ahara, Food or nutriment is of four kinds: 1. ordinary material food (kabalinkarahara); 2. contact (of sense organs with sense objects, phassahara); 3. consciousness (viññanahara); and 4. mental volition (manasañcetanahara). See The Four Nutriments of Life by Nyanaponika Thera, Wheel No. 105/106, Buddhist Publication Society, (BPS) Kandy, Sri Lanka.
Asubha, Non-attractiveness, foulness; (literally non-beautifulness).
Vedana, Feeling or sensation is of three kinds: pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral feeling.
Pañca-upadanakkhandha, The five aggregates subject to grasping: matter, feeling or sensation, perceptions, mental (volitional) formations, and consciousness.
Salayatana, The internal six-fold base: the five physical sense organs (eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and the mind base (see Dependent Origination or Paticca samuppada, by Piyadassi Thera, Wheel No. 15, BPS).
Satta Bojjhanga, Seven Factors of Enlightenment: 1. Mindfulness; 2. Investigation of the dhamma; 3. Energy; 4. Rapture or happiness; 5. Calm; 6. Concentration; and 7. Equanimity (see Seven Factors of Enlightenment, by Piyadassi Thera, Wheel No. 1, BPS).
The Noble Eightfold Path: see Discourse on the Analysis of the Truths.
The four pairs of persons constitute the four kinds of aryan disciples who have attained the four paths (or stages) and four fruits of sanctity (magga and phala). The four stages are: sotapatti ('stream-entry') where self-illusion, doubt, and ritualism are ended, sakadagami ('once-return') where sensuality and ill will are weakened, anagami ('non-return') where sensuality and ill will are ended, and arahattha ('arahantship') where craving for form, craving for formless phenomena, conceit, restlessness, and ignorance are ended. (Ten bonds or fetters (sanyojanas) that bind the mind to the cycle of rebirths are in Pali: sakkaya ditti, vicikiccha, silabbata-paramasa, kama-raga, vyapada, rupa-raga, arupa-raga, mana, uddhacca and avijja, respectively. See Maha-parinibbana Sutta, D.16 (http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/sutta/digha/dn.16.1-6.vaji.html); Three Cardinal Discourses by Bhikkhu Ñanamoli Thera, Wheel Publ. No.17.)
Navasattavasa, Nine abodes of beings: the abodes where beings such as humans, animals, devas, ghosts, and brahmas are born, and the realms of the infinity of space, infinity of consciousness, of nothiness, and of neither perception and non-perception (see Minor Readings and Illustrator, by Bhikkha Ñanamoli, Pali Text Society, London, p.92).
The ten attributes of an arahant, or Asekha, one who has completed his moral and spiritual training, i.e., the Consummate One: 1. Right Understanding, 2. Right Thought, 3. Right Speech, 4. Right Action, 5. Right Livelihood, 6. Right Effort, 7. Right Mindfulness, 8. Right Concentration, 9. Right Knowledge (Sammañana), 10. Right Deliverance (Samma vimutti) which is the fruit of arahantship.