaning of samādhi (No.268) and upadhāraṇa (615)) 1.nature,character,habit,behaviour; usually as --° in adj.function “being of such a nature,” like,having the character of ...,e.g.adāna° of stingy character,illiberal Sn.244; PvA.68 (+maccharin); kiṁ° of what behaviour? Pv.II,913keḷi° tricky PvA.241; damana° one who conquers PvA.251; parisuddha° of excellent character A.III,124; pāpa° wicked Sn.246; bhaṇana° wont to speak DhA.IV,93; vāda° quarrelsome Sn.381 sq.-- dussīla (of) bad character D.III,235; Dhs.1327; Pug.20,53; Pv.II,82 (noun); II,969 (adj.); DhA.II,252; IV,3; Sdhp.338; Miln.257; opp.susīla S.I,141.-- 2.moral practice,good character,Buddhist ethics,code of morality.(a) The dasa-sīla or 10 items of good character (not “commandments”) are (1) pāṇâtipātā veramaṇī,i.e.abstinence from taking life; (2) adinn’ādānā (from) taking what is not given to one; (3) abrahmacariyā adultery (oṭherwise called kāmesu micchā-cārā); (4) musāvādā telling lies; (5) pisuna-vācāya slander; (6) pharusa-vācāya harsh or impolite speech; (7) samphappalāpā frivolous and senseless talk; (8) abhijjhāya covetousness; (9) byāpādā malevolence; (10) micchādiṭṭhiyā heretic views.-- Of these 10 we sometimes find only the first 7 designated as “sīla” per se,or good character generally.See e.g.A.I,269 (where called sīla-sampadā); II,83 sq.(not called “sīla”),& sampadā.-- (b) The pañca-sīla or 5 items of good behaviour are Nos.1--4 of dasa-sīla,and (5) abstaining from any state of indolence arising from (the use of) intoxicants,viz.surā-meraya-majjapamāda-ṭṭhānā veramaṇī.These five also from the first half of the 10 sikkha-padāni.They are a sort of preliminary condition to any higher development after conforming to the teaching of the Buddha (saraṇaṁgamana) and as such often mentioned when a new follower is “officially” installed,e.g.Bu II.190:saraṇâgamane kañci nivesesi Tathāgato kañci pañcasu sīlesu sīle dasavidhe paraṁ.From Pv IV.176 sq.(as also fr.Kh II.as following upon Kh I.) it is evident that the sikkhāpadāni are meant in this connection (either 5 or 10),and not the sīlaṁ,cp.also Pv IV.350 sq.,although at the above passage of Bu and at J.I,28 as well as at Mhvs 18,10 the expression dasa-sīla is used:evidently a later development of the term as regards dasa-sīla (cp.Mhvs trsln 122,n.3),which through the identity of the 5 sīlas & sikkhāpadas was transferred to the 10 sikkhāpadas.These 5 are often simply called pañca dhammā,e.g.at A.III,203 sq.,208 sq.Without a special title they are mentioned in connection with the “saraṇaṁ gata” formula e.g.at A.IV,266.Similarly the 10 sīlas (as above a) are only called dhammā at A.II,253 sq.; V,260; nor are they designated as sīla at A.II,221.-- pañcasu sīlesu samādapeti to instruct in the 5 sīlas (alias sikkhāpadāni) Vin.II,162.-- (c) The only standard enumerations of the 5 or 10 sīlas are found at two places in the Saṁyutta and correspond with those given in the Niddesa.See on the 10 (as given under a) S.IV,342 & Nd2 s.v.sīla; on the 5 (also as under b) S.II,68 & Nd2 s.v.The so-called 10 sīlas (Childers) as found at Kh II.(under the name of dasa-sikkhāpada) are of late origin & served as memorial verses for the use of novices.Strictly speaking they should not be called dasa-sīla.-- The eightfold sīla or the eight pledges which are recommended to the Buddhist layman (cp.Miln.333 mentioned below) are the sikkhāpadas Nos.1--8 (see sikkhāpada),which in the Canon however do not occur under the name of sīla nor sikkhāpada,but as aṭṭhaṅga-samannāgata uposatha (or aṭṭhaṅgika u.) “the fast-day with its 8 constituents.” They are discussed in detail at A.IV,248 sq.,with a poetical setting of the eight at A.IV,254=Sn.400,401 -- (d) Three special tracts on morality are found in the Canon.The Cullasīla (D.I,3 sq.) consists first of the items (dasa) sīla 1-7; then follow specific injunctions as to practices of daily living & special conduct,of which the first 5 (omitting the introductory item of bījagāma-bhūtagāma-samārambha) form the second 5 sikkhāpadāni.Upon the Culla° follows the Majjhima° (D.I,5 sq.) & then the Mahāsīla D.I,9 sq.The whole of these 3 sīlas is called sīlakkhandha and is (in the Sāmaññaphala sutta e.g.) grouped with samādhi- and paññākkhandha: D.I,206 sq.; at A.V,205,206 sīla-kkhandha refers to the Culla-sīla only.The three (s.,samādhi & paññā) are often mentioned together,e.g.D.II,81,84; It.51; DA.I,57.-- The characteristic of a kalyāṇa-mitta is endowment with saddhā sīla cāga paññā A.IV,282.These four are counted as constituents of future bliss A.IV,282,and form the 4 sampadās ibid.322.In another connection at M.III,99; Vism.19.They are,with suta (foll.after sīla) characteristic of the merit of the devatās A.I,210 sq.(under devat’ânussati).-- At Miln.333 sīla is classed as:saraṇa°,pañca°,aṭṭhaṅga°,dasaṅga°,pātimokkhasaṁvara°,all of which expressions refer to the sikkhāpadas and not to the sīlas.-- At Miln.336 sq.sīla functions as one of the 7 ratanas (the 5 as given under sampadā up to vimuttiñāṇadassana; plus paṭisambhidā and bojjhaṅga).-- cattāro sīlakkhandhā “4 sections of morality” Miln.243; Vism.15 & DhsA.168 (here as pātimokkha-saṁvara,indriya-saṁvara,ājīvapārisuddhi,paccaya-sannissita.The same with ref.to catubbidha sīla at J.III,195).See also under cpds.‹-› At Ps.I,46 sq.we find the fivefold grouping as (1) pāṇâtipatassa pahānaṁ,(2) veramaṇī,(3) cetanā,(4) saṁvara,(5) avītikkama,which is commented on at Vism.49.-- A fourfold sīla (referring to the sikkhāpada) is given at Vism.15 as bhikkhu°,bhikkhunī°,anupasampanna° gahaṭṭha°.-- On sīla and adhisīla see e.g.A.I,229 sq.; VbhA.413 sq.-- The division of sīla at J.III,195 is a distinction of a simple sīla as “saṁvara,” of twofold sīla as “caritta-vāritta,” threefold as “kāyika vācasika mānasika,” and fourfold as above under cattāro sīlakkhandhā.-- See further generally:Ps.I,42 sq.; Vism.3 sq.; Tikp 154,165 sq.,269,277; Nd1 14,188 (expld as “pātimokkha-saṁvara”); Nd2 p.277; VbhA.143.

--aṅga constituent of morality (applied to the pañcasikkhāpadaṁ) VbhA.381.--ācāra practice of morality J.I,187; II,3.--kathā exposition of the duties of morality Vin.I,15; A.I,125; J.I,188.--kkhandha all that belongs to moral practices,body of morality as forming the first constituent of the 5 khandhas or groups (+samādhi°,paññā°,vimutti°,ñāṇadassana-kkhandha),which make up the 5 sampadās or whole range of religious development; see e.g.Nd1 21,39; Nd2 p.277.-- Vin.162 sq.; III,164; A.I,124,291; II,20; S.I,99 sq.; It.51,107; Nett 90 sq.,128; Miln.243; DhA.III,417.--gandha the fragrance of good works Dh.55; Vism.58.--caraṇa moral life J.IV,328,332.--tittha having good behaviour as its banks S.I,169,183 (trsln Mrs.Rh.D.“with virtue’s strand for bathing”).--bbata (=vata2) good works and ceremonial observances Dh.271; A.I,225; S.IV,118; Ud.71; Sn.231,etc.; sīlavata the same Sn.212,782,790,797,803,899; It.79 sq.; °-parāmāsa the contagion of mere rule and ritual,the infatuation of good works,the delusion that they suffice Vin.I,184; M.I,433; Dhs.1005; A.III,377; IV,144 sq.; Nd1 98; Dukp 245,282 sq.; DhsA.348; see also expln at Cpd.171,n.4.‹-› sīlabbatupādāna grasping after works and rites D.II,58; Dhs.1005,1216; Vism.569; VbhA.181 sq.-- The old form sīlavata still preserves the original good sense,as much as “observing the rules of good conduct,” “being of virtuous behaviour.” Thus at Th.1,12; Sn.212,782 (expld in detail at Nd1 66),790,797,803; It.79; J.VI,491 (ariya°).--bheda a breach of morality J.I,296.--mattaka a matter of mere morality D.I,3; DA.I,55.--maya consisting in morality It.51; VvA.10 (see maya,defn 6).--vatta morality,virtue S.I,143; cp.J.III,360.--vipatti moral transgression Vin.I,171 sq.; D.II,85; A.I,95; 268 sq.; III,252; Pug.21; Vism.54,57.--vipanna trespassing D.II,85; Pug.21; Vin.I,227.--vīmaṁsaka testing one’s reputation J.I,369; II,429; III,100,193.--saṁvara self-restraint in conduct D.I,69; Dhs.1342; DA.I,182.--saṁvuta living under moral self-restraint Dh.281.--sampatti accomplishment or attainment by moral living Vism.57.--sampadā practice of morality Vin.I,227; D.II,86; M.I,194,201 sq.; A.I,95,269 sq.,II.66; Pug.25,54.--sampanna practising morality,virtuous Vin.I,228; D.I,63; II,86; M.I,354; Th.2,196; ThA.168; DA.I,182.(Page 712)

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- MORE RELEVANT DEFINITIONS:

Search found: 261 related definition(s) for 'Śila'. Below are the 15 most relevant articles:

· Sila Sutta
1. Sila Sutta. The Buddha exhorts the monks to live perfect in virtue; then wi...
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· Five Precepts
The precepts taken by lay Buddhists, prohibiting i) killing, ii) stealing iii) l...
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· Paññatti Sīla
'prescribed morality', is a name for the disciplinary rules of the monk or layma...
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'morality consisting in purity', is fourfold: restraint with regard to the mo...
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'indriya-s.'; s. sīla.
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· Abhisamācārika Sīla
'morality consisting in good behaviour',  relates to the external duties of a m...
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Moral discipline of the Bodhisattva
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· Sila Vagga
The second chapter of the Eka Nipata of the Jataka Commentary. J.i.142-72.
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· ādibrahmacariyaka Sīla
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· Vāritta Sīla
'morality consisting in avoiding' (evil things), as distinguished from 'morality...
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· Hāna Bhāgiya Sīla
h.-b.-samādhi, h.-b.-paññā: morality, concentration or wisdom connected with dec...
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· Nibbedha Bhāgiya Sīla
(-samādhi, -paññā): 'morality (concentration, wisdom) connected with penetration...
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· Indriya Samvara Sīla
'morality consisting of purity of restraint of the senses'; s. sīla.
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· Paccaya Sannissita Sīla
'morality consisting in the wise use of the monk's requisites'; s. sīla (4).
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