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A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas

Appendix 1 - To Citta

Cittas Can Be Classified As 89 Or 121 Types

Cittas can be classified as 89 or 121 types.

89 types of citta:

  • kāmāvacara cittas (of the sense sphere) : 54 types
  • rūpāvacara cittas (of rupa-jhāna) : 15 types
  • arūpāvacara cittas (of arupa-jhāna) : 12 types
  • lokuttara cittas (supramundane) : 8 types

121 types of citta:

  • kāmāvacara cittas: 54 types
  • rūpāvacara cittas 15 types
  • arūpāvacara cittas 12 types
  • lokuttara cittas 40 types

Kamāvacara cittas are cittas of the lowest level, and they usually arise and fall away in daily life, each moment, no matter whether we are asleep or awake. The sense objects, which are rupa paramattha Dhamma, are experienced by kāmāvacara cittas. Among the twentyeight rupa paramattha Dhammas seven kinds of rupas appear as objects in daily life through the eyes, the ears, the nose, the tongue, the body-sense and the mind-door. These rupas, which are the objects citta usually experiences, are called in Pali: gocara visaya rupas. Gocara means pasture and visaya means sphere, object. These rupas are:

  • visible object or color,rūpārammaṇa or vaṇṇa, which appears when it impinges on the eye-sense,
  • sound, saddārammaṇa, which appears when it impinges on the ear-sense,
  • odor, gandhārammaṇa, which appears when it impinges on the smelling-sense,
  • flavor, rasārammaṇa, which appears when it impinges on the tasting-sense,
  • tangible objects, phothabbārammaṇa, the three rupas of earth element (softness or hardness), heat-element (cold or heat) and
  • wind-element (pressure or motion), which appear when they impinge on the body-sense.

The cittas which arise and fall away all the time in daily life are usually of the level of kāmāvacara cittas. They are engaged in the seven kinds of sense objects; they experience these rupas through the appropriate doorways or they think about them.

54 Types of Kāmāvacara Cittas:

  • akusala cittas 12 types
  • ahetuka (rootless) cittas 18 types
  • kāma-sobhana cittas (beautiful cittas of the sense sphere) 24 types

12 Types of Akusala Cittas:

Akusala citta is the citta which is not wholesome, not beautiful, because it is accompanied by akusala cetasikas. The twelve types of akusala cittas are:

  • 8 lobha-mūla-cittas (cittas rooted in attachment)
  • 2 dosa-mūla-cittas (cittas rooted in aversion)
  • 2 moha-mūla-cittas (cittas rooted in ignorance)

Mūla means root. There are three cetasikas which are the cause or origin of akusala Dhammas: lobha cetasika (attachment), dosa cetasika (aversion) and moha cetasika (ignorance). These three cetasikas are roots, mūla or hetu.

Lobha-mūla-citta : the citta accompanied by lobha cetasika, which is the condition for delight in and clinging to the object which appears. Lobha-mūla-cittas are classified as eight types:

  1. Accompanied by pleasant feeling, with wrong view, unprompted (somanassa-sahagataÿ, diṭṭhigata-sampayuttaÿ, asaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
    This type is accompanied by pleasant feeling, a feeling of happiness, and it is associated with the cetasika diṭṭhi, wrong view about realities. It is unprompted, asaṅkhārika, which means that it has strength, it arises without being dependent on inducement.
  2. Accompanied by pleasant feeling, with wrong view, prompted (somanassa-sahagataÿ, diṭṭhigata-sampayuttaÿ, sasaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
    This type is accompanied by pleasant feeling and it is associated with wrong view. It is prompted, sasaṅkhārika, which means that it is weak, it arises by being dependent on inducement.
  3. Accompanied by pleasant feeling, without wrong view, unprompted (somanassa-sahagataÿ, diṭṭhigata-vippayuttaÿ, asaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
    This type is accompanied by pleasant feeling and it is without wrong view; it is not accompanied by dithi cetasika. It has strength, it arises without being dependent on inducement.
  4. Accompanied by pleasant feeling, without wrong view, prompted (somanassa-sahagataÿ, diṭṭhigata-vippayuttaÿ, sasaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
    This type is accompanied by pleasant feeling and it is without wrong view. It is weak, it arises by being dependent on inducement.
  5. Accompanied by indifferent feeling, with wrong view, unprompted (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, diṭṭhigata-sampayuttaÿ, asaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
    This type is accompanied by indifferent feeling, feeling which is neither pleasant nor unpleasant. It is associated with wrong view. It has strength, it arises without being dependent on inducement.
  6. Accompanied by indifferent feeling, with wrong view, prompted (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, diṭṭhigata-sampayuttaÿ, sasaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
    This type is accompanied by indifferent feeling. It is associated with wrong view. It is weak, it arises by being dependent on inducement.
  7. Accompanied by indifferent feeling, without wrong view, unprompted (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, diṭṭhigata-vippayuttaÿ, asaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
    This type is accompanied by indifferent feeling. It is without wrong view. It has strength, it arises without being dependent on inducement.
  8. Accompanied by indifferent feeling, without wrong view, prompted (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, diṭṭhigata-vippayuttaÿ, sasaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
    This type is accompanied by indifferent feeling. It is without wrong view. It is weak, it arises by being dependent on inducement.

Dosa-mūla-citta : the citta accompanied by dosa cetasika, the Dhamma which is coarse and harsh, which dislikes the object it experiences. There are two types of dosa-mūla-citta:

  1. Accompanied by unpleasant feeling, with anger, unprompted (domanassa-sahagataÿ, paṭigha-sampayuttaÿ, asaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
    This type is accompanied by unpleasant, unhappy feeling. It arises together with paṭigha, dosa cetasika, the Dhamma which is coarse and harsh. It has strength, it arises without being dependent on inducement.
  2. Accompanied by unpleasant feeling, with anger, prompted (domanassa-sahagataÿ, paṭigha-sampayuttaÿ, sasaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
    This type is different from the first type in as far as it is weak: it arises by being dependent on inducement.

Moha-mūla-citta: the citta accompanied by moha cetasika, the Dhamma which is deluded, which does not know the truth of realities. There are two types of moha-mūla-citta:

  1. Arising with indifferent feeling, accompanied by doubt (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, vicikicchā-sampayuttaÿ)
    Moha-mūla-citta arises together with indifferent feeling and this type is accompanied by doubt, vicikicchā cetasika, which is doubt about the truth of realities.
  2. Arising with indifferent feeling, accompanied by rest-less-ness (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, uddhacca-sampayuttaÿ)
    This type which arises also with indifferent feeling is accompanied by rest-less-ness or agitation (uddhacca cetasika).

Each citta is accompanied by several types of cetasikas. Cittas are accompanied by a different number of cetasikas depending on the type of citta concerned. Each citta is accompanied by feeling, vedanā cetasika, which is different depending on the type of citta.

Each type of akusala citta is accompanied by four akusala cetasikas (akusala sādhāraṇa 1 cetasikas) which are: moha cetasika; shame-less-ness, ahirika cetasika, which has no shame for evil; lack of moral dread, anottappa cetasika, which does not fear the danger of akusala; rest-less-ness or agitation, uddhacca cetasika, which is involved with akusala Dhammas.

The twelve akusala cittas can be differentiated with regard to their roots (mūla, the three akusala hetus of lobha, dosa and moha), and then they are classified as follows:

  • moha-mūla-citta, which is not accompanied by lobha cetasika nor by dosa cetasika,
  • dosa-mūla-citta, which is not accompanied by lobha cetasika,
  • lobha-mūla-citta, which is not accompanied by dosa cetasika.


The twelve akusala cittas can be differentiated with regard to three accompanying feelings, namely, indifferent feeling, pleasant feeling and unpleasant feeling:

  • Indifferent feeling, upekkhā vedanā cetasika, accompanies lobha-mūla-citta and moha-mūla-citta. It does not accompany dosa-mūla-citta.
  • Pleasant feeling, somanassa vedanā cetasika, accompanies lobha-mūla-citta. It does not accompany dosa-mūla-citta and moha-mūla-citta.
  • Unpleasant feeling, domanassa vedanā cetasika, only accompanies the two types of dosa-mūla-citta. It does not accompany any other type of citta.

With regard to the second type of moha-mūla-citta, which arises with indifferent feeling and is accompanied by rest-less-ness (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, uddhacca-sampayuttaÿ), this type is not accompanied by doubt (vicikicchā), but it is akusala citta since it is accompanied by akusala cetasikas. When there is akusala citta which is not one of the eight types of lobha-mūla-citta, one of the two types of dosa-mūla-citta or moha-mūla-citta accompanied by doubt, it is moha-mūla-citta accompanied by rest-less-ness.

When akusala citta is strong, there is a condition for the accompanying cetanā (volition or intention) to commit one of the ten evil courses of action, kamma-patha. The ten akusala kamma-patha are the following:

Three kinds of bodily action (kāyakamma): the killing of living beings (pāṇātipāto), stealing, which is taking what has not been given (adinnādānaÿ), and sexual misconduct (kāmesu micchācāro).

Four kinds of verbal action (vacīkamma): lying (musāvādo), rough speech (pharusavācā), slandering (pisuṇavācā) and idle talk (samphappalāpo).

Three kinds of mental action (manokamma): covetousness or planning to take away someone else’s property (abhijjhā), illwill or wishing to hurt or harm someone else (vyāpādo) and wrong view (micchādiṭṭhi). Not every kind of wrong view is akusala kamma-patha. Wrong view which is akusala kamma-patha are the three following views:

  1. Natthika 2 dithi, denial of the result of kamma ; any result that arises does not originate from kamma 3 .
  2. Ahetuka diṭṭhi, denial of both kamma and result. Kamma does not produce result, whatever arises has no condition, no cause 4 .
  3. Akiriya diṭṭhi, denial of the efficacy of kamma. Kamma, action, is merely a behaviour by way of the body; there are no good and bad actions which produce results 5 .

When the akusala citta which motivates akusala kamma-patha has fallen away, the cetanā cetasika (volition), which arose and fell away together with the akusala citta, is kamma-condition, kamma-paccaya, for the arising of akusala vipākacitta. There are seven types of akusala vipākacittas which are the results of kamma and which arise when it is the appropriate time.

18 Types of Ahetuka Cittas

Ahetuka cittas are not accompanied by cetasikas which are roots, hetus. There are six hetus: three are akusala and three are sobhana. The three akusala hetus are the cetasikas of lobha, dosa and moha. These arise, as the case demands, with twelve akusala cittas, they do not accompany other types of citta. The three sobhana hetus are the cetasikas of alobha, adosa and amoha or paññā. The citta which is accompanied by sobhana hetus is sobhana citta, the citta which is beautiful or wholesome.

Eighteen types of cittas are not accompanied by these six hetus. They are ahetuka cittas and also asobhana cittas. The other seventy-one cittas, out of the eightynine cittas, are accompanied by hetus, they are sahetuka cittas (sa meaning: with).

Among the eighteen ahetuka cittas, seven types are akusala vipākacittas, eight types are ahetuka kusala vipākacittas and three types are ahetuka kiriyacittas.These ahetuka cittas are classified as follows:

7 Types of Akusala Vipākacittas

Among these are the five sense-cognitions which are akusala vipākacittas, experiencing each their relevant object that is unpleasant. They are:

  1. Seeing, experiencing color, accompanied by indifferent feeling (upekkhā sahagataÿ cakkhuviññāṇaÿ)
  2. Hearing, experiencing sound, accompanied by indifferent feeling (upekkhā sahagataÿ sotaviññānaÿ)
  3. smelling, experiencing odor, accompanied by indifferent feeling (upekkhā sahagataÿ ghāṇaviññāṇaÿ)
  4. Tasting, experiencing flavor, accompanied by indifferent feeling (upekkhā sahagataÿ jivhāviññāṇaÿ)
  5. body-consciousness, experiencing tangible object, accompanied by painful feeling (dukkha sahagataÿ kāyaviññānaÿ)

Furthermore there are:

  1. receiving-consciousness accompanied by indifferent feeling (upekkhā sahagataÿ sampaṭicchanaÿ)
  2. investigating-consciousness accompanied by indifferent feeling (upekkhā sahagataÿ santīraṇaÿ)

The receiving-consciousness arises after each of the five sense-cognitions which are akusala vipākacittas and it receives the relevant object. The investigating-consciousness arises after the receiving-consciousness which is akusala vipākacitta and it considers that object.


8 Types of Ahetuka Kusala Vipākacittas:

These types of cittas are the results of eight types of kāmāvacara kusala cittas accompanied by cetanā (volition) which accomplishes one of the ten meritorious deeds (puñña kiriya vatthu). These include generosity, dāna, morality, sīla, and mental development, bhāvanā. When kusala cetanā has arisen and accomplishes kusala kamma, kusala cetanā is kamma-paccaya, kamma-condition, for the arising of result later on. The result can be sixteen types of kāmāvacara kusala vipākacittas, namely: eight types of kāmāvacara sahetuka kusala vipākacittas (with roots) and eight types of ahetuka kusala vipākacittas (without roots).

Among the eight types of ahetuka kusala vipākacittas are the five sense-cognitions which are kusala vipākacittas, experiencing each their relevant object, and this object is pleasant. They are:

  1. Seeing, experiencing color, accompanied by indifferent feeling (upekkhā sahagataÿ cakkhuviññāṇaÿ)
  2. Hearing, experiencing sound, accompanied by indifferent feeling (upekkhā sahagataÿ sotaviññānaÿ)
  3. smelling, experiencing odor, accompanied by indifferent feeling (upekkhā sahagataÿ ghāṇaviññāṇaÿ)
  4. tasting, experiencing flavor, accompanied by indifferent feeling (upekkhā sahagataÿ jivhāviññāṇaÿ)
  5. body-consciousness, experiencing tangible object, accompanied by pleasant bodily feeling (sukha sahagataÿ kāyaviññānaÿ)

Furthermore there are:

  1. receiving-consciousness accompanied by indifferent feeling (upekkhā sahagataÿ sampaṭicchanaÿ)
  2. investigating-consciousness accompanied by indifferent feeling (upekkhā sahagataÿ santīraṇaÿ)
  3. investigating-consciousness accompanied by pleasant feeling (somanassa sahagataÿ santīraṇaÿ)

The receiving-consciousness arises after each of the five sense-cognitions which are kusala vipākacittas and it receives the relevant object. The investigating-consciousness, which arises after the receiving-consciousness and considers the object, can be accompanied by indifferent feeling or by pleasant feeling. When it is accompanied by pleasant feeling the object is extraordinarily pleasant.

A pleasant object (iṭṭhārammaṇa) can have different degrees of pleasantness. It can be just a pleasant object or an extraordinarily pleasant object (adiṭṭhārammaṇa). If kusala vipākacitta is the result of kusala kamma of great purity and accompanied by pleasant feeling, it experiences an extraordinarily pleasant object, and in that case the investigation-consciousness, the santīraṇa-citta, which arises in a sense-door process and considers that object, is accompanied by pleasant feeling. If the object experienced by the kusala vipākacittas in a sense-door process is an object which is pleasant but not extraordinarily pleasant, the investigating-consciousness is accompanied by indifferent feeling.

3 Types of Ahetuka Kiriyacittas

Kiriyacitta is the citta which is not kusala citta nor akusala citta, cittas which are cause, and it is not vipākacitta, citta which is result. Ahetuka kiriyacitta is the kiriyacitta not accompanied by the cetasikas which are hetus. There are three types of ahetuka kiriyacittas:

  1. five-sense-door adverting-consciousness, accompanied by indifferent feeling (upekkhā sahagataÿ pañcadvārāvajjana cittaÿ)
  2. mind-door adverting-consciousness, accompanied by indifferent feeling (upekkhā sahagataÿ manodvārāvajjana cittaÿ)
  3. smile-producing consciousness, accompanied by pleasant feeling (somanassa sahagataÿ hasituppāda cittaÿ)

The five-sense-door adverting-consciousness, pañcadvārāvajjana-citta 6 , is the first vīthi-citta, citta arising in a process, which experiences the object impinging on the eye, ear, nose, tongue or body-sense. Kiriyacitta is different from vipākacitta since it can experience both pleasant objects and unpleasant objects. As regards vipākacitta, kusala vipākacitta experiences only a pleasant object and akusala vipākacitta experiences only an unpleasant object.

When the five-sense-door adverting-consciousness arises, it knows that an object impinges on the eye-sense, or on one of the other senses, and then it falls away. It is succeeded by seeing-consciousness (or one of the other sense-cognitions), which experiences the same object through the appropriate doorway and then falls away. Seeing-consciousness or one of the other sense-cognitions is succeeded by receiving-consciousness which receives that object and then falls away. Receiving-consciousness is succeeded by investigating-consciousness which considers that object and then falls away.

Before seeing-consciousness or one of the other sense-cognitions arises and receives the result of kamma through the relevant doorway, there must be a vīthi-citta which knows that an object impinges on one of the sense-doors and this is the five-sense-door adverting-consciousness. The function of this citta is called adverting, āvajjana, because this citta departs from the continuity of bhavanga-cittas and adverts towards the object which impinges on one of the sense-doors. When it has fallen away it is succeeded by seeing-consciousness or one of the other sense-cognitions which arises and hears, smells, tastes or experiences tangible object through the relevant doorway.

The mind-door adverting-consciousness, mano-dvārāvajjana-citta 7 , is the first vīthi-citta which arises and experiences an object through the mind-door. It is the citta arising before akusala citta, kāmāvacara kusala citta, or in the case of the arahat, kāmāvacara kiriyacitta. The mind-door adverting-consciousness, mano-dvārāvajjana-citta, arises also in a sense-door process, but then it does not perform the function of adverting, but the function of determining the object, votthapana, and it is called after its function votthapana-citta 8 . In that case it succeeds the investigation-consciousness and it does not experience the object through the mind-door, but through one of the sense-doors.

No matter whether the mind-door adverting-consciousness arises in a sense-door process, succeeding the investigating-consciousness, and performing the function of determining, or whether it is the first citta in a mind-door process which experiences the object through the mind-door, it is succeeded by akusala citta, by kāmāvacara kusala citta or, in the case of the arahat, by kāmāvacara kiriyacitta. The mind-door adverting-consciousness prepares the way for the succeeding citta which is, in the case of unwise attention, akusala citta, and in the case of wise attention, kusala citta (or kiriyacitta for the arahat), and this depends on the accumulated inclinations. Thus, the mind-door adverting-consciousness arises before akusala citta, kusala citta or kiriyacitta in the processes of cittas experiencing an object through one of the six doorways.

The smile-producing consciousness, hasituppāda-citta, is an ahetuka kiriyacitta which conditions smiling only in the case of the arahat, with regard to the six kinds of objects which can be experienced through six doorways. The objects which condition smiling are generally not known to other people 9 .

24 Types of Kāmāvacara Sobhana Cittas:

The twentyfour types of kāmāvacara sobhana cittas are beautiful cittas of the sense sphere, since they are accompanied by beautiful cetasikas, sobhana cetasikas.

The twentyfour types of sobhana cittas include eight types of kāmāvacara kusala cittas (maha-kusala cittas), eight types of kāmāvacara vipākacittas (maha-vipākacittas) and eight types of kāmāvacara kiriyacittas (maha-kiriyacittas). They are classified as follows:

8 Types of Kāmāvacara Kusala Cittas

  1. Accompanied by pleasant feeling, with wisdom, unprompted (somanassa-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-sampayuttaÿ, asaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
    This type is accompanied by paññā cetasika (amoha) and it has strength, it arises without inducement.
  2. Accompanied by pleasant feeling, with wisdom, prompted (somanassa-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-sampayuttaÿ, sasaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
    This citta is weak, it arises by being dependent on inducement.
  3. Accompanied by pleasant feeling, without wisdom, unprompted (somanassa-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-vippayuttaÿ, asaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
    This type which arises without paññā has strength, it arises without inducement.
  4. Accompanied by pleasant feeling, without wisdom, prompted (somanassa-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-vippayuttaÿ, sasaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
    This type which arises without paññā is weak, it arises by being dependent on inducement.
  5. Accompanied by indifferent feeling, with wisdom, unprompted (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-sampayuttaÿ, asaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
  6. Accompanied by indifferent feeling, with wisdom, prompted (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-sampayuttaÿ, sasaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
  7. Accompanied by indifferent feeling, without wisdom, unprompted (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-vippayuttaÿ, asaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
  8. Accompanied by indifferent feeling, without wisdom, prompted (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-vippayuttaÿ, sasaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)


The cetanā cetasika (volition) which accompanies these eight types of kusala cittas accomplishes kusala kamma consisting of ten bases of meritorious deeds, puñña kiriya vatthu 10 . These are the following:

  1. dāna or generosity, kusala accomplished by dāna, the giving away of useful things to someone else,
  2. sīla or morality, kusala accomplished by sīla, abstention from akusala kamma,
  3. bhāvanā or mental development, kusala accomplished through the development of samatha and of vipassanā,
  4. apacāyana or paying respect, kusala accomplished by paying respect to those who deserve it,
  5. veyyāvaca or rendering service, kusala accomplished by applying energy in helping someone else with the tasks that are to be done,
  6. pattidāna or sharing of merit, kusala accomplished by letting someone else know of one’s kusala so that he can appreciate it,
  7. pattanumodana or appreciation, kusala accomplished by the appreciation of someone else’s kusala,
  8. desanā or teaching, kusala accomplished by the teaching of the Dhamma,
  9. savana or listening, kusala accomplished by listening to the Dhamma,
  10. diṭṭhujukamma or correction of one’s views, kusala accomplished by acquiring right view of realities.

Whenever the citta does not apply itself to one of these ten meritorious deeds, it is not kusala citta.

Kāmāvacara kusala citta applies itself to dāna (including giving, sharing of merit, appreciation of someone else’s kusala), to sīla (including morality, paying respect and helping) or to bhāvanā (including mental development, the teaching of the Dhamma, listening to the Dhamma and correction of one’s views). Kāmāvacara kusala citta arises in the processes of the five sense-doors and of the mind-door, and therefore it is called maha-kusala (maha meaning: great).

When the eight types of kāmāvacara kusala citta arise and accomplish kusala kamma, the accompanying cetanā, volition or intention, is kamma-condition, kamma-paccaya, for the arising of kāmāvacara kusala vipākacitta. There are sixteen types of results in accordance with the kamma which produces them at the appropriate time. These sixteen types of vipākacittas are: eight types of ahetuka kusala vipākacittas and eight types of kāmāvacara sahetuka kusala vipākacittas (maha-vipākacittas).

8 Types of Kāmāvacara Sahetuka Kusala Vipākacittas (Maha-Vipākacittas):

  1. Accompanied by pleasant feeling, with wisdom, unprompted (somanassa-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-sampayuttaÿ, asaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
  2. Accompanied by pleasant feeling, with wisdom, prompted (somanassa-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-sampayuttaÿ, sasaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
  3. Accompanied by pleasant feeling, without wisdom, unprompted (somanassa-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-vippayuttaÿ, asaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
  4. Accompanied by pleasant feeling, without wisdom, prompted (somanassa-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-vippayuttaÿ, sasaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
  5. Accompanied by indifferent feeling, with wisdom, unprompted (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-sampayuttaÿ, asaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
  6. Accompanied by indifferent feeling, with wisdom, prompted (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-sampayuttaÿ, sasaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
  7. Accompanied by indifferent feeling, without wisdom, unprompted (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-vippayuttaÿ, asaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
  8. Accompanied by indifferent feeling, without wisdom, prompted (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-vippayuttaÿ, sasaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)

The eight types of maha-vipākacittas are accompanied by sobhana cetasikas; they are sahetuka kusala vipākacittas, with sobhana hetus or roots. Thus, they are different from the eight types of ahetuka kusala vipākacittas which are not accompanied by sobhana cetasikas.

The eight types of kāmāvacara sobhana kiriyacittas (maha-kiriyacittas) are cittas of the arahat who has eradicated all defilements. Kusala citta or akusala citta, which are the cause for the arising of vipākacitta in the future, do not arise anymore for him. After he has attained Arahatship, there are for him, instead of sobhana cittas of the jāti (nature) of kusala, sobhana kiriyacittas. Kiriyacittas do not cause the arising of vipākacitta anymore in the future. Thus, the arahat has only vipākacitta, the result of kamma performed in the past before attaining Arahatship, and kiriyacitta, which is not kusala citta, the cause for the arising of vipākacitta in the future.

8 Types of Kāmāvacara Sobhana Kiriyacittas (Sahetuka Kiriyacittas or Maha-Kiriyacittas):

  1. Accompanied by pleasant feeling, with wisdom, unprompted (somanassa-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-sampayuttaÿ, asaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
  2. Accompanied by pleasant feeling, with wisdom, prompted (somanassa-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-sampayuttaÿ, sasaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
  3. Accompanied by pleasant feeling, without wisdom, unprompted (somanassa-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-vippayuttaÿ, asaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
  4. Accompanied by pleasant feeling, without wisdom, prompted (somanassa-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-vippayuttaÿ, sasaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
  5. Accompanied by indifferent feeling, with wisdom, unprompted (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-sampayuttaÿ, asaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
  6. Accompanied by indifferent feeling, with wisdom, prompted (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-sampayuttaÿ, sasaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
  7. Accompanied by indifferent feeling, without wisdom, unprompted (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-vippayuttaÿ, asaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)
  8. Accompanied by indifferent feeling, without wisdom, prompted (upekkhā-sahagataÿ, ñāṇa-vippayuttaÿ, sasaṅkhārikam ekaÿ)

15 Types of Rūpāvacara Cittas:

The fifteen types of rūpāvacara cittas are five types of rūpāvacara kusala cittas, five types of rūpāvacara vipākacittas and five types of rūpāvacara kiriyacittas.

Rūpāvacara citta is of a higher degree than kāmāvacara citta, because it is the citta which has reached freedom from sense objects, by developing kāmāvacara kusala which is calm, samatha. When calm has become more established, different degrees of samādhi, concentration, can be attained. When samādhi is firmly fixed on the meditation subject and it has reached the degree of attainment concentration (appanā samādhi), the citta is rūpāvacara kusala citta (rupa-jhāna kusala citta), it is free of the sensuous plane of citta.

5 Types of Rūpāvacara Kusala Cittas:

  1. Kusala citta of the first jhāna, accompanied by the factors of applied thinking, sustained thinking, rapture, happy feeling and concentration (vitakka vicāra pīti sukh’ekaggatā sahitaÿ paṭhamajjhāna kusalacittaÿ) 11
  2. Kusala citta of the second jhāna, accompanied by sustained thinking, rapture, happy feeling and concentration (vicāra pīti sukh’ekaggatā sahitaÿ dutiyajjhāna kusalacittaÿ)
  3. Kusala citta of the third jhāna, accompanied by rapture, happy feeling and concentration (pīti sukh’ekaggatā sahitaÿ tatiyajjhāna kusalacittaÿ)
  4. Kusala citta of the fourth jhāna, accompanied by happy feeling and concentration (sukh’ekaggatā sahitaÿ catutthajjhāna kusalacittaÿ)
  5. Kusala citta of the fifth jhāna, accompanied by indifferent feeling and concentration (upekkh’ekaggatā sahitaÿ pañcamajjhāna kusala cittaÿ)

The jhānacitta of the first stage is accompanied by five factors, and as higher stages of jhāna are reached, jhānafactors are successively abandoned. However, some people can abandon the two factors of applied thinking and sustained thinking when the second stage is reached, and thus, for them there are only four stages of jhāna. That is why there is a fivefold system and a fourfold system of jhāna. The fifth jhāna of the fivefold system is the same as the fourth jhāna of the fourfold system.

5 Types of Rūpāvacara Vipākacittas:

  1. Vipākacitta of the first jhāna, accompanied by the factors of applied thinking, sustained thinking, rapture, happy feeling and concentration (vitakka vicāra pīti sukh’ekaggatā sahitaÿ paṭhamajjhāna vipākacittaÿ)
  2. Vipākacitta of the second jhāna, accompanied by sustained thinking, rapture, happy feeling and concentration (vicāra pīti sukh’ekaggatā sahitaÿ dutiyajjhāna vipākacittaÿ)
  3. Vipākacitta of the third jhāna, accompanied by rapture, happy feeling and concentration (pīti sukh’ekaggatā sahitaÿ tatiyajjhāna vipākacittaÿ)
  4. Vipākacitta of the fourth jhāna, accompanied by happy feeling and concentration (sukh’ekaggatā sahitaÿ catutthajjhāna vipākacittaÿ)
  5. Vipākacitta of the fifth jhāna, accompanied by indifferent feeling and concentration (upekkh’ekaggatā sahitaÿ pañcamajjhāna vipākacittaÿ)

When rūpāvacara kusala citta has become strong one can achieve "masteries", vasī 12 . Someone with mastery in jhāna has skill in determining the time he enters jhāna, in determining its duration, which means, the time jhānacittas are arising and falling away in an uninterrupted succession, and in determining the time of emerging from jhāna, which means that there is an end to the succession of jhānacittas. If his skill in jhāna does not decline, there is a condition for the arising of any degree of kusala jhānacitta before the dying-consciousness. That jhānacitta is the condition for the arising of vipāka jhānacitta which is the rebirth-consciousness of the next life in a rupa-brahma plane, in conformity with the degree of that jhāna.

5 Types of Rūpāvacara Kiriyacittas:

  1. Kiriyacitta of the first jhāna, accompanied by the factors of applied thinking, sustained thinking, rapture, happy feeling and concentration (vitakka vicāra pīti sukh’ekaggatā sahitaÿ paṭhamajjhāna kiriyacittaÿ)
  2. Kiriyacitta of the second jhāna, accompanied by sustained thinking, rapture, happy feeling and concentration (vicāra pīti sukh’ekaggatā sahitaÿ dutiyajjhāna kiriyacittaÿ)
  3. Kiriyacitta of the third jhāna, accompanied by rapture, happy feeling and concentration (pīti sukh’ekaggatā sahitaÿ tatiyajjhāna kiriyacittaÿ)
  4. Kiriyacitta of the fourth jhāna, accompanied by happy feeling and concentration (sukh’ekaggatā sahitaÿ catutthajjhāna kiriyacittaÿ)
  5. Kiriyacitta of the fifth jhāna, accompanied by indifferent feeling and concentration (upekkh’ekaggatā sahitaÿ pañcamajjhāna kiriyacittaÿ)

The rūpāvacara kiriyacitta is the citta of the arahat at the moment of attainment concentration, appanā samādhi. The rūpāvacara kiriyacitta does not condition the arising of rūpāvacara vipākacitta.

12 Types of Arūpāvacara Cittas:

The arūpāvacara jhāna-cittas are of the same type as the jhānacitta of the fifth stage, accompanied by the same jhāna-factors, but they do not have a meditation subject dependent on rupa. Someone who has attained the fifth stage of rupa-jhāna wishes to abandon the meditation subject of rupa-jhāna which is still dependent on materiality and thus close to a sense object. He is inclined to meditate on a subject which is immaterial and infinite. The twelve types of arūpāvacara cittas are: four types of arūpāvacara kusala cittas, four types of arūpāvacara vipākacittas and four types of arūpāvacara kiriyacittas.

4 Types of Arūpāvacara Kusala Cittas:

  1. Kusala jhānacitta dwelling on the "Infinity of Space" (Ākāsanañcāyatana 13 kusalacittaÿ)
  2. Kusala jhānacitta dwelling on "Infinity of Consciousness" (Viññāṇañcāyatana 14 kusalacittaÿ)
  3. Kusala jhānacitta dwelling on "Nothingness" (Ākiñcaññāyatana 15 kusalacittaÿ)
  4. Kusala jhānacitta dwelling on "Neither Perception nor Non-Perception" (N’eva-saññā-n’āsaññāyatana 16 kusalacittaÿ)

The arupa-jhānacittas are of the same type of citta as the rupa-jhānacitta of the fifth stage and therefore, they are also called arupa pañcama 17 jhānacitta. The first type of arupa-jhāna kusala citta meditates on the subject of space which is of an extension without limits, which is infinite.

The second type of arupa-jhāna kusala citta meditates on infinite consciousness; its object is the arupa-jhānacitta of the first stage experiencing infinite space.
The third type of arupa-jhāna kusala citta meditates on the subject of "nothing". Someone who has reached this stage knows that this subject is even more refined than that of the second stage of arupa-jhāna, the citta experiencing infinite space.

The fourth type of arupa-jhāna kusala citta meditates on the arupa-jhānacitta of the third stage which has "nothingness" as subject. Someone who has reached this stage knows that even when the subject is "nothing", there is still citta which dwells on this subject. The jhānacitta of the stage of "neither perception-nor-non-perception", which has as subject the citta experiencing "nothing", is of the highest stage of arupa-jhāna; it is very subtle and refined. At that moment it cannot be said that there is perception, nor can it be said that there is no perception.

If someone has acquired "mastery" in arupa-jhāna and his skill in arupa-jhana does not decline, there are conditions for the arising of any degree of arupa-jhāna kusala citta before the dying-consciousness. That jhānacitta is the condition for the arising of arupa-jhāna vipākacitta which is the rebirth-consciousness of the next life in an arupa-brahma plane, in conformity with the degree of that jhāna.

4 Types of Arūpāvacara Vipākacittas:

  1. Vipāka jhānacitta which has the object of "Infinity of Space" (Ākāsanañcāyatana vipākacittaÿ)
  2. Vipāka jhānacitta which has the object of "Infinity of Consciousness" (Viññāṇañcāyatana vipākacittaÿ)
  3. Vipāka jhānacitta which has the object of "Nothingness" (Ākiñcaññāyatana vipākacittaÿ)
  4. Vipāka jhānacitta which has the object of "Neither Perception nor Non-Perception" (N’eva-saññā-n’āsaññāyatana vipākacittaÿ)

When one of the arupa-jhāna vipākacittas performs the function of rebirth for the person who is reborn in one of the arupa-brahma planes, in conformity with the degree of the arupa-jhāna vipākacitta, he leads the life of a heavenly being in that arupa-brahma plane until, when life in that plane has come to an end, he passes away. During the time he is a heavenly being of the arupa-brahma world there arises for him no rupakkhandha, only the four namakkhandhas. Thus, he is a being without rupa 18 .

4 Types of Arūpāvacara Kiriyacittas:

  1. Kiriya jhānacitta dwelling on the "Infinity of Space" (Ākāsanañcāyatana kiriyacittaÿ)
  2. Kiriya jhānacitta dwelling on "Infinity of Consciousness" (Viññāṇañcāyatana kiriyacittaÿ)
  3. Kiriya jhānacitta dwelling on "Nothingness" (Ākiñcaññāyatana kiriyacittaÿ)
  4. Kiriya jhānacitta dwelling on "Neither Perception nor Non- Perception" (N’eva-saññā-n’āsaññāyatana kiriyacittaÿ)

The arūpāvacara kiriyacitta is the citta of the arahat who has developed samatha to the degree of arupa-jhāna. After he has realized the four noble Truths at the attainment of arahatship, the arūpāvacara citta which arises is kiriyacitta, it is no longer arūpāvacara kusala citta.

8 Types of Lokuttara Cittas:

Lokuttara cittas directly realize the characteristic of nibbāna. Four types are lokuttara kusala cittas which eradicate defilements and four types are lokuttara vipākacittas arising after defilements have been eradicated.

The eight types of lokuttara cittas are:

  1. path-consciousness of the streamwinner, kusala citta (sotāpatti magga-citta)
  2. fruition-consciousness of the streamwinner, vipākacitta (sotāpatti phala-citta)
  3. path-consciousness of the once-returner, kusala citta (sakadāgāmī magga-citta)
  4. fruition-consciousness of the once-returner, vipākacitta (sakadāgāmī phala-citta)
  5. path-consciousness of the non-returner, kusala citta (anāgāmī magga-citta)
  6. fruition-consciousness of the non-returner, vipākacitta (anāgāmī phala-citta)
  7. path-consciousness of the arahat, kusala citta (arahatta magga-citta)
  8. fruition-consciousness of the arahat, vipākacitta (arahatta phala-citta)

When kāmāvacara kusala citta (of the sense sphere) accompanied by paññā arises and investigates the characteristics of nama and rupa, their characteristics can be realized as they are and clinging to the wrong view of realities can be eliminated. When the different stages of insight-knowledge, vipassanā ñāṇa 19 , have been successively attained, lokuttara citta can arise. Lokuttara magga-citta directly realizes the characteristic of nibbāna and eradicates defilements in accordance with the stage of enlightenment which has been attained.

The lokuttara kusala citta which is the path-consciousness, magga-citta, of the sotāpanna, arises only once in the cycle of birth and death. It performs the function of eradicating the defilements of wrong view, doubt, avarice and envy. Moreover, it eliminates the conditions for akusala kamma of the intensity of leading to an unhappy rebirth.

When the magga-citta of the sotāpanna has fallen away, it is immediately succeeded by the phala-citta, which is lokuttara vipākacitta. The magga-citta of the sotāpanna is kusala kamma which produces result immediately; it conditions the arising of the phala-citta which is lokuttara vipākacitta, without another citta arising in between. The phala-citta also experiences nibbāna as object, but it is different from the magga-citta: the magga-citta experiences nibbāna and eradicates defilements, whereas the phala-citta receives result, it experiences nibbāna after defilements have been eradicated already.

The magga-citta of the Sakadagami arises only once in the cycle of birth and death. It performs the function of eradicating the coarse attachment to visible object, sound, odor, flavor and tangible object. When the magga-citta has fallen away it is immediately succeeded by the phala-citta which also experiences nibbāna as object after defilements have been eradicated.

The magga-citta of the Anagami arises only once in the cycle of birth and death. It performs the function of eradicating the more refined attachment to the sense objects. When the magga-citta has fallen away it is immediately succeeded by the phala-citta which also experiences nibbāna as object after defilements have been eradicated.

The magga-citta of the arahat arises only once in the cycle of birth and death. It performs the function of completely eradicating all the remaining defilements. When the magga-citta has fallen away it is immediately succeeded by the phala-citta which also experiences nibbāna as object after all defilements have been completely eradicated.

40 Types of Lokuttara Cittas:

Those who have developed samatha and acquired great skill in jhāna, who are "jhāna lābhī" 20 , can have kāmāvacara citta accompanied by paññā arising in between jhānacittas of any stage; in that case paññā can investigate the characteristics of nama and rupa appearing at that moment. When paññā investigates the characteristics of nama and rupa more and more and knows them more clearly, the clinging to the wrong view of self can be eliminated. When lokuttara citta of one of the stages of enlightenment arises, it can have jhāna of one of the stages of jhāna as base or foundation, that is, the jhānacitta which was object of satipaṭṭhāna. In that case the magga-citta and the phala-citta are lokuttara jhānacittas accompanied by the jhāna-factors of the jhānacitta which was their base, and thus, there are forty lokuttara cittas, classified as follows:

  1. the magga-citta of the sotāpanna of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth stage of jhāna 21
  2. the phala-citta of the sotāpanna of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth stage of jhāna
  3. the magga-citta of the Sakadagami of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth stage of jhāna
  4. the phala-citta of the Sakadagami of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth stage of jhāna
  5. the magga-citta of the Anagami of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth stage of jhāna
  6. the phala-citta of the Anagami of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth stage of jhāna
  7. the magga-citta of the arahat of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth stage of jhāna
  8. the phala-citta of the arahat of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth stage of jhāna

The magga-cittas of the four stages of enlightenment can arise only once in the cycle of birth and death. However, the phala-cittas which are lokuttara jhāna vipākacittas can arise again, provided the person who attained lokuttara jhāna is so skillful in jhāna that there are conditions for the arising of lokuttara jhāna vipākacitta in other processes. The lokuttara jhānacitta which arises in a process other than that during which the magga-citta eradicated defilements, is the lokuttara jhāna vipākacitta (the phala-citta) which is called "fruition attainment", phala samāpatti. During "fruition attainment" lokuttara jhāna vipākacittas arise and fall away in succession without there being other cittas in between.

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- Footnotes:

1.

sādhāraṇa means common or general. The cetasikas which are common to all akusala cittas.

2.

Natthi means: there is not.

3.

As taught by Ajita Kesakambali, Dialogues of the Buddha, 2, Fruits of the Life of a Recluse 55. He taught that after death there is no next life but annihilation.

4.

Ahetuka means: without cause. Makkhali Gosāla taught that there is no condition or cause for the corruption and purity of beings, that everything is predestined by fate (D. I, no 2, 53).

5.

As taught by Pūraṇa Kassapa (D. I, no. 2, 53.) Kamma literally means action, it is derived from karoti, to do.

6.

Pañca means five, dvāra means door and āvajjana means adverting.

7.

Mano means mind.

8.

It is the same type as the mind-door adverting-consciousness, accompanied by the same cetasikas, but its function is different.

9.

Santi Phantakeong gives in his Lexicon some examples. When an arahat hears harsh speech, he may smile because he knows that he is free from the conditions leading to an unhappy rebirth. Or on account of the odor of a flower he smells, he may smile when he thinks of making an offering at the Stupa or the Bodhi tree.

10.

As explained by the Expositor I, Book I, Part IV, Ch VIII, 157.

11.

Sahita means accompanied by. Paṭhama means first. The jhānafactors will be explained in the section on Samatha in this book.

12.

See Visuddhimagga XXIII, 27.

13.

Akāsa means: space, ananta means: infinite, and āyatana means: place of origin.

14.

Viññāṇa ananta, which means consciousness is infinite.

15.

Ākiñcañña means: there is nothing.

16.

Saññā means perception and āsaññā means non-perception. N’ stands for na, which means not.

17.

Pañcama means fifth.

18.

Arupa means: not rupa or nama.

19.

See the section on the Development of Vipassanā.

20.

Lābha means gain, acquisition.

21.

This means: accompanied by the jhānafactors of the different stages of jhāna. The object of the lokuttara jhānacitta is not a meditation subject but nibbāna.

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