close
Wisdom Library Logo

Dhammasangani

Enumeration of Phenomena

Chapter II - Action-thoughts

A. In connexion with the Sensuous Universe.1

(a) On occasion of Ideation (kamavacara-kiriya).

[566] Which are the states that are indeterminate?

When an element of ideation of the kind termed kiriya [Page 157] has arisen,2 which is neither good nor bad nor the result of karma, which is accompanied by disinterestedness, and which has as its object a sight, a sound, a smell, a taste, something tangible, or what not, then there is

contact,             thought,
feeling,              conception,
perception,       discursive thought,
thinking,           disinterestedness,
           self-collectedness;3

the faculties of:
ideation,
disinterestedness,
vitality.

Now these, or whatever other incor; -eal, causally in duced states there are on that occasion — these are states that are indeterminate.

Dhammasangi Dots

[Summary.]

[566a]

Now, at that time

the skandhas are four,
[Page 158] the spheres are two,
the elements are two,
the nutriments are three,
the faculties are three,
contact,
etc.

Dhammasangi Dots

[567] The skandha of syntheses (as well as the remainder of the foregoing summary) is identical with the corresponding passages in Chapter I., viz., §§ 467a, 468.

Dhammasangi Dots

 

(b) On occasion of Representative Intellection.

1.

[568] Which are the states that are indeterminate?

When an element of representative intellection of the kind termed kiriya has arisen, which is neither good nor bad nor the result of karma, which is accompanied by happiness,4 [Page 159] and which has as its object a sight, a sound, a smell, a taste, something tangible, or what not, then there is

contact,               conception,
feeling,               discursive thought,
perception,         joy,
thinking,             ease,
thought,             self-collectedness;

the faculties of
energy,              ideation,
concentration,   happiness,
                  vitality.

Now these, or whatever other incorporeal, causally induced states there are on that occasion — these are states that are indeterminate.

[569] Question and answer on 'contact' as above passim.

Dhammasangi Dots

[570] What on that occasion is self-collectedness?

The stability, solidity, absorbed steadfastness of thought which on that occasion is the absence of distraction, balance, imperturbed mental procedure, quiet, the faculty and the power of concentration5 — this is the self-collectedness that there then is.

Dhammasangi Dots

[571] What on that occasion is the faculty of energy . . .
[572] of concentration?

Answers as in § 13 and § 570 respectively.

 

[Page 160] [Summary.]

[572a]

Now at that time

the skandhas are four,
the spheres are two,
the elements are two,
the nutriments are three,
the faculties are five,
contact,
etc.

[Continue as in § 482a.]

Dhammasangi Dots

[573] What on that occasion is the skandha of syn theses?

Contact,
thinking,
conception,
discursive thought,
joy,
self-collectedness,

the faculties of:
energy,
concentration,
vitality.

Or whatever other incorporeal, causally induced states there are on that occasion, exclusive of the skandhas of feeling, perception, and intellect — these are the skandha of syntheses.

Dhammasangi Dots

 

2.

[574] Which are the states that are indeterminate?

When an element of representative intellection of the kind termed kiriya has arisen, which is neither good, nor bad, nor the result of karma, which is accompanied by disinterestedness [Page 161] ,6 and which has as its object a sight, a sound, a smell, a taste, something tangible, or what not, then there is

contact,              thought,
feeling,               conception,
perception,        discursive thought,
thinking,            disinterestedness,
            self-collectedness;

the faculties of
energy,              ideation,
concentration,   disinterestedness,
                  vitality.

Now these, or whatever other incorporeal, causally in duced states there are on that occasion — these are states that are indeterminate.

Dhammasangi Dots

 

[Summary.]

[574a] Identical with 572a.

Dhammasangi Dots

[575] The skandha of syntheses is identical with that in § 573, hut 'joy' must be omitted.

Dhammasangi Dots

 

3.

[576] Which are the states that are indeterminate?

When an element of representative intellection of the [Page 162] kind termed kiriya has arisen that is neither good, nor bad, nor the result of karma —

  1. 7which is accompanied by happiness and associated with knowledge . . .
  2. which is accompanied by happiness, associated with knowledge, and prompted by a conscious motive . . .
  3. which is accom panied by happiness and disconnected with knowledge . . .
  4. which is accompanied by happiness, disconnected with knowledge and prompted by a conscious motive . . .
  5. which is accompanied by disinterestedness and associ ated with knowledge . . .
  6. which is accompanied by disinterestedness, associated with knowledge and prompted by a conscious motive . . .
  7. which is accompanied by disinterestedness and 'disconnected with knowledge . . .
  8. which is accompanied by disinterestedness, discon nected with knowledge and prompted by a conscious motive

— and, which has as its object a sight, a sound, a smell, a taste, something tangible, or what not— then there is contact . . . balance. Now these . . . are states that are indeterminate.

Dhammasangi Dots

[576a]

That absence of lust which is the root of the indeterminate . . .
that absence of hate which is the root of the inde terminate . . .
that absence of dulness which is the root of the inde terminate . . .

these are states that are indeterminate.8

Dhammasangi Dots

 

B. In connexion with the Universe of Form (rupavacara-kiriya).

[Page 163] [577] Which are the states that are indeterminate?

When he cultivates rapt meditation in connexion with the universe of Form, and of the kind termed kiriya which is neither good, nor bad, nor the result of karma, and which is concerned with easeful living under present conditions9 — and so, aloof from sensuous appetites, aloof from evil ideas, by earth-gazing, enters into and abides in the First Jhana . . . then there is contact . . . balance. Now these . . . are states that are indeterminate.

[578] Repeat in the case of each remaining Jhana on the Fourfold f and of those on the Fivefold System.

 

C. In connexion with the Universe of the Formless (arupavacara-kiriya).

[579] Which are the states that are indeterminate?

When he cultivates rapt meditation in connexion with the universe of the Formless, of the kind termed kiriya, which is neither good, nor bad, nor the result of karma, and is concerned with easeful living under present conditions — and when, by passing wholly beyond all consciousness of form, by the dying out of the consciousness of sensory reaction, by turning the attention from any consciousness of the manifold, he enters into and abides in that rapt meditation which is accompanied by the consciousness of a sphere of unbounded space — even the Fourth Jhana, to gain which all sense of ease must have been put away, etc. . . . then there is contact . . . balance. Now these . . . are states that are indeterminate.

[Page 164] [580-582] Here follow, with the same opening formula as in the foregoing answer, the three remaining 'Jhanas con nected with Formless Existence'. See §§ 266-268.

Dhammasangi Dots

[582a]

That absence of lust which is the root of the indeterminate . . .
that absence of hate which is the root of the indeterminate . . .
that absence of dulness which is the root of the indeterminate . . .

these . . . are states that are indeterminate.10

[Here ends] the Division on the Genesis of Thoughts.  

first previous index next last

- Footnotes:

1.

I have borrowed for a title the term kiriya-cittam from Asl. 293. The later form is kriya-cittam (see Abh. S., p.2 et seq.; Bastian's 'Buddhistische Psychologie', Anhang). Kiriya is discussed in my Introduction. The Cy. has the following on the term:

'Kiriya here means simply doing (karana-mattam). In all kiriya-thoughts those in which the stage of javanam is attained are like wind-blown blossoms, but those in which that stage is not attained are like blossoms where the tree has been felled, barren of fruit. But when this or that is kept going in the performance of function, then there is "doing" pure and simple. Hence the term kiriya is used.'

Now, javanam, according to Buddhaghosa (Sum. I., 195), is the effective outcome of an act of cognition, the stage when the mind or character of the percipient subject is modified (ethically) in one way or another. But in the species of indeterminate thoughts termed kiriya there can be no practical out come for good or bad, no karma can be set free. Hence the simile of the sterile blossoms.

The Abh. S. gives also three species of non-causative kriy a-thoughts as con nected with the sensuous universe — reflection on sense impressions, reflection on ideas, and the genesis of mirth (hasituppada-citta in) . These correspond fairly well to the three given in the Dh. S., if the two modes of representa tive intellection be taken in inverted order.

2.

According to the Cy., the ideation which is kiriya differs from the ideation which is result only in the mode of its arising (upattitthanam). The latter arises imme diately after the act of sense-cognition. The former arises while sensation is actually proceeding, while the organism is being turned towards the object (Asl. 294). Again (ibid.), that the thought is 'neither good nor bad' means the absence of that cause of good or of bad which is termed the root of the one or of the other; it means the absence of those conditions of good or of bad which are termed con sidering things by way of their causes (yoniso-mana sikara), or not so considering them.

'Nor the result of karma' means the absence of the generative cause (jana kahetu), known as good or bad (as the case may be). Asl. 293. The marginal reading in the last sentence is obviously right.

3.

With its minimum connotation, i.e., as in § 438 and elsewhere (Asl. 293).

4.

The Cy. (p. 294) pronounces this species of thought not common to men, but peculiar to the arahat.

'It is obtained in the six doors',

e.g., when an arahat sees a spot (than am) favourable to one of those prescribed spiritual wrestlings termed padhanani [sic lege; cf below, § 1366, (v.)],

'by this thought he is gladdened'.

When he comes to a market-place,

'hears the uproar of the bargaining, and thinks,

"I have done with all this thirst for gain",

by this thought he is gladdened. When he has made an offering of fragrant odours or flowers at the shrine, by this thought he is gladdened.

When he is tasting the food he has received as ordained, and thinks,

"Verily I have carried out the doctrine incumbent upon me",

by this thought he is gladdened. When he is carrying out minor rules con cerning the body, and thinks,

"I have fulfilled the rules concerning the door of the body",

by this thought he is gladdened. Such is this kind of intellection when obtained in connexion with the "fivefold door". In connexion with the door of ideation, it arises with reference to the past and the future. '

As, for instance, when the Buddha smiled at the recollection of occurrences in certain of his former births, or, again, when he foresaw this and that.

5.

It might have been expected that this 'power' as well as that of 'energy' would have found a place in the enumera tion of the constituent states. The Cy. (p. 295) explains that 'concentration' and 'energy' are not present in full strength. It follows that no 'powers' are included in the summary.

6.

This kind of thought, unlike the last, is, says the Cy. (295), common to all intelligent (sacittaka) beings; in fact, there is none such who does not experience it. (The marginal reading is here evidently the more correct.) If it arise in connexion with the 'five doors', it is an act of establishing; if in connexion with the door of ideation, it is an act of reflection. By it the six specific channels of cognition lay hold of their several objects.

7.

The Latin numerals refer to the Eight Main Types of Thought set forth in the first 159 sections of this work. In this connexion, however, they are no longer effective as 'good', i.e., as producing good karma.

8.

See above, § 498a.

9.

Dittha-dhammasukha-viharam. In this individual ex istence (imasmim attabhave), explains the Cy. (296. On this term, cf below, p. 175, n. 1). In Sum. I., 121 the paraphrase runs, 'that state of existence one happens to have got'. Cf 'Dialogues of the Buddha', I. 50, n. The passage there commented upon (D. I. 37) is the heresy which holds that Jhana constituted an equivalent for Nirvana.

10.

In K. a footnote is here appended, drawing attention to the apparent discrepancy in the fact that this passage, hitherto given under the universe of sense [§§ 498a, 576a], is here associated with the universe of the Formless. This, it adds, should be accepted after due deliberation.

first previous index next last