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Dhammasangani

Enumeration of Phenomena

Chapter II - The Category Of Form Considered By Way Of Dual Attributes

Positive And Negative (duvidhena Rupasangaho)

[Page 172] ['There is form which is derived'] 1

[596] What is that form which is derived?

The sphere2 of:
vision,                 smell,
hearing,              taste,
      bodysensibility; 3

the sphere of:
sights,                 odours,
sounds,               tastes;

the faculties of:
femininity,           masculinity,
                vitality;

[Page 173] intimation:
by act,
by speech;

the element of space;

buoyancy,                        >
plasticity,                         >
wieldiness,                      >
integration,                      >         of form
maintenance,                   >
decay,                              >
impermanence,                >

solid nutriment.

[597] What is that form which is the sphere of vision (cakkhayatanam)?

The eye,4 that is to say the sentient organ,5 derived from [Page 174] the Great Phenomena, forming part of the nature of the self,6 invisible and reacting7

— by which eye, invisible and [Page 175] reacting, one8 has seen, sees, will, or may see form that is visible and impingeing —

this that is sight,
the sphere of sight,
the element of vision,
the faculty of vision,

this that is:

'a world',9
'a door',
'an ocean',
'lucent',
'a field',
'a [Page 176] basis',
'a guide',
'guidance',
the 'hither shore',
an 'empty village'

— this is that form which constitutes the sphere of vision.

[598] What is that form which is the sphere of vision?

The eye, that is to say the sentient organ, derived from the four Great Phenomena, forming part of the nature of the self, invisible and reacting, and against which eye, invisible and reacting, form that is visible and impingeing, has impinged,10 impinges, will, or may impinge

— this that is

sight,
the sphere of sight,
the constituent element of sight,
etc.

[continue as in § 597].

[599] What is that form which is the sphere of vision?

The eye, that is to say the sentient organ, derived from the four Great Phenomena, forming part of the nature of the self, invisible and reacting, which eye, invisible and reacting, has impinged, impinges, will, or may impinge on form11 that is visible and impingeing

— this that is

sight,
the sphere of sight,
etc.

[continue as in § 597].

[600] What is that form which is the sphere of vision?

The eye, that is to say the sentient organ, derived from the four Great Phenomena, forming part of the nature of the self, invisible and reacting, (i.) depending on which eye, in consequence of some visible form,12 there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise

visual contact;13 . . .

[Page 177] (ii.) and depending on which eye, in consequence of some visible form, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise (born of that visual contact)

a feeling . . .
[or iii.] a perception . . .
[or iv.] thinking ...
[or v.] a visual cognition 14 . . .

[further, vi.] depending on15 which eye, and having a visible form as its object, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise

visual contact,

(vii.) and depending on which eye, and having a visible form as its object, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise, born of that visual contact,

a feeling . . .
[or viii.] a perception ...
[Page 178] [or ix.] thinking ...
[or x.] visual cognition — this that is sight, the sphere of sight, etc.

[continue as in § 597].16

[601-604] What is that form which is the sphere of hearing?

The ear, that is to say the sentient organ,17 derived from the four Great Phenomena, forming part of the nature of the self, invisible and reacting, —

  1. by which ear, invisible and reacting, one has heard, hears, will, or may hear sound that is invisible and impingeing;—
  2. against which ear, invisible and reacting, sound that is invisible and impingeing, has impinged, impinges, will, or may impinge; —
  3. which ear, invisible and reacting, has impinged, impinges, will, or may impinge on sound that is invisible and impingeing; —
  4. depending on which ear, in consequence of a sound, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise:

auditory contact; . . .

and, depending on which ear, in consequence of a [Page 179] sound, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise, born of that auditory contact,

a feeling . . .
[or] a perception ...
[or] thinking ...
[or] auditory cognition; —

[further] depending on which ear, and having a sound as its object, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise

auditory contact,

and, depending on which ear, and having a sound as its object, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise, born of that auditory contact,

a feeling ...
[or] a perception . . .
[or] thinking . . .
[or] auditory cognition;

— this that is

hearing,
the sphere of hearing,
the constituent element of hearing,
the faculty of hearing,

this that is

'a world',
'a door',
'an ocean',
'lucent',
'a field',
'a basis',18
'the hither shore',
'an empty village'

— this is that form which is the sphere of hearing.

[605-608] What is that form which is the sphere of smell?

The nose, that is to say the sentient organ, 19 derived from the four Great Phenomena, forming part of the nature of the self, invisible and reacting, —

  1. by which nose, invisible and reacting, one has smelt, smells, will, or may smell odour that is invisible and impingeing; —
  2. against which nose, invisible and reacting, odour that is invisible and impingeing, has impinged, impinges, will, or may impinge; —
  3. [Page 180] which nose, invisible and reacting, has impinged, impinges, will, or may impinge on odour that is invisible and impingeing; —
  4. depending on which nose, in consequence of an odour . . . depending on which nose, and having an odour as its object, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise:

olfactory contact,

and, depending on which nose, in consequence of an odour . . . depending on which nose, and having an odour as its object, there has arisen, arises, will or may arise, born of that olfactory contact,

a feeling . . .
[or] a perception . . .
[or] thinking . . .
[or] olfactory cognition;

— this that is smell, the sphere, the constituent element, the faculty, of smell, this that is 'a world', etc.

[continue as in § 604].

[609-612] What is that form which is the sphere of taste?

The tongue, that is to say the sentient organ,20 derived from the four Great Phenomena, forming part of the nature of the self, invisible and reacting; —

  1. by which tongue, invisible and reacting, one has tasted, tastes, will, or may taste sapids that are invisible and impingeing; —
  2. against which tongue, invisible and reacting, sapids that are invisible and impingeing, have impinged, impinge, will, or may impinge; —
  3. which tongue, invisible and reacting, has impinged, [Page 181] impinges, will, or may impinge on sapids that are invisibleand impingeing; —
  4. depending on which tongue, in consequence of a sapid . . . depending on which tongue, and having a sapid as its object, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise:

gustatory contact,

and depending on which tongue, in consequence of a sapid . . . depending on which tongue, and having a sapid as its object, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise, born of that gustatory contact,

a feeling . . .
[or] a perception ...
[or] thinking . . .
[or] gustatory cognition;

— this that is

taste,
the sphere,
the constituent element,
the faculty of taste,

this that is

'a world',
etc.

[continue as in § 604].

[613-616] What is that form which is the sphere of body [-sensibility]?

The body, that is to say the sentient organ,21 derived [Page 182] from the four Great Phenomena, forming part of the nature of the self, invisible and reacting; —

  1. by which body-sensibility, invisible and reacting, one has touched, touches, will, or may touch the tangible that is invisible and impingeing; —
  2. against which body-sensibility, invisible and reacting, the tangible, which is invisible and impingeing, has impinged, impinges, will, or may impinge; —
  3. which bodysensibility, invisible and reacting, has impinged, impinges, will, or may impinge on the tangible that is invisible and impingeing; —
  4. depending on which bodysensibility, in consequence of something tangible . . . depending on which bodysensibility, and having something tangible as its object, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise:

tactile contact,22

and depending on which bodysensibility, in consequence of something tangible . . . depending on which body-sensibility, and having something tangible as its object, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise, born of that tactile contact,

a feeling . . .
[or] a perception . . .
[or] thinking ...
[or] tactile cognition; — 23

this that is

body sensibility,
the sphere,
constituent element,
faculty of bodysensibility,

this that is

'a world',
etc.

[continue as in § 604].

[Page 183] [617] What is that form which is the sphere of [visible] form?

The form which, derived from the great principles, is visible under the appearance of colour and produces impact24

is blue,25
yellow,
red,26
white,
black,27
crimson,28
bronze,29
green-coloured,30
of the hue of the mangobud;31

is long,
short,32
big,
little,
circular,
oval,
square,
hexagonal,
octagonal,
hekkaidecagonal;

low,
high,
shady,
glowing,
light,
dim,
dull,
frosty,33
smoky,
dusty;

like in colour to the [Page 184]
disc of moon,34
sun,
stars,

a mirror,35
a gem,
a shell,
a pearl,
a cat's eye,36

gold37 or silver;38

or whatever other form there is which, derived from the four Great Phenomena, is visible and productive of impact — form which, visible and productive of impact, one has seen, sees, will, or may see with the eye that is invisible and reacting

— this which is

visible form,

this which is

the sphere of visible form,
the constituent element of visible form

— this is that form which is the sphere of visible form.

[618] What is that form which is the sphere of visible form?

That form which, derived from the Great Phenomena, is visible under the appearance of colour and produces impact . . .39 on which form, visible and productive of impact, the eye, invisible and impingeing, has impinged, impinges, will, or may impinge

— this that is

visible form,
etc.

[continue as in § 617].

[619] What is that form which is the sphere of visible form?

[Page 185] That form which, derived from the Great Phenomena, is visible under the appearance of colour and produces impact — which form, visible and producing impact, has impinged, impinges, will, or may impinge on the eye that is invisible and reacting

— this which is

visible form,
etc.

[continue as in § 617].

[620] What is that form which is the sphere of visible form?

That form which, derived from the four Great Phenomena, is visible and produces impact — in consequence of which form, and depending on the eye, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise

visual contact . . .

in consequence of which form and depending on the eye, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise, born of that visual contact,

a feeling . . .
[or] a perception . . .
[or] thinking . . .
[or] visual cognition . . .

[further] having which visible form as its object,40 and depending on the eye there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise

visual contact,

[Page 186] and, having which visible form as its object, and depending on the eye, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise

a feeling . . .
[or] a perception . . .
[or] thinking . . .
[or] visual cognition . . .

this which is

visible form,

the sphere,
the constituent element of visible form

— this is that form which is the sphere of visible form.

[621] What is that form which is the sphere of sound?

That sound which is derived from the four Great Phenomena, is invisible and produces impact, such as

the sound
of drums,
of tabors,
of chank-shells,
of tom-toms,
of singing,
of music;41

clashing sounds,42
manual sounds,43

the noise of people,44

the sound
of the concussion of substances,45
of wind,46
of water,47

sounds human and other than human,

or whatever other sound48 there is, derived from the Great Phenomena, invisible and producing impact — such a sound, invisible and producing impact, as, by the ear, invisible and reacting, one has heard, hears, will, or may hear . . .

[622] . . . and on which sound, invisible and producing impact, the ear, invisible and reacting, has impinged, impinges, will, or may impinge . . .

[623] . . . which sound, invisible and producing impact, [Page 187] has impinged, impinges, will, or may impinge on the ear that is invisible and reacting . . .

[624] . . . in consequence of which sound and depending on the ear, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise

auditory contact . . .

. . . and49 . . . born of that auditory contact,

a feeling . . .
[or] a perception . . .
[or] thinking . . .
[or] auditory cognition . . . 

. . . [further] having a sound as its object and depending on the ear, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise,

auditory contact,

. . . and . . . born of that auditory contact,

a feeling . . .
[or] a perception . . .
[or] thinking . . .
[or] auditory cognition;

this that is sound, the sphere and constituent element of sound — this is that form which is the sphere of sound.

[625] What is that form which is the sphere of odour?

That odour which is derived from the four Great Phenomena, is invisible and produces impact, such as

the odour of roots,
sap,
bark,
leaves,
Flowers,
fruit;

verminous odours,
putrid odours,
pleasant and unpleasant odours,50

or [Page 188] whatever other odour there is, derived from the four Great Phenomena, invisible and producing impact; such an odour, invisible and producing impact, as one has smelt, smells, will, or may smell with the nose, that is invisible and impingeing . . .

[626] . . . on which odour, invisible and producing impact, the nose, invisible and impingeing, has impinged, impinges, will, or may impinge . . .

[627] . . . such an odour, invisible and producing impact, as has impinged, impinges, will, or may impinge on the nose, invisible and reacting . . .

[628] . . . in consequence of which odour and depending on the nose, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise

olfactory contact . . .

and51 . . . born of that olfactory contact,

a feeling . . .
[or] a perception . . .
[or] thinking . . .
[or] olfactory cognition . . .

. . . [further] having an odour as its object and depending on the nose, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise

olfactory contact,

. . . and . . . born of that olfactory contact,

a feeling . . .
[or] a perception . . .
[or] thinking . . .
[or] olfactory cognition;

[Page 189] this that is odour, the sphere and constituent element of odour — this is that form which is the sphere of odours.

[629] What is that form which is the sphere of taste?

That taste which is derived from the four Great Phenomena, is invisible and produces impact, such as

the taste of roots,
stems,
bark,
leaves,
flowers,
fruits,

of sour,
sweet,52
bitter,53
pungent,54
saline,55
alkaline,56
acrid,57
astringent,58
nice and nauseous sapids,59

or whatever other taste there is, derived from the four Great Phenomena, invisible and producing impact — such tastes, invisible and producing impact, as with the tongue, invisible and reacting, one has tasted, tastes, will, or may taste . . .

[630] . . . against which taste, invisible and producing impact, the tongue, invisible and impingeing, has impinged, impinges, will, or may impinge . . .

[631] ... a taste which, invisible and producing impact, has impinged, impinges, will, or may impinge on the tongue, invisible and reacting . . .

[632] . . . in consequence of which taste and depending •on the tongue, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise

gustatory contact . . .

[Page 190] . . . and60 . . . born of that gustatory contact,

a feeling . . .
[or] a perception . . .
[or] thinking . . .
[or] gustatory cognition,

[further] having a taste as its object and depending on the tongue, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise

gustatory contact,

. . . and . . . born of that gustatory contact,

a feeling . . .
[or] a perception . . .
[or] thinking ...
[or] gustatory cognition;

this that is taste, the sphere and constituent element of taste — this is that form which is the sphere of taste.61

[633] What is that form which is femininity (itthindriyam)?

That which is of the female, feminine in appearance, feminine in characteristics, in occupation, in deportment, feminine in condition and being — this is that form which constitutes femininity.62

[Page 191] [634] What is that form which is masculinity (purisindriyam)?

That which is of the male, masculine in appearance, masculine in characteristics, in occupation, in deportment, masculine in condition and being — this is that form which constitutes masculinity.63

[Page 192] [635] What is that form which is vitality (jivitindriyam)?

The persistence of these corporeal states, their subsistence, their going on, their being kept going on, their progress, continuance, preservation, life, life as faculty — this is that form which is vitality.64

[636] What is that form which is bodily intimation (kayavinnatti)?

That tension, that intentness, that state of making the body65 tense, in response to a thought, whether good, bad, or indeterminate, on the part of one who advances, or recedes, or fixes the gaze, or glances around, or retracts an arm, or stretches it forth — the intimation, the making known, the state of having made known — this is that form which constitutes bodily intimation.66

[Page 193] [637] What is that form which is intimation by language (vacivinnatti)?

That speech, voice, enunciation, utterance, noise, making noises, language as articulate speech, which expresses a thought whether good, bad, or indeterminate — this is called language.

And that intimation, that making known, the state of having made known by language — this is that form which constitutes intimation by language.67

[638] What is that form which is the element of space (akasa-dhatu)?

That which is space and belongs to space, is sky and [Page 194] belongs to sky,68 is vacuum and belongs to vacuum, and is not in contact'69 with the four Great Phenomena — this is that form which is the element of space.

[639] What is that form which is lightness of form (rupassa lahuta)?70

That lightness of form which is its capacity for changing easily, its freedom from sluggishness and inertia — this is that form which is lightness of form.

[640] What is that form which is plasticity of form?

[Page 195] That plasticity of form which is its softness, smoothness, non-rigidity — this is that form which is plasticity of form.

[641] What is that form which is wieldiness of form?

That wieldiness of form which is its serviceableness, its workable condition — this is that form which is wieldiness of form.71

[642] What is that form which is the integration (upacayo) of form?

That which is accumulation of form is the integration of form72 — this is that form which is the integration of form.

[643] What is that form which is the subsistence of form (rupassa santati)?

That which is integration of form is the subsistence of form. — This is that form which is the subsistence of form.

[644] What is that form which is the decay of form (rupassa jarata)?

That decay of form which is ageing, decrepitude, hoariness, wrinkles, the shrinkage in length of days, the hypermaturity of faculties — this is that form which is the decay of form.73

[Page 196] [645] What is that form which is the impermanence of form (rupassa aniccata)?

The destruction, disease, breaking-up, dissolution of form, the impermanence which is decline — this is that form which is the impermanence of form.74

[646] What is that form which is bodily (solid) nutriment (kabalinkaro aharo)?75

Boiled rice, sour gruel, flour, fish, flesh, milk, curds, butter, cheese, tila-oil, cane-syrup, or whatever else76 there is in whatever region that by living beings may be eaten, chewed, swallowed, digested into the juice77 by which living [Page 197] beings are kept alive — this is that form which is bodily nutriment.

[All] this is form which is derived.

[End of] the Section on Derivatives. First Portion for Eecitation in the Division on Form.

 

['There is form which is not derived' (no upada)].

[647] What is that form which is not derived?78

The sphere of the tangible, the fluid element — this is that form which is not derived.

[648] What is that form which is the sphere of the tangible (photthabbayatanam)?

The earthy (solid) element,
the lambent (calorific) element,
the gaseous (aerial) element; 79

the hard and the [Page 198] soft;
the smooth and the rough;

pleasant (easeful) contact,
painful contact;

the heavy and the light80

— such a tangible, invisible and producing impact,81 as, with the [Page 199] body-sensibility, invisible and reacting, one has touched, touches, will, or may touch . . .

[649] . . . against which tangible, invisible, and producing impact, the bodysensibility, invisible and reacting, has impinged, impinges, will, or may impinge . . .

[650] . . . such a tangible, invisible and producing impact, as has impinged, impinges, will, or may impinge against the body-sensibility, invisible and reacting . . .

[Page 200] [651] . . . in consequence of which tangible and depending on the body-sensibility, there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise

bodily contact . . .

and . . . born of that bodily contact,

a feeling . . .
[or] a perception . . .
[or] thinking . . .
[or] cognition of body . . .

[further,] having a tangible as its object and depending on the body (-sensibility), there has arisen, arises, will, or may arise

bodily contact . . .

and . . . born of that bodily contact,

a feeling . . .
[or] a perception . . .
[or] thinking . . .
[or] cognition of body;

this that is the tangible, the sphere and element of the tangible — this is that form which is the sphere of the tangible.82

[652] What is that form which is the fluid (aqueous) element (apodhatu)?

That which is fluid and belongs to fluid, that which is [Page 201] viscid83 and belongs to viscous, the cohesiveness of form84 — this is that form which is the fluid element.

[All] this is that form which is not derived.

 

[653] What is that form85 which is the issue of grasping (upadinnam)?86

[Page 202] The spheres of:
sight,
hearing,
smell,
taste,
body-sensibility,
femininity,
masculinity,
vitality,

or whatever form there exists through karma having been wrought, whether it be in

the spheres of:
visible forms,
odours,
tastes,
or the tangible;

the element of space,
the fluid element,
the integration or the subsistence of form,87

or bodily nutriment

— this is that form which is the issue of grasping.

[654] What is that form which is not the issue of grasping?

The sphere of sound, bodily and vocal intimation, lightness, plasticity and wieldiness of form, decay and impermanence of form, or whatever other form exists which is not due to karma having been wrought, whether it be in the sphere of visible forms, smells, tastes, or the tangible; the element of space or that of fluidity; the integration or the subsistence of form, or bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not the issue of grasping.

[655] What is that form which is both the issue of grasping and favourable to grasping (upadinn 'upadaniyam)?

The spheres of:
the five senses,
femininity,
masculinity and vitality,

or whatever other form exists through karma having been wrought, whether it be in

the spheres of: [Page 203]
visible forms,
odours,
tastes or the tangible,

in the elements of space or fluidity,
in the integration,

or the subsistence of form
or in bodily nutriment

— this is that form which is both the issue of grasping and favourable to grasping.

[656] What is that form which is not the issue of grasping, but is favourable to grasping (anupadinn' upadaniyam)?88

The sphere of:
sounds,
bodily and vocal intimation,
the lightness,
plasticity,
wieldiness,
decay and impermanence of form,

or whatever other form exists which is not due to karma having been wrought, whether it be in

the sphere of
visible forms,89
smells,
tastes,
the tangible,

in the element of space or of fluidity,
in the integration,

or the subsistence of form,
or in bodily nutriment

— this is that form which is not the issue of grasping but is favourable to grasping.

[657] What is that form which is visible?

The sphere of visible forms — this is that form which is visible.

[658] What is that form which is invisible?

The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is invisible.90

[Page 204] [659] What is that form which reacts and impinges91 (sappatigham)?

The spheres of:
vision,
hearing,
smell,
taste,
body-sensibility;

the spheres of:
visible forms,
sounds,
smells,
tastes,
tangibles

— this is that form which reacts and impinges.

[660] What is that form which does not react or impinge?

Femininity . . . and bodily nutriment

— this is that form which does not react or impinge.

[661] What is that form which is faculty (indriyam)?

The faculties (or personal potentialities)92 of:
vision,
hearing,
smell,
taste,
body-sensibility,
femininity,
masculinity,
vitality

— this is that form which is faculty.

[662] What is that form which is not faculty?

The spheres of visible form . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not faculty.93

[Page 205] [663] What is that form which is Great Phenomenon (mahabhutam)?

The sphere of the tangible and the element of fluidity — this is that form which is Great Phenomenon.

[664] What is that form which is not Great Phenomenon?

The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not Great Phenomenon.94

[665] What is that form which is intimation (vinnatti)?

Bodily and vocal intimation 95 — this is that form which is intimation.

[666] What is that form which is not intimation?

The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not intimation.

[667] What is that form which is sprung from thought (citta-samutthanam)? 96

[Page 206] Bodily and vocal intimation, or whatever other form exists that is born of thought, caused by thought, has its source in thought, whether it be in

the sphere of:
visible forms,
sounds,
odours,
tastes or tangibles,

in the spatial,
or the fluid element,

in the lightness,
plasticity,
wieldiness,
integration
or subsistence of form,
or in bodily nutriment

— this is that form which is sprung from thought.

[668] What is that form which is not sprung from thought?

The sphere of:
the five senses,
femininity,
masculinity and vitality,

the decay and the impermanence of form,

or whatever other form exists that is not born of thought, not caused by thought, does not have its source in thought, whether it be in

the sphere of
visible forms,
sounds,
odours,
tastes,
or tangibles,

in the spatial or fluid element,

in the lightness,
plasticity,
wieldiness,

integration or subsistence of form,
or in bodily nutriment

— this is that form which is not sprung from thought.

[669] What is that form which comes into being together with thought (citta-saha-bhu)?

[670] What is that form which does not come into being; together with thought?

Answers as in the preceding pair of relatives.

[671] What is that form which is consecutive to thought (citt anuparivatti)?

[672] What is that form which is not consecutive to thought?

Answers as in the preceding pair of relatives.

[Page 207] [673] What is that form which belongs to the self (ajjhattikam)?97

The spheres of the five senses — this is that form which belongs to the self.

[674] What is that form which is external (to the self — bahiram)?

The sphere of the five kinds of sense-objects . . .98 and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is external (to the self).

[675] Which is that form which is gross (olarikam)?

The spheres of the five senses and of the five kinds of sense-objects — this is that form which is gross.

[676] Which is that form which is subtle (sukhumam)?

[Page 208] Femininity . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is subtle.99

[677] What is that form which is remote (dure)?

Femininity . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is remote.

[678] What is that form which is near (santike)?

The spheres of the five senses and of the five kinds of sense-objects — this is that form which is near.100

 

[Page 209] [Basis (vatthu).]101

[679] What is that form which is the basis of visual contact (cakkhusamphassassa vatthu)?

The sphere of vision — this is that form which is the basis of visual contact.

[680] What is that form which is not the basis of visual contact?

The sphere of hearing . . .102 and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not, etc.

[Page 210] [681] What is that form which is the basis of

the feeling . . .
the perception . . .
the thinking . . .
the visual cognition

which is born of visual contact?

The sphere of vision — this is that form which is the basis of the . . . visual cognition103 which is born of visual contact.

[682] What is that form which is not the basis of the . . . visual cognition born of visual contact?

The sphere of hearing . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not the basis of the . . . visual cognition born of visual contact.

[683] What is that form which is the basis of

auditory . . .
olfactory . . .
gustatory . . .104
bodily contact?

The sphere of . . .105 bodysensibility — this is that form which is the basis of . . . bodily contact.

[684] What is that form which is not the basis of . . . bodily contact?

[Page 211] The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not the basis of . . . bodily contact.

[685] What is that form which is the basis of

the feeling . . .
the perception . . .
the thinking . . .
the . . . cognition of body

that is born of . . . bodily contact?

The sphere . . . of bodysensibility — this is that form which is the basis of the . . . cognition of body that is born of . . . bodily contact.

[686] What is that form which is not the basis of the . . . cognition of body born of . . . bodily contact?

The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not the basis of the . . . cognition of body born, etc.

 

[Mental object or idea (arammanam).]

[687] What is that form which is the object in visual contact?

The sphere of visible forms — this is that form which is the object in visual contact.

[688] What is that form which is not the object in visual contact?

The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment106 — this is that form which is not, etc.

[689] What is that form which is the object in

the feeling . . .
the perception . . .
the thinking . . .
the visual cognition

that is born of visual contact?

[Page 212] The sphere of visible forms — this is that form which is the object in . . . the visual cognition that is born of visual contact.

[690] What is that form which is not107 the object in the . . . visual cognition born of visual contact?

The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not the object, etc.

[691] What is that form which is the object in

auditory . . .
olfactory . . .
gustatory . . .
bodily contact?

The sphere of . . . the tangible — this is that form which is the object in . . . bodily contact.

[692] What is that form which is not the object in . . . bodily contact?

The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not the object in . . . bodily contact.

[693] What is that form which is the object in

the feeling . . .
the perception . . .
the thinking . . .
the . . . cognition of body

that is born of . . . bodily contact?

The sphere of the tangible — this is that form which is the object in the . . . cognition of body that is born of . . . bodily contact.

[Page 213] [694] What is that form which is not the object in the . . . cognition of body that is born of bodily contact?

The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment108 — this is that form which is not the object, etc.

 

[Sphere of sense (ayatanam).]

[695] What is that form which is the sphere of vision?

The eye, that is to say, the sentient organ which is derived from the four Great Phenomena . . . this that is 'an empty village' — this is that form which is the sphere of vision.109

[696] What is that form which is not the sphere of vision?

The sphere of hearing . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not the sphere of vision.

[697] What is that form which is the sphere of hearing . . . smell ... taste . . . bodysensibility?

The body, that is to say, the sentient organ which is derived from the four Great Phenomena . . . this that is 'an empty village' — this is that form which is the sphere of . . . body-sensibility.

[698] What is that form which is not the sphere of . . . body-sensibility?

[Page 214] The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not, etc.

[699] What is that form which is the sphere of visible forms?

That form which, derived from the four Great Phenomena, is visible under the appearance of colour . . . this . . . which is the constituent element of visible form — this is that form which is the sphere of visible forms.

[700] What is that form which is not the sphere of visible forms?

The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not, etc.

[701] What is that form which is the sphere of

sound,
odour,
taste,
the tangible?

The earthy (solid) element . . . this that is the . . . element of the tangible — this is that form which is the sphere of the tangible.110

[702] What is that form which is not the sphere of . . . the tangible?

The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not, etc.

 

[Element (dhatu).]

[703] What is that form which is the element of vision?

The sphere of vision — this is that form which is the element of vision.

[Page 216] [704] What is that form which is not the element of vision?

The sphere of hearing . . . and bodily nutriment111 — this is that form which is not the element of vision.

[705] What is that form which is the element of visible form?

The sphere of visible form — this is that form which is the element of visible form.

[706] What is that form which is not the element of visible form?

The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not, etc.

[707] What is that form which is the element of sound . . . of odour . . . of taste . . . of the tangible?

The sphere of . . .112 the tangible — this is that form which is the element of . . . the tangible.

[708] What is that form which is not the element of . . . the tangible?

The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not the element of . . . the tangible.

 

[Faculty (indriyam).]

[709] What is that form which is the faculty of vision?

The eye, that is to say, the sentient organ which is derived from the four Great Phenomena . . . this that is 'an empty village'113 — this is that form which is the faculty of vision.

[710] What is that form which is not the faculty of vision?

[Page 216] The sphere of hearing . . . and bodily nutriment114 — this is that form which is not, etc.

[711] What is that form which is the faculty of hearing . . . smell . . . taste . . . body-sensibility?

The . . .115 body, that is to say, the sentient principle, which is derived from the four Great Phenomena . . . this that is 'an empty village' — this is that form which is the faculty of . . . body-sensibility.

[712] What is that form which is not the faculty of . . . body-sensibility?

The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not, etc.

[713] What is that form which is femininity (lit., the female faculty or potentiality)?116

That which is of the female, feminine in appearance, characteristics, occupation, and deportment, feminine in condition and being — this is that form which is femininity.

[713a] What is that form which is not femininity?

The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not, etc.117

[714] What is that form which is masculinity?

That which is of the male, masculine in appearance, characteristics, occupation, and deportment, masculine in condition and being — this is that form which is masculinity.

[715] What is that form which is not masculinity?

Answer as in § 713a.118

[Page 217] [716] What is that form which is (the faculty of) vitality?

The persistence of these corporeal states, their subsistence, their going on, their being kept going on, their progress, continuance, preservation, life, life as faculty — this is that form which is (the faculty of) vitality.

[717] What is that form which is not (the faculty of) vitality?

Answer as in § 713a.

 

[Intimation (vinnatti).]

[718] What is that form which is bodily intimation?

Answer as in § 636.

[719] What is that form which is not bodily intimation?

The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is bodily intimation.

[720] What is that form which is vocal intimation?

Answer as in § 637.

[721] What is that form which is not vocal intimation?

The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not, etc.119

 

[Space and fluid.]120

[722] What is that form which is the element of space?

That which is space and belongs to space, is sky, belongs to sky, is vacuum, belongs to vacuum, and is not in contact with the four Great Phenomena — this is that form which is the element of space.

[Page 218] [723] What is that form which is not the element of space?

Answer as § 721.

[724] What is that form which is the element of fluidity?

That which is fluid and belongs to fluid, that which is viscid and belongs to viscid; the cohesiveness of form — this is that form which is the element of fluidity.

[725] What is that form which is not the element of fluidity?

Answer as m § 721.

 

[Modes of form.]

[726] What is that form which is lightness of form?

That lightness of form which is its capacity for changing easily, its freedom from sluggishness and inertia — this is that form which is lightness of form.

[727] What is that form which is not lightness of form?

The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment — this is that form which is not lightness of form.

[728-731]

Questions on the other two modes of form 'plasticity' and 'wieldiness' are answered hy the descriptions given in §§ 640, 641. The corresponding contradictory terms are described in the same terms as in § 727, viz, : as in § 596, ivith the omissions and insertion as indicated on p, 216, n. 5.

 

[Evolution of form.]

[732] What is that form which is the integration of form?

That which is accumulation of form is the integration of form — this is that form which is, etc.

[733] What is that form which is not the integration of form?

[Page 219] The sphere of vision . . . and bodily nutriment  — this is that form which is not, etc. 

[734-737]

Questions on the 'subsistence', 'decay', and 'impermanence' of form and their contradictories are answered analogously icith those in the group on 'Modes of form', the three positives being described as in §§ 642-645.

 

[Nutrition.]

[740] What is that form which is bodily nutriment?

This is answered as in § 646.

[741] What is that form which is not bodily nutriment?

The sphere of vision . . . and the impermanence of form — this is that form which is not bodily nutriment.

Such are the Categories of Form under Dual Aspects.

[End of] the Exposition of the Pairs.  

first previous index next last

- Footnotes:

1.

This and the following italicised headings are quoted from the table of contents, § 585, etc. — atthi rupam upada, and again, atthi rupam no upada. The ablative resembles our idiom 'qua derived' — form as derived. In § 584 and in § 597, etc. the gerund up ad ay a is employed. Depending on, not released from, is the paraphrase (Asl. BOO, 305). 'Grounded in' were an approximate rendering, the literal meaning being 'taking hold of'.

2.

Ayatanam. The word means (see my Introduction) simply 'field', locus, range, Gebiet.

3.

Lit. body. The Upanishads use 'skin'. Cf. our modern term 'skinsensibility', in extension of 'touch', 'tactile sense'. The corresponding objective 'sphere of the tangible' is classed among things wnderived. See § 647.

4.

Cakkhu, which stands for vision, sense of sight and eye. 'Eye', however, is always in the present work to be understood as the seeing faculty or visual sense, and not as the physical organ or 'eye of flesh' (mamsa-cakkhu). The Cy. gives an account of the eye, of which the following is the substance: First the aggregate organism (sasambhara-cakkhu). A ball of flesh fixed in a cavity, bound by the socket-bone beneath and by the bone of the eyebrow above, by the angles of the eye at the sides, by the brain within and by the eyelashes without.

There are fourteen constituents:

  • the four elements,
  • the six attributes dependent on them, viz., colour, odour, taste, sap of life, form (santhanam), and collocation (sambhavo);
  • vitality,
  • nature,
  • bodysensibility (kayappasado)
  • and the visual sentient organ.


The last four have their source in karma.

When 'the world', seeing an obvious extended white object fancies it perceives the eye, it only perceives the basis (or seat — vatthu) of the eye. And this ball of flesh, bound to the brain by nerve-fibres, is white, black and red, and contains the solid, the liquid, the lambent and the gaseous. It is white by superfluity of humour, black by superfluity of bile, red by superfluity of blood, rigid by superfluity of the solid, exuding by superfluity of the liquid, inflamed by superfluity of the lambent, quivering by superfluity of the gaseous. But that sentient organ (pas ado) which is there bound, inherent, derived from the four great principles — this is the visual sense (pasadacakkhu).

Placed in the midst and in the front of the black disc of the composite eye, the white disc surrounding it (note that the iris is either not distinguished or is itself the 'black disc') and in the circle of vision, in the region where the forms of adjacent bodies come to appear (tfiere seems here some omission in the text), it permeates the seven ocular membranes as sprinkled oil will permeate seven cotton wicks. And so it stands, aided by the four elements, sustaining, binding, maturing, moving (samudiranarn) — like an infant prince and his four nurses, feeding, bathing, dressing and fanning him — maintained by nutriment both physical (utu) and mental, protected by the (normal) span of life, invested with colour, smell, taste and so forth, in size the measure of a louse's head — stands duly constituting itself the door of the seat of visual cognitions, etc.

For as it has been said by the Commander of the Doctrine (Sariputta):

The visual sense by which he beholds forms
Is small and delicate, comparable to a louse's head.

The elaborate architectonics of this paragraph in the original is a fine effort of the Commentator's style. I am not clear to what the 'etc' after 'cognitions' alludes. But the expression occurs in the description of each sense. Cf. the description in Hardy, 'Man. of Buddhism', p. 419.

5.

Pasado. By selecting this term, continues the Cy., he (the Buddha) rejects the other (physical) eye. So far as I know, the as yet unidentified verses quoted in the previous note are the only early instance of the word p a s a d o, meaning literally clearness, brightness, serenity, faith, being used to denote the receptive reacting sense-agency. It is not easy to divine exactly how the Buddhists came to use the word in this connexion. It is used co-ordinately for all the other senses, hence the sensuous signification had nothing to do with the specific nature of sight (unless this was made the Type of all other sensation). Taken causatively it may conceivably have meant either that which makes clear — a revealer, as it were {cf. Bothl. and Koth — prasadana), or that which gratifies or satisfies {Beruhigen), both meanings emphasizing psychological process, rather than 'product' or 'seat'.

6.

Attabhava-pariyapanno.

'The body and the five skandhas are here termed nature of the self, after the usage of foolish folk who say,

"This is myself"'

(Asl. 308).

Thus the usage of attabhavO was a concession on the part of the Great Teacher to animistic phraseology.

7.

'i.e., impact and reaction are set up in the eye'

(ihid.).

8.

Paraphrased by ayam satto, any given individual (ibid.).

9.

This and the following similes will be quotations of metaphors applied to the senses in the Sutta Pitaka. E.g., that of the 'empty village' occurs in S. iv. 174

— Sunno gamo ti kho, bhikkhave, channam ajjhattikanam [? ayatananam] adhivacanam.

That of a 'door', which in the age of the Commentaries was the regular term for sense-organ, is, I believe, seldom used in the Sutta Pitaka, and then only as a poetical figure, not as a technical term.

Cf., e.g., indriyesuguttadvaro (D I., 63, 250).

Buddhaghosa simply paraphrases the various metaphors —

  • 'world', by reason of wasting and decay;
  • 'door', by reason of customary resort;
  • 'ocean', by reason of its insatiableness;
  • 'lucent', by reason of its purity;
  • 'field', by reason of the springing up (growth) of contact, etc.;
  • 'base', by reason of its fixed seat;
  • 'guide', 'guidance', by reason of its leading the nature-of-the-self showing agreements and differences;
  • 'hither shore', by reason of its being included in the 'body of this life' (or individuality, sakkayam);
  • 'empty village', because it is common to many, because there is no headman (i.e., Ego or soul. 'Many' must mean the individual considered as an aggregate of constituents.)

The metaphors, it will be seen, are applied equally, with the sole exception of 'guide' and 'guidance', to each remaining sense. By the explanation of these two figures given in the Cy., they should have been left to stand for each sense. Buddhaghosa, however, is of course not responsible for the expressions used in the Pitakas. Yet it is slightly disappointing that he makes no effort to account for an omission which is not without psychological justification.

10.

In this answer, according to the Cy. (p. 309), involuntary visual sensation is described, as when lightning flashes on the sight of one not looking for it.

11.

Here (Asl. 309) we have voluntary sense-impression described — the process in the case of one

'who, by his own desire, seeking to look at some object, concentrates his vision'.

12.

Cakkhum nissaya, rupam arabbha.

13.

Here there should be in the text ... pe ... as in the corresponding passage for the other four senses. Cf. note 4. In K. it is also inadvertently omitted here.

14.

Cakkhuvinfianani here replaces the fourth mode of consciousness, c it tarn, or thought, in the series invariably stated as aroused by 'contact' in connexion with the Eight Types of Thought given in Book I, chap. i. Thinking (cetana) may stand for a train of ideas set going by the sensation having no special reference to the visible object as such. Visual cognition, on the other hand, would take special account of the thing seen. Or possibly the two are to be considered as corresponding approximately to process and product. Cf. what has been said above on both terms, p. 8, n. 1.

15.

Judging by the corresponding passages in § § 604, 608, 612, 616, by K. and by the comments of Buddhaghosa, I find that the following passage has been erroneously omitted in the text before the words cakkhum p'etam:

— ... pe ... yam cakkhum nissaya ruparammano cakkhusamphasso uppajji va uppajjati va uppajjissati va uppajje va, yam cakkhum nissaya ruparammana cakkhusamphassaja vedana ... pe ... sanna ... pe ... cetana ... pe ... cakkhuvinnanam uppajji va uppajjati va uppajji va uppajje va.

Cf. also § 620.

16.

According to the Cy. (310), this reply, when rehearsed in full, reveals ten distinct answers, each commencing with the refrain:

'The eye, that is to say',

etc., to

'self, invisible and reacting'.

They may be summarized and generalized thus:

(i.) Sense impression or contact, as conditioned by sense-organ and sense-stiimdus.
(ii.) Eesultant feeling.
(iii. -v.) Kesultant intellectual states,
(vi.) Sense-impression or contact, as conditioned by senseorgan and idea of sense-object,
(vii.-x.) Eesultant states as in
(ii.-v). What was precisely the difference between the processies named as
(i.) and
(vi.) it is not yet easy to determine with certainty.

17.

This, situated within the cavity of the aggregate organism of the ear, and w^ell furnished with fine reddish hairs, is in shape like a little finger-stall (anguli-vethanaka). (Asl. 310.) Cf. Hardy, loc. ci7.

18.

On the omission of 'a guide', etc., see p. 175, n. 4.

19.

This is situated 'inside the cavity of the aggregate nasal organism, in appearance like a goat's hoof'. (Asl. 310). Cf. Hardy, loc. cit. Probably the hoof is imagined as regarded from below.

20.

This is situated 'above the middle of the aggregate gustatory organism, in appearance like the upper side of the leaf of a lotus'. (Asl., ibid.) Cf. Hardy, loc. cit. The palate apparently was not included in the gustatory apparatus.

21.

The sphere of kayo— so runs the comment (AsL 311) — is diffused over the whole bodily form just as oil pervades an entire cotton rag. With the exception of this quality of relatively undifferentiated organ, the sense is co-ordinate with the other senses. To the objection that, if the sensitive surface be indeed so general it would convey confused impressions, it is counter-asserted that, if it were not so general, tactile impressions could not be adequately differentiated. Strictly speaking the bodysense is both everywhere and not everywhere. Not everywhere to the extent of being in things as seen or as tasted.

We cannot segregate and analyze sensations as we can grains of sand, and hence qualities are said to coalesce in the object. Nevertheless each mode of sense conveys its specific messages.

— Such seems to me the substance of what I have clothed to a slight extent in terms of Western psychology. The Commentary is of course tentative and groping, as elsewhere in its theory of sense; yet it must not be forgotten that it was not till about fifty years ago that Ernst Weber's 'Der Tastsinn und das Gemeingefiihl' appeared, containing the positive results of a comparison of different skin-areas from the standpoint of their varying ability to convey clear or vague tactile impressions.

22.

Literally, body-contact.

23.

Literally, cognition of body, so rendered in § 443 seq.

24.

Sappatigham, here paraphrased as producing (janakam) reaction and impact. Asl. 317.

25.

Compared to the ummapuppham, or flax-blossom. Cf. my remark on nilam above, under § 246. Here the term is illustrated by an azure flower, such as we ourselves might quote as a type of blue. And yet even here the wide range and indefiniteness of the word find expression. For according to Bothl. and Eoth, on the authority of Hemachandra, uma is applied to night.

26.

Like the blossom of Pterospermum acerifolium and Pentapetro phoenicea respectively (ibid.). I give these on Childers' authority.

27.

Like the morning star and charcoal respectively (ibid.).

28.

Like the reddish buds of the Vitex negiuido and kanavira trees (ibid.).

29.

Hari, omitted in the text, but given in K. and the Cy. (ibid.).

'Whereas, in the verse Harittacahemavannam kamam sumukkhapakama, hari is spoken of as golden (suvannam), by its being elsewhere taken in conjunction with coined gold (jatarupam), it is here meant as dark (samam)'

(ibid.).

Cf. Jat. V. 216, sama ti suvanna-sama.

30.

The colour of green grass (ibid.).

31.

K. and the Cy. read ambankuravannam.

32.

See my Introduction, on 'long', short, as only indirectly objects of sight.

'The foregoing seven visibles are set forth without reference to any base (vatthu); the following according to common usage'

(ibid.).

33.

Paraphrased as cloudy and as him am — which may be frosty, snowy or dewy — respectively. As the allusion is only to lustre-contrast, the sparkle of hoar-frost is probably implied.

34.

The following terms, says the Cy. (ibid.), illustrate varieties of lustre. A little gratuitous astronomy is then thrown in. The orb of the moon, viz., the mansion of the moon-god, is 49 yojanas in extent, is made of gold and roofed with silver. That of the sun is 50 yojanas, is made of gold and roofed with crystal. The constellations, the mansions of different gods, are 7, 8, or 10 yojanas in extent, and are made of the seven jewels. Between the moon below and the sun above is 1 yojana. The constellations take two years in their orbit. They and the sun go (sic) swiftly, the moon slowly. At times the moon leads, at times she is behind.

35.

Is of bronze (Asl. 318).

36.

Is not a gem; is the colour of the bamboo (ibid.).

37.

'The Master's colour'

(ibid,).

38.

Under kahapano, i.e., silver coin, masakas of copper, wood, and lac are to be included (ibid.). Quoted from Vin. iii. 238.

39.

In this and the next two answers, according to K., the list of typical forms given in § 617 is to be rehearsed each time in full.

40.

In the printed text, for ruparammanam read ruparammano, and, two lines later, ruparammana. So for the other senses, § 624, etc. I follow the reading in K., making the word adjectival to sakkhusamphassajo. and then to vedana, sanna, etc. Cf. the analogous passage in § 600 (in the passage I have restored to the text), in § 604, and so on.

I confess I do not see what is gained by shifting cakkhum nissaya, so that by K.'s reading it is sandwiched between adjective and noun, beyond the symmetry in these sense-object answers, of giving precedence everywhere to the object. But this does not invalidate the reading in K. Aram ma nam is a term of mental procedure, not of bare sense-function, such as is indicated by the relation of rupam: cakkhu.

41.

I.e., the sound of lutes and other stringed instruments (Asl. 319).

42.

E.g., of gongs and castanets (ibid.).

43.

I.e., of hand-clapping (ibid.).

44.

I.e., of a crowd when words and syllables have become indistinguishable (ibid.).

45.

I.e., of trees rubbing against each other, or of the knocking of blocks (ibid.). Vin. Texts, iii. 213, n.

46.

I.e., of wind as wind (ibid.).

47.

I.e., either of beaten or flowing water (ibid.).

48.

I.e., of splitting reeds, tearing cloth, and the like (ibid.).

49.

Continue as for visible forms in § 620.

50.

Sugandho, duggandho — these, says Buddhaghosa, namely, desired odour and undesired odour, exhaust all odour. He predicates the same of good and bad tastes (sadu, asadu, § 629). In § 648 we find, classed among the tangibles, pleasant contact and painful contact. But we do not find the commentator making the same comprehensive claim for hedonistic values in touches as in odours and tastes. Nor, as we have seen, does the text predicate anything hedonistically of sight or touch.

This is interesting as bringing the psychology of Buddhism, with its acute if incipient intuition, in 'touch' with our modern psychology. For we say that the more our knowledge of the external world is built up by a given sense, the more is that sense connected with neutral feeling. And it is precisely sight, touch, and hearing that give us most of that knowledge.

Aristotle remarks, with reference to the sense of smell only, that our never discriminating an odour without associating therewith an impression of something painful or pleasant, seems to reveal the imperfection of this sense in humans. Imperfect, i.e., in delicacy of discrimination, touch being herein the most perfect sense (De. An. II. ix.).

51.

See § 624, note.

52.

Buttermilk (takkambilam) is given as a typical sour sapid, ghee from cow's milk (gosappi) as the type of a sweet sapid. But, adds the Cy., sweet added to astringent (kasavam) and kept standing will lose all its sweetness, and so with raw sugar and alkaline substance. Ghee, however, kept standing, while it loses colour and smell, does not lose its taste. It therefore is the absolute sweet (ekanta-madhuram) (Asl. 320).

53.

E.g., as nimb-tree fruit (ibid.).

54.

E.g., as ginger and pepper (ibid.).

55.

E.g., as sea-salt (ibid.).

56.

E.g., as the egg-plant (vatinganakatiram), or as green palm sprouts (cocoanut cabbage) (ibid.).

57.

E.g., as the jujube, or the Feronia elejphantum, etc. (ibid.).

58.

E.g., as the yellow myrobalan (haritakam). I am, as before, indebted to Childers' Dictionary for all this botanical knowledge.

59.

Sadu asadu. See § 625, n. 1.

60.

See § 624, n.

61.

For the sphere of the tangible, see below, § 648.

62.

Literally the in driyam — the faculty, potentiality of the female. Under 'appearance', which the Cy. (321) rules to be here the import of lingam ( = santhanam, cf. Mil. 133, 134), he indicates the physical proportions in which the woman, generally speaking, differs from the man — smaller hands, feet, and face, upper trunk less broad, lower trunk broader. Characteristics (nimittam) are that by which she is recognisable (sanj ananam), both external bodily marks (no beard, e.g., nor tusks, which would seem to include certain animals) and modes of dressing.

Under 'occupation' (kuttam = kiriya) there is an allusion to girls' distinctive amusements— playing with baskets, pestles [and mortars], and dolls (? literally, little daughters, dhitalikaya kllanti), and spinning thread with a mattikavakam, whatever that may be.

Under 'deportment', the 'absence of breadth' (a visadam) in women's walking, standing, sitting, lying, and eating is specified, all these being done more mincingly, less assertively by women. If a man so deport himself, it is said of him, 'He goes like a woman !'

The 'condition and being' of the female, constituting her essential nature, are 'born of karma, and take their source at conception'.

The other female characteristics are evolved by her 'potentiality' in the course of existence, just as the tree with all its appurtenances is evolved in time from the seed. This 'indriyam' is discernible, not by the eye, but by the mind (mano. It is an abstract idea). And it is not to the one sex just what the faculties of sight and so forth are to the other.

63.

The priority of place given to the female is a form of statement as characteristically Buddhist (not to say Indian) as that of saying 'moon and sun'. Both no doubt have their source very deep in the history, or prehistory, of humanity. The Commentator gives the correlative opposites in describing male characteristics, down to the 'swash-buckling and martial air', which if a woman affect she is said to 'go like a man'.

Boys are said to occupy themselves with their characteristic games of playing at carriages and ploughs, and at making sand-banks round puddles and calling them reservoirs.

He then remarks that these sexual distinctions have been evolved during the course of life in primeval ages; since when, originating by way of conception and, some of them, in the individual life, it happens that they get interchanged. He then quotes cases of hermaphroditism, said to have occurred in the members of the Order.

He is mindful also, as we might expect, to appreciate the sex to which he belongs, and makes a curious application to it of the doctrine of karma.

'Of the two, the male sex-marks are superior (uttamam), those of the female inferior (hinam).'

Therefore the former disappear by means of a very bad karma, while the latter are established by a karma indifferently good. The latter, on the other hand, disappear by means of a karma indifferently bad, while the former are established by means of a very good karma. 'Thus, both disappear by badness and are acquired by goodness'.

Thus, our Commentator approximates more to Plato's position than to that of the typical religious celibate, finding woman not stronger to do evil, but rather the weaker in heaping up either good or evil.

64.

'What there is to say, has been said already in connexion with the faculty of vitality as related to incorporeal (formless) states'

(Ask 323. See § 19).

65.

Kayo is said to =sariram; possibly to distinguish it from kayo as used for 'bodysensibility', or the tactile sense (Asl. 324), or again from sense-experience generally (p. 43, n. 3).

66.

Kayavinfiatti is analyzed in a somewhat rambling style by the Commentator. The gist of his remarks amounts, I gather, to the following: In any communication effected by bodily action (which includes communications from animals to men, and vice versa) that which is made known is one's condition (bhavo) at the time, one's self (sayam), and one's intention (adhippayo); in other words, the how, the who or what and the what for. And this is wrought by a bodily suffusion (vipphandanena).

He then classifies the kinds of thoughts which tend to 'produce an intimation', no others having this tendency.

They are —

  • The eight good thoughts relating to the sensuous universe (§§ 1-159), and the thought concerning intuition (abhinila cittam).
  • The twelve bad thoughts (§§ 365-430).
  • The eight great kiriya-thoughts, the two limited kiriya-thoughts, the one kiriya-thought relating to the universe of form which has attained to intuition, making eleven indeterminate thoughts.

Finally he refers us to his theory of 'Doors' (dvarakatha). See my Introduction. (Asl. 323-4.)

67.

Vacivinnatti is dealt with verbatim as bodily intimation was, 'vocal noise' being substituted for 'bodily suffusion'. 'Making noises' is to be understood as making -a noise in a variety of ways. 'Articulate speech' [lit., broken-up speech) is no mere jangle (bhango), but is vocal utterance so divided as to serve for communication (Asl. 325).

It is interesting to note in connexion with the problem as to whether communication or registration of thought is the historically prior function of language, that Buddhaghosa, for all his aptness to draw distinctions, does not make any allusion here to intimation by language forming only one of the functions of speech.

Still more curious, as being more germane to this specific aspect of language, is it that he does not take into account the oral communication of the registered ideas of the race.

68.

Buddhaghosa's etymology (Asl. 325) derives akaso from 'unploughed' — what may not be ploughed, cut, or broken — which recalls Homer's ατρνγετος αιθηρ ατρνγετη θαλασσα as well as the ακαρπιστα πεδια of Euripides (Asl. 326). 'Sky' he connects with striking — agham, a-ghattaniyam — what is not strikable.

Akaso, he continues, is that which delimitates, or sets bounds to forms, environing them and making them manifest. Through it, in forms thus bounded, we get the notions — hence above, hence below, hence across.

69.

Asamphuttham catuhi mahabhutehi. Although space is in this work treated of apart from the four elements, and does not, as a rule, count as a fifth element, in the Pitakas, yet, in the Maha Eilhulovada Sutta (M. i. 423), when Gotama is discoursing to his son of the distribution of the elements in the composition of the human body, he co-ordinates akasadhatu with the four other dhatus, to all appearance as though it should rank as a fifth element. In the older Upanishads it is usually coordinated with the four elements, though not, as such, in a closed list.

In the Taittiriya Up., however, it appears as the one immediate derivative from the Atman; wind, fire, water, earth, plants, etc., proceeding, the first from akaca, the rest, taken in order, from each other.

The word asamphuttham is paraphrased by nijjatakam (or nissatam), and may mean that space does not commingle with the four elements as they with each other.

'Belongs to' is, in the Pali, -gatam.

70.

Cf, above, §§ 42-47, with this and the two following answers. Supremely well-dressed hide is given as an illustration of the plasticity of matter (Asl. 326).

71.

Gold which is suddhanta (? sudhanta, well-blown) is given as typically 'wieldy' material (ibid).

72.

Buddhaghosa evidently reads so rupassa upacayo here (for yo), and in the next section sa rupassa (for ya) (Asl. 827). This is only adopted by the text in §§ 732, 733. K. reads so and sa.

This and the following section formularize the coming into being of things. Integration is paraphrased (Asl. 327) as the cumulative effect of the spheres (ayatananam acayo) as they are reproduced over and over again. The import of the term is v add hi, fulness of growth. Acayo, or nibbatti, is to upacayo or vaddhi as the welling up of water in a reservoir by a river's bank is to the brimming over of the water, while santati or pavatti (subsistence or persistence) is as the overflow and running of the water.

All are expressions for the phenomenon of birth and growth (jatirupassa).

73.

This is a stock formula, and occurs at M. i. 49; S. ii. 2, and 42. The Cy. points out (Asl. 328) that the three terms, 'decrepitude', etc., show the phenomena that must take place in the lapse of time; the last two show the inference that is to be drawn from them. For just as a flood or a forest fire can be traced by the appearance of the grass and trees in its track, so can we infer respecting our life and faculties by the appearance of teeth, hair and skin.

74.

This and the preceding section formularize the waning and passing away of things. Birth-and-growth, decay and death are by the Commentator likened to three enemies of mankind, the first of whom leads him astray into a pit, the second of whom throws him down, the third of whom cuts off his head (Asl. 329).

75.

Literally, morsel made food. 'Bodily' (or solid) suffices to distinguish it from the three immaterial nutriments. See p. 30.

76.

Under these come roots and fruits. Asl. 330.

77.

On this section, where 'form' is considered under the aspect of sustaining growth, etc., the Commentator gives a brief dissertation where an adumbration of physiological truth is humorously illustrated. Whereas, he says (Asl. 330-332), food is here first set out in terms of its embodiment, in oja we have the evolved essence of it. Now whereas the former removes risk, the latter is a preservative.

And the risk is this, that when no food is taken, the karma-born heat within feeds on the walls of the belly, making the owner cry out,

'I am hungry; give me something to eat !'

and only setting his intestines free when it can get external food. The internal heat is likened to a shadow-demon who, having got the entry into a man's shadow, bites his head when hungry so that he cries out.

When other men come to help, the demon, quitting his hold, preys on them.

In the case of coarse food, e.g., kudrusa grain, oja is said to be weak and sustains but a short time, while if a man drink ghee and the like he wants no other meal the whole day. Living beings are then classified in an order of increasing fineness in the food they live on, beginning with crocodiles, who, they say, swallow pebbles, continuing with peacocks, hyenas, and elephants, later with other birds, then with borderers, town-dwellers, kings, and ending with the Yama and Paranimmitavasavatti gods, who enjoy food of supreme delicacy.

78.

'Just as derived form is derived in such and such a way and in no other, so, to say it is not derived, is equivalent to saying it is not derivable'.

Asl. 333.

Possibly the form of negative here employed (no upada) is a technical mark of the relatively unethical nature of this aspect of r up am. An up a da, on the other hand, is used with a philosophical import.

Cf. D. i. 17 with M. i. 148 — anupada vimutto and anupada parinibbanattham.

See also below, §§ 1210 and 1213.

79.

In keeping with the general psychological standpoint of the present work, the things which are not derived jrom (have no foothold or support in) other things are considered under the aspect of sense-percepts. They are tangibles or intangibles. Element (dhatu) is now substituted for the collective term used above, namely, great phenomena or beings (mahabhutani, § 584 et seq. Both terms occur together in A. i. 222.

The latter term may be used to denote great or wondrous derivatives of the four elements, great either physically or ethically, as when (Vin. ii. 240) the ocean and its 'great creatures' serve to illustrate the Dhamma and those wondrous phenomena, the human beings who by way of it are seeking or have attained Nirvana. Dhatu, on the other hand, as the Cy. with unflagging 'mindfulness' once more points out, indicates absence of substratum or soul. Asl. 332.

On the essential characters of the four elements, see below, §§ 962-965, also the following note.

80.

The first two and last of these four pairs are so many aspects or modes of the earth-element (Asl. 332), and are paraphrased respectively as rigid and non-rigid, polished and jagged (saw-like), weighty and nonweighty. These correspond almost exactly to our modern view of the modes of resistance, i.e., of active touch, or of skin-sensibility with a co-efficient of muscular sense. The Buddhist view lacks, as all but recent psychology has lacked, insight into the presence of the muscular factor; on the other hand, it is logically more symmetrical in giving 'lightness' where Dr. Bain, e.g., gives 'pressure' — another positive.

Pleasant contact is defined as a tangible which is desired on account of pleasant feeling; the opposite, in the case of painful contact. Each of the three elements furnishes instances of either: In connexion with solidity there is the pleasant contact felt when a soft-palmed attendant is doing massage to one's feet, and the opposite when his hands are hard. Erom 'caloric', or the flame-element, we may get the pleasure of a warming-pan in winter, or the reverse, if it is applied in summer.

From the aerial element, we may get the pleasure of fanning in summer, or the discomfort of it in winter. Asl. 332, 333.

81.

The Cy. here discusses a point of attention in senseperception which is interesting as adumbrating modern European theories respecting consciousness and subconsciousness (Asl. 333). In a concrete object of sense, the three modes of the tangible, i.e., the three elements (solid, hot, airy), may all of them be present.

Now do they all come 'at one stroke' into the field of consciousness (apatham)?
They do.

Thus come, do they impinge on the bodysense?
They do.

When it has thus made them a (mental) object, does cognition of body arise at one blow?
It does not.

Why?
Thus: Mental objects are made either by deliberate sensing or by intrusion. (The latter term — ussado — is more literally extrusion, or prominence, but either word shows that involuntary, as contrasted with voluntary attention is meant.)

Now when one is deliberately testing the hardness or softness of a ball of boiled rice by pressure, heat and vapour are present, but it is the solid to which one gives attention.

If hot water be tested by the hand, though there is solid and vaporous (matter), it is heat that occupies the attention. If one lets the breeze blow on the body at the window in hot weather, solid and heat are present, but it is the aerial element that is attended to.

Or take involuntary impressions: If you stumble, or knock your head against, a tree, or bite on a pebble, heat and wind are present, but the intrusive object is solid matter.

So analogously for walking on something hot, or being deafened by a hurricane. The three elements are not apprehended as such at the same instant. And with regard to the extended surface of the body-sentience, cognition of body arises only in that spot where the sentient surface is impinged upon, e.g., when a shoulderwound is bathed (? dressed; cf. Vin. ii. 115 and Transl.) with a quill, the kaya-pasado of the shoulder is impinged upon, or intensified, and there cognition arises.

And where the pasado is most powerfully impressed, there cognition arises first.

82.

Buddhaghosa goes on, with reference to the senses generally, to give a psychological account of the passing from one group of sensations or 'object of thought' to another in terms not far removed from what would now be used to describe the 'movement of attention' (Asl. 334).

We pass from one object to another

  1. from deliberate inclination, or
  2. from a sensation of preponderating impressiveness (ajjhasayato va visayadhimattato va).


E.g.,

  1. from saluting a shrine, a believer forms the intention of entering to do homage to a statue and contemplate the carvings and paintings,
  2. While contemplating some vast tope, a man is struck by the sound of music, and is then affected by flowers and incense brought near.
83.

Literally, oil (sneho). Cf. the description with that of akasadhatu, § 638.

84.

This is the aspect of the moist or liquid element in an object compact of several elements. The one essential 'mark' of apo-dhatu is paggharanam, flowing. See § 963. But 'cohesiveness of form means the cohering condition of some concrete in which there is superfluity of solid' (Asl. 335). For it is by the cohesive force of the fluid element that lumps of iron or what not are made rigid. Similarly in the case of stones, mountains, palms, tusks, horns, etc.

Hence Buddhaghosa passes on to discuss the mutually related spheres of the elements and their apparent approximations to each other, as in viscous things, e.g., or congealed liquid, or boiling water. Corrupt MSS., however, render parts of the disquisition hard to follow. His conclusion is that whereas the elements may vary in their condition as phenomena, their essential mark never alters, however latent it may be.

And he quotes a yet unedited sutta (Atthanaparikappa sutta), but which is repeated in A. i. 222, that it is easier for the four elements to change their essential character, than for the seeker of Nirvana (the Noble Student) to alter his high estate (Asl. 336).

85.

Here follow the remaining pairs of correlated terms, making up the categories of form under the Dual Aspect.

86.

Literally, 'which has been grasped at' or 'laid hold of'. This and the cognate terms are discussed under the 'Group on Grasping', § 1213 et seq. It is disappointing to find that, with the exception of two items in the list of things 'grasped at', or come into being through the action of karma (the two phrases are approximately equivalent), the Cy. does not discuss the inclusion of any.

One would have liked to hear, e.g., why, of all sense-objects, sounds alone are 'not the issue of grasping' (cf. the heresy concerning sound as result [of karma, K. V. 466], and why the elements of space and of fluidity may and may not be the issue of grasping, or what they have to do with it in any way.)

Concerning the two items above mentioned, how is it, asks the Cy. (337),

'That "decay and impermanence" are classed with respect to what is due, and what is not due to the performance of karma?

They are classed with what is not the issue of grasping.

That which has sprung from conditions other than karma is included under "not due to the performance of karma...."

And as these two forms arise neither from karma, nor from form-producing conditions other than karma, they are therefore not classified with reference to karma. How they are acquired will become evident later.'

87.

For rupasantati, read rupassa santati.

88.

The privative prefixed to the first half of this dvandvacompound does not apply to the latter half. All form is upadaniyam — see § 595 and cf. Dh. S. § 1538. Hence to get, as we do, a positive answer would, if upadaniyam were to be taken negatively, be a very patent infringement of the law of contradiction. The distributed negative is given by anupadinnanupadaniyam as in § 992.

89.

I have elided saddayatanam, and, on the next line, inserted apodhatu, as consistent with § 654. C/. §§ 747, 750, and K.

90.

The answer in § 658 recurs with its elided passage very often, but it is not easy to point out the foregoing answer of which it is an abbreviation. For §§ 653, 655 include 'visible form', 'which is absurd'. And they do not include 'sound', which is invisible. I suggest that § 596 is referred to, with the implication that 'the sphere of visible form' must be omitted. All the other terms in § 596, if understood as strictly abstract sensibility or sensation, or as abstract ideas, are inaccessible to sight.

Even in kabalinkaro aharo, it is only the vatthu, or embodiment of the concept of nutriment, that is visible. And similarly, whereas one's bodily gestures are visible, the 'intimation' given is a matter of inference, a mental construction.

91.

Both terms have been applied in the detailed theory of sense given in § 597 et seq.

92.

Keeping to § 596 as the norm for these abbreviated replies, we may assume that these two (§§ 659 and 660) divide out that answer between them. Impact and reaction, as here understood, belong exclusively to the sphere of sensation. The term patigho has an emotional and moral significance elsewhere in this work, and means repulsion, repugnance. See § 1060.

93.

§ 596 would seem to be divided also and differently by the indriyam sections. What is na indriyarn, not having hvva^i^, are thus the five kinds of sense-objects, intimation, space, the three modes of form, and the course of the evolving rebirth of form as represented in abstract idea.

94.

This pair of relatives coincides with the first pair of attributes taken inversely: forms underived and derived (pp. 172-97).

95.

See above, §§ 636, 637. The abbreviated answer concerning the other relative will presumably be the entire list given in § 596, with the exception of the two modes of intimation.

96.

Cf. below, §§ 1195, 1196, and above, § 636, note.

Here, after being silent over the last ten questions, the Cy. resumes its parable (p. 337), without, however, throwing much light on these to us obscure distinctions. This and the next two pairs of questions and answers refer to form of some kind as brought into relation with an intelligent agent. And the purest instance of this is those groups of phenomena which are brought into play when the agent is expressing himself.

The expression or intimation itself, it says, does not spring directly from thought, but it is said nevertheless to have its source in thought because those phenomena (of gesture and speech) on which the intimation depends are immediately prompted by thought, just as we say that old age and death 'are' impermanence (in virtue of their forming part of the content of that idea). While there is thought, there is also expression of thought.

But the concomitance stated in § 669 is not to be understood like that arising between thought and feeling and other mental processes. He is probably referring to the mental complex indicated above in § 1 and the like.

97.

See below, §§ 1044, 1045. It will already have been noted (p. 59, n. J.), that ajjhattam, ajjhattikam does not run on all fours with our modern psychological term 'subjective', or that which belongs to the conscious experience of the individual. It connotes anything belonging to an individual organism, physical or mental.

Hence, too, the word 'self' must here be understood in no narrow metaphysical, or even psychological sense, but as equivalent to the concrete person or attabhavo (see above, p. 175, n. 1).

It is used in the sense of all but the last of the four constituents into which Professor W. Jamesdivides the Self, viz.,

the material Self (body, clothes, family, home, property: the Buddhist would only admit the first item, I fancy),
the social Self (recognition from others),
and the spiritual Self (psychic faculties or dispositions).

('Principles of Psychology', 1892, i. 292-296.)

Only the fourth constituent, the 'pure Ego', was rejected by Buddhism, as it was, twenty-two centuries later, by Hume. Cf., however, the apparently more 'subjective' use in §§ 161 and 1207.

I have felt equal reluctance to foist the (relatively) modern counterpart 'objective' on to bahiram or bahiddha(see § 1045).

98.

Read in full, this should coincide with the latter part of § 596, beginning at 'the spheres of visible form'.

99.

The Cy., paraphrasing olarikam by thulam, explains that this has reference to the material embodiment of sense-objects and to the fact of sensuous impact, sukhumam connoting the contrary. Under the latter class we have, according to my assumption (p. 203, n. 3), the indriyas of sex and vitality, intimation, space, the modes of form and the nutritive principle in food. The force of this effort at dichotomy is, to the modern Western mind, curious and not obvious.

It is suggestive of tradition earlier than the date of the compiling of the Abhidhamma, as early as the earlier Upanishads — of a time when there was no definite antithesis between material and immaterial, extended and unextended.

We have seen that the senses, though 'invisible', were conceived as species of 'form' — nay, that the later Cy. preserved the tradition of their shape and size. And I incline to think that just as, in the older Upanishads, soul was a shadowy, impalpable, but 'physical double of the physical body', and just as 'when an early Greek philosopher speaks of to 6v, he does not mean Being, but Body' (Burnet, 'Early Greek Philosophy', 27), so the items in the list divided out in these two answers are all physical 'forms', whether patent, impressive, and pervading, or latent, fine and mysterious.

100.

Dure, the Cy. explains, refers to that which on account of its being difficult to apprehend or discriminate cannot be discerned by way of the sensuous impact, whether it be literally far or near at hand. Conversely, s an tike refers to things which are patent to sense, even though they may be distant. The content of each division agrees with that of the preceding division, and we see that, whereas the field of sense-perception is pronounced to be a relatively patent, as well as gross concern, the essence of sex, vitality, etc., down to the nutritive principle in food, is found to be as obscure, latent or relatively inaccessible, as it was subtle or minute. Asl. 337.

101.

From § 653 to § 961 the Commentator lapses into silence, dismissing the reader with the remark that in the exposition on 'spheres', etc. (§§ 695-741), the method of treatment is more detailed than it was above, and, further, that the category of triplets (§ 742 et seq.) is easy to understand. To enable the reader to gather with more ease the drift of this part of the catechizing, I have inserted a few headings to indicate whenever there is a change in the aspect under which 'form' is considered.

Thus we have form considered under the aspect of the basis (vatthu) in the subjective procedure of coming-toknow, of the object so apprehended, and so forth.

In all the answers, where lacunae occur, except where otherwise specified, the formula appears to be the answer of § 596, with one or more terms omitted, and with the occasional insertion of 'the sphere of the tangible', according to the sense required by each specific process of dichotomy.

102.

By referring to the standard answer, § 596, it will be seen that the negatives in the present answer include 'visible forms', or the objects of the sense of vision. Now, vatthu means seat, embodiment, or what we might call physical basis. However, then, the process of sense-stimulation was ultimately conceived, the effective result was held to take place in the sense-organ (and heart). The sense-object was defined as the arammanam of the contact. See § 687.

103.

No hiatus appears, in either the English or Siamese edition of the text, between rupam and cakkhuvinnanassa, but by the context the answer is, of course, understood to deal in turn with all four mental processes stated in the question. As usual, only the last term gets an explicit answer. All four processes must also be understood in the lacuna in § 682 and in § 686.

104.

Jivha samphassassa has dropped out of the printed text.

105.

Here, of course, understand the spheres of hearing, smell, and taste, and in the three following lacunae the corresponding forms of contact. Proceed similarly in the next two answers.

106.

I.e., as in § 596, omitting only 'the sphere of visible forms', and inserting, presumably, 'the sphere of the tangible'.

107.

The negative particle must be supplied in the printed text.

The lacunae in this and following sentences must be filled up analogously with those in the preceding group. Thus, in this question, the three other mental processes named in the preceding question are to be understood; the answer will be identical with that in § 596, excluding only 'the sphere of visible forms', but inserting 'the sphere of the tangible'. And so on.

108.

I.e., repeat § 596 (into which 'the sphere of the tangible' does not enter).

109.

The replies given here and to the four questions condensed in § 697 are apparently intended to be those set out in sets of four expounding the current theory of sensereaction, §§ 597-616. Similarly, for the replies to the questions on sense taken objectively (§§ 699, 701), see §§ 617-632, 648-651.

The contradictories seem to be described in all four answers, by a repetition of § 596, with the omission in each case of the specific item named in the question on the corresponding positive term, and, presumably, with the insertion of 'the sphere of the tangible'.

110.

In the printed text read rupam phottabbayatanam. The answer is, of course, the last of the four several replies, the three first being understood.

111.

Here supply the answer in § 596, omitting the first term, and inserting 'the sphere of the tangible'.

112.

Here, of course, supply the spheres of the other three senses.

113.

For the full formula, see § 597.

114.

I.e., answer as in § 596, omitting the first item, and inserting 'the sphere of the tangible'.

115.

See §§ 601, 605, 609, 613.

116.

See §§ 633-635.

117.

[713a] is inadvertently omitted in the printed text.

118.

§§ 713a, 715, and 717 are presumably identical with § 596, with the successive omission of the term excluded by each question, and with the insertion always of 'the sphere of the tangible'.

119.

Again, in these two negative categories, § 596 is presumably followed with corresponding omissions and insertion. See p. 209, note 1.

120.

Cf. with §§ 638, 652.

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