Chapter 1 - Citta
From four realities, first citta needs to be understood. It is the nature that is aware of its object. No other dhamma or nature can know anything including themselves. But citta can know everything possible including cittas.
Citta always leads other nama dhamma and rupa dhamma. A citta arises, it passes away immediately after its arising. Another citta arises, and again it falls away. Next arises and dies out immediately. This kind of uninterruptedness is the manifestation of citta. There are immediate causes for arising of citta. They are cittas themselves, nama dhamma and rupa dhamma.
There are 89 cittas in total.
- 81 cittas are mundane consciousness and
- 8 cittas are supramundane consciousness.
At another time, citta can be counted as 121 cittas in total.
This happens when 8 lokuttara cittas arise when in jhana. These are called lokuttara jhana cittas. As there are 5 jhanas, then there are 40 lokuttara jhana cittas.
Together with lokiya cittas 40 and 81 will make 121 cittas in total.
81 lokiya cittas are
- 54 kamavacara cittas,
- 15 rupavacara cittas, and
- 12 arupavacara cittas.
Kama means sensual things that are related to 5 sense doors.
Avacara means arising frequently.
Kamavacara means frequently arising in kama bhumi or sensual sphere.
So in other terms,
rupavacara is rupa brahma bhumi and
arupavacara in arupa brahma bhumi or realm or plane of existence.
Kamavacara cittas are
- 12 akusala cittas,
- 30 asobhana cittas or non beautiful consciousness, and
- 24 sobhana cittas or beautiful cittas.
12 akusala cittas are
- 8 lobha mula cittas or greediness rooted consciousness,
- 2 dosa mula cittas or hatred/ aversion rooted consciousness, and
- 2 moha mula cittas or ignorance/ delusion rooted consciousness.
8 Lobha mula cittas are
- somanassa sahagatam ditthigata samyuttam asankharika cittam
- somanassa sahagatam ditthigata samyuttam sasankharika cittam
- somanassa sahagatam ditthigata vippayuttam asankharika cittam
- somanassa sahagatam ditthigata vippayuttam sasankharika cittam
- upekkha sahagatam ditthigata samyuttam asankharika cittam
- upekkha sahagatam ditthigata samyuttam sasankharika cittam
- upekkha sahagatam ditthigata vippayuttam asankharika cittam
- upekkha sahagatam ditthigata vippayuttam sasankharika cittam
- Somanassa is mental pleasure or pleasant feeling in mind.
- Sahagatam means to go together.
- Ditthigata means together with ditthi or wrong view that is there is no belief in kamma and its implication.
- Samyuttam means in parallel with, while,
- vippayuttam means without.
- Asankharika means without any prompt or preparation or stimulation.
- Sasankharika means the opposite of former that is stimulation is needed or prompted.
- Upekkha means neither pleasant nor unpleasant feeling.
1. The first citta is as in case of a child eating ice cream happily. He is happy. There is mental pleasure or somanassa. As a child, he would not know kamma and so there is no belief in kamma. That citta arises in parallel with ditthi or wrong view. No one is telling him to be happy. So this is an example of the first lobha citta.
2. The second lobha citta is seen in case such as a child receiving a packet containing sweet cake without knowledge of the cake in it. His mother tells him John, that packet is for you. Unwrap the packet and eat the sweet cake inside. When he received the packet, he did not know he had got the cake. But as his mother told him to unwrap, he beomes happy with a view to eating sweet cake. This is prompted.
3. The third lobha citta is seen as in case of a well learned adult who at the moment is happily watching movies. He is happy. He believes kamma and its implication. But no one is urging him to be happy.
4. The fourth lobha citta is seen as in case of a well learned adult who hear a word but not fully realize what exactly it meant. His friend tell him that you are very impressive. Then the man becomes happy. He is happy ( somanassa ). He is well learned ( ditthigata vippayutta ). But he has to be prompted by his friend that is sasankharika.
5. The fifth lobha citta is seen as in a case of a child while he is listening his parents talking interestingly. He is not particularly happy because he does not fully understand adults speech. But as there is lobha he is listening actively. There is wrong view as he does not know kamma well. And no one is urging him to listen.
6. The sixth lobha citta is seen as in case of a child while he is receiving a present and being told that it is for him. He is not particularly happy. This is upekkha. He does not know kamma. But he is told that the present is for him. Before he hears this, lobha citta does not arise. When told, it arises. This is sasankharika or being urged.
7. The seventh lobha citta can be seen in case of an adult when he is counting some notes of money. He is not particularly happy as this amount of money is nothing to do with somanassa. He knows kamma well. No one is urging him in his action.
8. The eighth lobha citta can be seen in case of an adult when he is counting some notes of other peoples money when he is told that the notes he is counting is for him. Amount is not much_ and he has to be urgerd. So this is sasankharika lobha citta.
There are 2 dosa mula cittas. They are:
- domanassa sahagatam patigha samyuttam asankharika cittam
- domanassa sahagatam patigha samyuttam sasankharika cittam.
Domanassa means unpleasant feeling in mind.
Patigha means destructing, hurting.
1. The first dosa citta can be seen in most of dosa cittas where people apparently behaving aggressively like killing, hitting, pounding, kicking, swearing etc etc.
2. The second dosa citta can be seen in the case when a man is told something and he did not hear that. A friend told that it was you who is foolish. Then he becomes angry. He has to be prompted. So this is sasankharika citta.
There are 2 moha mula cittas. They are:
- upekkha sahagatam vicikiccha samyutta cittam
- upekkha sahagatam uddhcca samyutta cittam
1. The first moha citta is seen in a case of undecisiveness when a person cannot decide right or wrong and he has suspicion on the matter.
2. The second moha citta can be seen in most people while they are wandering thinking fancily. This can be seen especially in case of grief reaction. When someone lost, then there is restlessness and people concerned are upseted.
There are 30 asobhana cittas or non beautiful cittas.
- 12 cittas have been described in the previous pages.
- Other non beautiful cittas are 18 ahetuka cittas.
Even though they are not akusala cittas they are called non beautiful because they do not carry any hetuka or roots as in beautiful consciousness like dvihetuka sobhana cittas and tihetuka sobhana cittas.
Again these 18 ahetuka cittas or rootless consciousness can be divided into three separate groups. They are:
- 7 akusala vipakacittas,
- 8 kusalavipakacittas and
- 3 ahetuka kiriya cittas.
Hetuka or roots are:
- adosa, and
There are altogether 6 hetuka or roots. These matters will be dealt with when the first paccaya hetu paccaya is discussed.
Ahetuka means rootless that is absence of all 6 roots.
Vipaka means the results.
Kiriya means just performance but not kammic force is left due to that performance.
There are 7 ahetuka akusala vipakacittas. They are
- upekkha sahagatam cakkhuvinnana citta
- upekkha sahagatam sotavinnana citta
- upekkha sagagatam ghanavinnana citta
- upekkha sahagatam jivhavinnana citta
- dukkha sahagatam kayavinnana citta
- upekkha sahagatam sampaticchana citta
- upekkha sahagatam santirana citta
Cakkhu means related to eye.
Vinnana is made of vi and nana.
Vi means distinctinct, particular, special.
Nana means knowledge.
So vinnana are special knowledge. When a citta arise at eye while seeing a colour, that citta particularly knows the colour. No other citta can know the colour. So it is a form of vinnana citta.
Sota means related to ear,
ghana means related to nose,
jivha means related to tongue,
kaya means related to physical body.
Dukkha means feeling of hard to bear or hard to bear.
Sampaticchana is made up of sam which means well and paticchana which means receiving. So sampaticchana citta is well receiving consciousness that receives the object transferred by the former citta which arose just before its arising.
Santirana is made up of san which means well and tirana which means appropriately investigating. So santirana citta is a consciousness that looks into the object of sampaticchana to work out what it is.
There are 8 ahetuka kusalavipaka cittas. These are 8 rootless wholesome resultant consciousness. They are
- upekkha sahagatam kusalavipaka cakkhuvinnana citta
- upekkha sahagatam kusalavipaka sotavinnana citta
- upekkha sahagatam kusalavipaka ghanavinnana citta
- upekkha sahagatam kusalavipaka jivhavinnana citta
- sukha sahagatam kusalavipaka kayavinnana citta
- upekkha sahagatam kusalavipaka sampaticchana citta
- upekkha sahagatam kusalavipaka santirana citta
- somanassa sahagatam kusalavipaka santirana citta
These cittas are the resultant cittas supported by kusala kamma or wholesome deeds. Sukha means physical pleasure.
There are 3 ahetuka kiriya cittas. They are
- upekkha sahagatam pancadvaravajjana citta
- upekkha sahagatam manodvaravajjana citta
- somanassa sahagatam hasituppada citta
Panca means five.
Dvara means door.
Avajjana is made up of ā and vijjana.
Avaijjana means contemplating on the object adverting to the object turning the attention to the object.
Pancadvaravajjana citta is a consciousness that turns the attention to ruparammana or saddarammana or gandharammana or rasarammana or photthabbarammana.
- Ruparammana is the object of colour or sight.
- Saddarammana is the object of sound.
- Gandharammana is the object of smell.
- Rasarammana is the object of taste.
- And Photthabbarammana is the object of bodily touch.
Manodvaravajjana citta is a citta that arise at manodvara or mind door. It turns the attention to mind object or dhammarammana. Dhammarammana includes
- 89 cittas,
- 52 cetasikas,
- 5 pasada rupa,
- 16 sukhuma rupa,
- nibbana, and
Pasada is the nature that has clearing effect on rupa that are collected together.
Sukhuma means subtle.
Pannatta means concepts or conceptualisation.
Hasituppada comes from hasi and uppada.
Hasa or hasi is humour or sense of humour.
Uppada means arising.
Hasituppada means arising of humourous sense.
Hasituppada citta is the citta that arises when arahats smile. This citta is kiriya citta. So it has no kammic force. It is rootless citta.
Among 54 kamavacara cittas,
- 12 akusala cittas and
- 18 ahetuka cittas
have been described in the previous pages.
These 30 cittas are called asobhana cittas or non beautiful consciousness.
12 akusala cittas are ugly dead sure no doubt. But 18 ahetuka cittas are also called asobhana cittas because they lack beautiful cetasikas such as alobha, adosa, and amoha.
After 30 asobhana cittas, there left 24 kamavacara cittas.
They are called 24 kamasobhana cittas.
- Alobha is non attachment or source of offering or dana.
- Adosa is non hurting nature and it can be called metta or loving kindness.
- Amoha is non delusion or non ignorance or panna or wisdom.
These 24 kamasobhana cittas can be divided into three groups according to their origin or jati. They are
- 8 mahakusala cittas,
- 8 mahavipaka cittas, and
- 8 mahakiriya cittas.
There are kama kusala which arise in kama bhumis.
Rupakusala are kusala that arise in connection with rupa jhana.
And arupakusala are kusala that arise in connection with arupa jhana.
Kama is sensual things that are related to five sense doors.
Kusala is wholesome.
Bhumi means the place where sattas with similar characters arise and dwell.
To differentiate kama kusala from other kusala such as rupakusala, arupakusala, and lokuttara kusala which are magga cittas, kamavacara cittas are named as mahakusala cittas.
Maha means great.
1. Mahakusala are cittas that arise as kusala cittas in kama bhumi.
2. Mahavipaka cittas are just vipaka cittas. There are also ahetuka vipaka cittas. These ahetuka vipaka cittas are asobhana cittas. Sobhana vipaka cittas are also called sahetuka vipaka cittas because they have hetukas or roots. To differentiate kama from ahetuka vipaka, rupavipaka, and arupavipaka, kamavacara vipaka cittas are called mahavipaka cittas.
3. By the same token, to differentiate kamavacara cittas from rupakiriya and arupakiriya, kamavacara cittas are called mahakiriya cittas.
Vipaka cittas are resultant consciousness and they will not give rise to any kammic force or effects. Sodo kiriya cittas. Kiriya cittas are just performance and they do not have any kammic force.
There are 8 mahakusala cittas. They are
- somanassa sahagatam nana samyuttam asankharika mahakusala citta
- somanassa sahagatam nana samyuttam sasankharika mahakusala citta
- somanassa sahagatam nana vippayuttam asankharika mahakusala citta
- somanassa sahagatam nana vippayuttam sasankharika mahakusala citta
- upekkha sahagatam nana samyuttam asankharika mahakusala citta
- upekkha sahagatam nana samyuttam sasankharika mahakusala citta
- upekkha sahagatam nana vippayuttam asankharika mahakusala citta
- upekkha sahagatam nana vippayuttam sasankharika mahakusala citta
8 mahavipaka cittas are all the same with the exception just to change the name mahavipaka instead of mahakusala. And 8 mahakiriya cittas are also the same names with the exception to replace mahakiriya citta.
Here, nana means panna or wisdom. It is amoha cetasika.
1. The first mahakusala citta is somassa sahagatam nana samyuttam asankharika citta. This citta can be seen in case of a man offering robes to monks. He is well learned and he believes that kusala actions will give rise to kusala kamma as a seed to grow later to kusala plants. He is delighted to offer robes to monks. No one is urging him here to do this kusala action.
2. The second mahakusala citta can be seen in case of an adult who believes kamma and know dhamma very well. He does belong to enough properties to offer robes to monks. But at first, he did not. When his teacher or mother tells him to offer, he does the kusala. In that case he needs to be prompted and the second citta has to arise.
3. The third mahakusala citta can be observed in case of an adult who does not believe in kamma and itsimplication and he does not have wisdom of penetrative nature. But he give things to charity societies happily and no one is urging him.
4. The fourth mahakusala cittas can be seen in above case but only after he has been urged to do so by someone or even by his own mind. In all these actions, there is offering. This is detachment and associated with alobha or detachment. So all four cittas are kusala cittas. All are associated with somanassa or joy. The first two cittas have wisdom while latter two do not. In each pair one is automatic response that do not need to be prompted while another citta in the pair needs to be prompted.
If these actions are not associated with joy or happiness then there will be just non pleasant nor non unpleasant feeling that is upekkha. These four upekkha cittas can be thought in the same way as in cases of somanassa cittas.
When arahats do offering water or flowers to The Buddha, all their offering cittas will be mahakiriya cittas. Sometimes elder Thera or monks urge younger monk who is an arahat to offer things to The Buddha. At that time sasankarika mahakiriya citta will arise. Sometimes, wisdom does not follow and at that time, there will be nana vippayutta mahakiriya cittas.
Corresponding mahavipaka cittas have to arise as the result of stated 8 mahakusala cittas.
In summary, kamavacara cittas are 54.
- 30 are asobhana cittas or non beautiful consciousness. (12 are akusala cittas and they are ugly cittas.18 ahetuka cittas are not beautiful because they lack beautiful cetasika.)
- And 24 cittas are kamasobhana cittas.
There are 27 mahaggata cittas or 27 majjhima cittas.
They are called mahaggata cittas because they are higher than kamavacara cittas in terms of purity of defilements. Mahaggata means superior. They are also called majjhima cittas. Majjhima means the middle. Because they are inferior to lokuttara cittas or supramundane consciousness but they are superior to kamavacara cittas.
These 27 cittas are also called jhana cittas because they all are related to jhananga or parts of jhana or absorption.
15 cittas are rupavacara cittas. Rupa here means rupa brahma from 15 rupa brahma bhumi where there are both citta and rupa. Avcara means frequently arising. Rupavacara cittas most frequently arise in rupa brahma bhumis even though they can arise in other bhumi such as kama bhumi like deva bhumi and manussa bhumi or human realm.
15 rupavacara cittas or 15 rupajhana cittas can be divided into three groups depending on their origin or jati or type of citta. They are
- 5 rupakusala cittas,
- 5 rupavipaka cittas, and
- 5 rupakiriya cittas.
5 rupakusala cittas are
- vitakka, vicara, piti, sukha, ekaggata sahitam pathamajjhana kusala
- vicara, piti, sukha, ekaggata sahitam dutiyajjhana kusala citta
- piti, sukha, ekaggata sahitam tatiyajjhana kusala citta
- sukha, ekaggata sahitam catutthajjhana kusala citta
- upekkha, ekaggata sahitam pancamajjhana kusala citta.
Or simply 5 rupakusala cittas are 1st jhana rupakusala cittas, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th jhana rupakusala cittas.Here jhana matter needs going to detail. Although there are 15 rupa jhana, jhana will be discussed basing on rupakusala cittas.
In Buddhism there are three kinds of doing meritorious deeds. They are doing dana or offering, observing sila or keeping good moral conduct, and bhavana or mental cultivation. Jhana is mental cultivation or bhavana.
In bhavana, there are two kinds of kammatthana. They are
- samatha bhavana kammatthana and
- vipassana bhavana kammatthana.
Jhana is part of samatha bhavana kammatthana while vipassana bhavana kammatthana is part of mahasatipatthana.
While doing kammic actions, there say three kamma dvara or kamma doors. They are kayakamma ( through body action ), vacikamma (through verbal action), and manokamma ( through mind activities ).
Dana or offering mainly passes through kayakamma while observing sila or keeping good moral conduct mainly passes both through kayakamma and vacikamma. But for both dana and sila manokamma is already included. However, bhavana is solely manokamma.
Kammatthana means the object where the bhavana kamma or manokamma or kusalacitta attend. So kammatthana is simply an object. There are two type of object of bhavana kamma as stated above namely samatha and vipassana. Jhana is just part of samatha bhavana. To short cut, jhana will be explained.
When the jhana practitioner wants to practise jhana, he has to fulfil sila or moral conduct_ which must be at least ajiva attha kammatthana sila. They are avoiding killing, stealing, all sex including thoughts, telling lies, telling harsh words, telling dividing speech, telling non sense tales, and drinking alcohol altogether 8 conducts have to be avoided.
The jhana practitioner has set up pure sila which encompasses avoiding hurting nature. There are 40 samatha kammatthana bhavana.
- 10 kasina kammatthana,
- 10 asubha kammatthana,
- 10 anussati kammatthana,
- 4 brahmavihara,
- 4 aruppa kammatthana,
- 1 aharepatikulasanna, and
- 1 catudhatuvavatthana.
Not all these 40 kammatthana can give rise to jhana.
Regarding samatha bhavana, there are three stages of bhavana. These show how still the mind is. In early immature stage, the bhavana kamma that happens is called parikamma bhavana. Parikamma means initial kusalakamma.
When the practitioner becomes more mature, his mind becomes much much more concentrated. This is called upacara bhavana. Upacara bhavana is bhavana kamma or state of mind when there is no hindrances like
- kamacchanda nivarana or sensual thoughts
- byapada nivarana or aversive thoughts
- uddacca kukkucca nivarana or spreading repenting thoughts
- thina middha nivarana or sloth torpor tagged thoughts
- vicikiccha nivarana or suspicious thoughts.
Upacara bhavana is so pure that it can function well to penetrate dhamma. But it is not quite jhana. Just before jhana there arise gotrabhu citta, the citta which divides between kama cittas and jhana cittas. The concentration that arises while in upacara bhavana is called upacara samadhi. It is pure and if there are other 7 right paths of Noble Eightfold Path, that upacara samadhi is called samma samadhi. Upacara means proximity, crownprince. It is sometimes called proximate concentration.
In terms of stillness or one pointedness, the highest bhavana in samatha kammatthana is appana bhavana. It is called appana jhana. Appana means rushing into and sticking into and merging into the object.
The object in samatha bhavana is called nimitta. They are all pannatta. There are different nimittas arise while practising samatha kamatthana.
- parikamma nimitta or initial image,
- uggaha nimitta or mental image, and
- patibhaga nimitta or counter image.
These are all pannatta and these are all objects that is the object of mind and they all are dhammarammana. Pannatta are dhammarammana.
When the jhana practitioner first practises, the arising object is called parikamma nimitta. Let assume the jhana practitioner is doing pathavi kasina. If he becomes much much more maturer than he initially was then the object will arise as pure mental image or uggaha nimitta. As initial, he has to prepare a circle of object filled with earth and looks at it. When uggaha nimitta arise, he no more needs to look at the kasina with his eye. Kasina means the object of circle that is the cause of arising of higher and higher bhavana kamma. Kasina has to be taken the whole not just a part. So the mind has to stick to the circle wholly and impartially.
Initially the jhana practitioner will directly look at the circle filled with earth. When uggaha nimitta or mental image arise, the original image appears in mind as if the object is looked at by eye and all the details like dimple, crease, damping, dirts can be seen as if eyes are looking at. At a time when the practitioner becomes proficient his mind becomes still and there arise the third image called patibhaga nimitta. It is similar to uggaha nimitta but much much more cleaner and purer and free from any impurity.
All 40 samatha kammattha can give rise to both parikamma nimitta and uggaha nimitta. Regarding patibhaga nimitta, only 22 kammatthana can give rise to patibhaga nimitta.
- 10 kasina kammatthana,
- 10 asubha kammatthana,
- kayagatasati kammatthana, and
- anapanassati kammatthana.
When parikamma nimitta is being contemplated the bhavana is called parikamma bhavana. When uggaha nimitta arises, then the samadhi at that time is called parikamma samadhi. The samadhi starts from the time when patibhaga nimitta arises and total clearance of nivarana or hindrances till arising of appana bhavana is called upacara samadhi. In this samadhi of uapacara, citta is so pure that it is called cittavisuddhi or purification of mind. This state of mind is enough for vipassana nana to arise. From the time when gotrabhu citta passes away, jhana cittas arise. The concentration at that time is called appana samadhi. It is called appana bhavana or appana jhana.
When in appana jhana all 5 parts of jhana called jhananga ( jhana + anga ) are working equally and very actively. These jhanic factors are vitakka or cetasika which initially applies on to the object ( so called initial application ), vicara or cetasika that rewinds or reviews the object ( sustained application ), piti or rupture, sukha or tranquility or mental peace, and ekaggata or one pointedness. As all these 5 jhanic factors are present, the jhana at that time is called 1st jhana.
The jhana practitioner continues to practise and he finds that vitakka is quite near to the enemy of hindrances. He tries to eliminate vitakka. When conditions are there, vitakka no more arises and he is then in 2nd jhana. Again vicara is quite near to vitakka who is his close friend. So the practitioner tries to eliminate vicara and when conditions favour, the 3rd jhana arises. Again piti or rupture is quite near to vicara and vitakka. When there is no more piti, 4th jhana arises. Sukha is quite near to piti and he tries to eliminate sukha and when conditions favour then 5th jhana arises with only one pointedness but instead of sukha or sukha vedana, upekkha vedana arises in 5th jhana.
There are 5 jhana factors. So there are 5 jhana cittas. Most suttanta desana or teachings in suttanta pitaka there describe 4 jhanas. This is right. Because there are brahma bhumi which are named as 1st jhana bhumi, 2nd jhana bhumi, 3rd jhana bhumi, and 4th jhana bhumi. But there is no 5th jhana bhumi.
Instead, after 1st jhana both vitakka and vicara are eliminated together and the practitioner reaches 2nd jhana where there is piti, sukha, and ekaggata. This is difference between abhidhamma and suttas.
When practising these 5 jhanas, the cittas arise are called rupakusala cittas. If arahats stay in jhana, then cittas at that time are called rupakiriya cittas. Rupavipaka cittas are resultant cittas and each correspond to their counter part rupakusala cittas and they only arise in rupa brahma bhumi while rupakusala cittas and rupakiriya cittas can arise in other non brahma bhumi.
There are 12 arupavacara cittas. They can be divided into three groups according to their origin or jati. They are
- 4 arupakusala cittas,
- 4 arupavipaka cittas, and
- 4 arupakiriya cittas.
4 arupakusala cittas are cittas that arise when arupa jhana are being practised. The practice of arupa jhana is bhavana kusala. So at the time of arupa jhana, arupakusala cittas arise.
Where the practitioner is an arahat, then the arising arupa jhana are called arupakiriya cittas. Kiriya citta does not give rise to kammic force or seed effect. Kusala citta gives vipaka or resultant cittas. The practice of arupa jhana may give rise to rebirth in arupa brahma bhumi.
4 arupavipaka cittas are resultant cittas due to respective arupakusala citta. These 4 cittas arise only in arupa brahma. Because they all are patisandhi citta, bhavanga citta, and cuti citta of arupa brahma. So they cannot arise in other planes of existence.
a) Arupakusala cittas
- akasanancayatana arupakusala citta
- vinnanancayatana arupakusala citta
- akincinnayatana arupakusala citta
- nevasannanasannayatana arupakusala citta
b) Arupavipaka cittas
- akasanancayatana arupavipaka citta
- vinnanancayatana arupavipaka citta
- akincinnayatana arupavipaka citta
- nevasannanasannayatana arupavipaka citta
c) Arupakiriya cittas
- akasanancayatana arupakiriya citta
- vinnanancayatana arupakiriya citta
- akincinnayatana arupakiriya citta
- nevasannanasannayatana arupakiriya citta
These 12 cittas arise mostly in arupa brahma bhumi. So they are called arupavacara cittas. Arupa here means arupa brahma bhumi or arupa brahma realm or formless realm.
Akasanancayatana is made up of akasa + ayatana. Akasa here is pannatta. It is boundless space and this will be explained later. Ayatana means the place where subjects dwell. Cakkhayatana ( cakkhu + ayatana ) is the place where the subject eye consciousness or cakkhuvinnana citta dwells or arises. So does akasanancayatana. The 1st arupakusala citta dwells or arise at akasanancayatana ( the place for 1st arupa jhana citta ). This akasa is not the actual space. It derives from 5th rupa jhana nimitta or object.
Vinnanancayatana is an ayatana or a place for the arupavacara cittas or an object of mind which is arupajhana citta. Vinnana is also known as citta or manovinnana. Ayatana is a place. Vinnanacayatana means citta as a place or citta as an object.
That citta is the first arupajhana citta. Sensing citta is 2nd arupajhana citta and sensed citta is the 1st arupajhana citta. The 2nd arupajhana citta looks at the 1st arupajhana citta as its object. It is a place where the 2nd arupajhana citta dwells. So it is an ayatana. But that ayatana is vinnana or citta of 1st arupajhana. So, that object is called vinnanancayatana object. When 2nd arupajhana arises, it is called vinnanancayatana arupakusala citta.
Akincinnayatana is made up of akincanna and ayatana. Akincanna again derives from a and kinca. A means not, none, no, nothing.
Kinca means something or someone. Akinca_ means no something or nothing. So akincinnayatana is a subtle object which is nothingness. It derives from vinnanancayatana arupajhana. Due to the power of bhavana, boundless consciousness or vinnanancayatana arupakusala cittas or vinnanas are totally abolished and there left nothing. So that object is called nothingness. The citta that directs to nothingness is the3rd arupajhana citta.
Nevasannanasannayatana is the ayatana of nevasannanasanna.
Neva + sanna + nasanna. Neva is Neva. It derives from na and eva. Na means no, none, nothing. Eva means such , this ,thus.
- Eva sanna means such perception
- Na means no
- Neva sanna means such perception is not perception.
- Nasanna means non perception or without perception.
- Neva nasanna means such perception is not non perception.
- Nevasannanasanna means such perception is neither perception nor non perception.
This is very very subtle matter. Nothingness the object is already subtle one. Again, the arupa jhana practitioner continues his practice and as he becomes mature and conditions favour the 4th arupajhana citta arises.
The 4th arupajhana looks at the 3rd arupajhana citta as its object. The 4th views on the 3rd that that 3rd arupajhana citta is not a perception and it is also not a non perception. Only the 2nd and 4th arupa jhana cittas take paramattha objects. This means they take realities as their objects. These realities are 1st arupajhana citta which is an ultimate reality and 3rd arupajhana citta which is also an ultimate reality. But 1st arupa jhana citta and 3rd arupa jhana citta take pannatta as their objects. All 15 rupavacara cittas take pannatta as their object.
There are 89 cittas in total as summary or 121 cittas in total if lokuttara cittas or supramundane consciousness arise in parallel with jhana cittas. If 89 cittas are contemplated, 81 cittas are lokiya cittas and 8 cittas are lokuttara cittas. So there are 8 lokuttara cittas. If they arise in parallel with 5 jhanas there will be 40 lokuttara cittas. 8 lokuttara cittas will first be discussed.
There are 8 lokuttara cittas. They are 4 magga cittas or path consciousness and 4 phala cittas or fruition consciousness. 4 phala cittas are vipaka cittas or resultant consciousness. They each arise as a resultant citta due to their correspondent magga citta. While 4 phala cittas are called vipaka cittas or to be exact lokuttara vipaka cittas, their correspondent magga cittas are called kusala cittas or lokuttara kusala cittas.
There are 4 lokuttara kusala cittas. They are
- sotapatti magga citta
- sakadagami magga citta
- anagami magga citta
- arahatta magga citta
Sotapatti magga citta is the very first citta that arises as an early ariyanhood. Sotapatti the term is Pali word and it is made up of sota and apatti. Sota means flowing water or water of river or stream. Apatti means arrive the earliest.
While nibbana is wide, deep, and large, the simile ocean is used for nibbana. When ocean is nibbana, stream and river are very first to enter ocean. So does sotapatti magga citta which finally end in nibbana. So sotapatti magga citta is also called stream entrant path consciousness.
Sakadagami includes sakim and agamino. Sakim means once. Agami means coming to human realm through patisandhi. Sakadamagi means once returning to human realm. Sakadagami magga citta is also known as once returner path consciousness.
Anagami is made up of ana or a and agami. Anagami means non returning to human realm. Anagami magga citta is non returner path consciousness. When a being achieves this citta and becomes an anagami phala puggala or person, after death he will be reborn in one of 5 suddhavasa brahma realms. Suddhavasa means pure abode. In these 5 realms they become arahats and when die, there go to nibbana.
Arahatta means worth to receive special offerings from all beings human, deva, brahma etc etc because they are absolutely pure and they are free from any defilement. Arahatta magga citta is arahatta path consciousness and it is the last citta that leaves all lower lokuttara cittas. As soon as arahatta magga citta arises, it falls away and arahatta phala citta immediately follows and the being becomes an arahat.
When lokuttara cittas arise in parallel with jhanas, there will be 40 lokuttara cittas because each lokuttara citta can arise in one of five jhana. As there are 8 lokuttara cittas, then there will be 40 lokuttara jhana cittas.
- vitakka, vicara, piti, sukha, ekaggata sahitam pathamajjhana sotapatti magga citta
- vicara, piti, sukha, ekaggata sahitam dutiyajjhana sotapatti magga citta
- piti, sukha, ekaggata sahitam tatiyajjhana sotapatti magga citta
- sukha, ekaggata sahitam catutthajjhana sotapatti magga citta
- upekkha , ekaggata sahitam pancamajjhana sotapatti magga citta
- As sotapatti magga citta has 5 jhana cittas,
sotapatti phala citta also has 5 jhana cittas.
- Sakadagami magga citta has 5 jhana cittas, and
sakadagami phala citta has 5 jhana cittas.
- Anagami magga citta has 5 jhana cittas, and
anagami phala citta also has 5 jhana cittas.
- By the same token, arahatta magga citta, and
arahatta phala citta have 5 jhana cittas each.
Therefore, there are 40 lokuttara jhana cittas in total.
Lokuttara cittas are supramundane consciousness. Lokuttara is a Pali word made up of loka and uttara. Loka means worldly in connection with bhava. Lokuttara means greater than worldly things higher than worldly thing beyond worldly thing or supramundane.
These cittas are the highest cittas and they always excel other cittas because they deal with nibbana and they are associated with the highest panna or penetrative wisdom. They are anuttara cittas. That is no other citta excels them.
When 89 cittas are analysed according to their jati or origin or parentage, there are four classes of citta. They are
- 12 akusala cittas ( 8 lobha + 2 dosa + 2 moha citta )
- 21 kusala cittas ( 8 mahakusala + 5 rupakusala + 4 arupakusala + 4 lokuttarakusala or magga citta )
- 36 vipaka cittas ( 7 ahetuka akusala + 8 ahetuka kusala + 8 mahavipaka + 5 rupavipaka + 4 arupavipaka + 4 lokuttaravipaka or phala citta )
- 20 kiriya cittas ( 3 ahetukakiriya + 8 mahakiriya + 5 rupakiriya + 4 arupakiriya )
12 + 21 + 36 + 20 = 89 cittas in total.
When cittas are viewed by bhumi or place or plane of existence, there are 4 classes of citta. They are
- 54 kamavacara cittas ( 12 akusala + 18 ahetuka cittas + 24 sobhana cittas )
- 15 rupavacara cittas ( 5 rupakusala + 5 rupavipaka + 5 rupakiriya )
- 12 arupavacara cittas ( 4 arupakusala + 4 arupavipaka + 4 arupakiriya )
- 8 lokuttara cittas (4 lokuttara kusala or magga + 4 lokuttara vipaka or phala)
54 + 15 + 12 + 8 = 89 cittas in total.
When lokuttara cittas arise in parallel with jhana, there will be 121 cittas in total. Then, according to jati or origin or parentage, cittas can be classified as
- 37 kusala cittas ( 8 mahakusala, 5 rupakusala, 4arupakusala, 20 lokuttarakusala cittas )
- 52 vipaka cittas ( 15 ahetukavipaka, 8 mahavipaka, 5 rupavipaka, 4 arupavipaka, 20 lokuttaravipaka cittas )
- 20 kiriya cittas ( 3 ahetuka kiriya, 8 mahakiriya, 5 rupakiriya, 4 arupakiriya )
- 12 akusala cittas ( 8 lobha , 2 dosa, 2 moha )
37 + 52 + 20 + 12 = 121 cittas in total.
According to bhumi or place or plane of existence, there are 4 classes of citta. They are
- 54 kamavacara cittas ( 12 akusala, 18 ahetuka, 24 sobhana cittas )
- 15 rupavacara cittas ( 5 rupakusala, 5 rupavipaka, 5 rupakiriya )
- 12 arupavacara cittas ( 4 arupakusala, 4 arupavipaka, 4 arupakiriya )
- 40 lokuttara cittas ( 20 lokuttara kusala, 20 lokuttara vipaka )
54 + 15 + 12 + 40 = 121 cittas in total.